Table of contents
  1. Story
  2. Spotfire Dashboard
  3. Research Notes
  4. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012 on CD-ROM
    1. Readme File
      1. Technical Support
      2. Launching the Program
      3. CD-ROM Directory
      4. System Requirements for Adobe Acrobat Reader 9.2
    2. 2012 Data Tables
    3. What is the Statistical Abstract?
    4. Sources of Data
    5. Overview
    6. Suggested citation
  5. Cover
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Preface
  8. Contents
  9. New Tables
    1. Section 1 POPULATION
      1. Table 8 Intercensal Resident Population by Sex and Age: 2001 to 2009
      2. Table 18 Resident Population by Hispanic Origin and State: 2010
    2. Section 2 BIRTHS, DEATHS, MARRIAGES, AND DIVORCES
      1. Table 90 Women Who Had a Child in the Last Year by Living Arrangement, Age, and Educational Attainment: 2010
      2. Table 94 Women With Births in the Past 12 Months by Citizenship Status, Educational Attainment, and Poverty Status, by State: 2009
      3. Table 97 Sexual Identity Among Men and Women: 2006 to 2008
      4. Table 127 Suicide Deaths and Death Rates by Age and Method: 2007
      5. Table 132 People Who Got Married, and Divorced in the Past 12 Months by State: 2009
    3. Section 3 HEALTH AND NUTRITION
      1. Table 140 National Health Expenditures, by Sponsor: 1990 to 2009
    4. Section 4 EDUCATION
      1. Table 263 Public Elementary and Secondary Schools by School Type, Racial/Ethnic Concentration of Students, and Eligibility of Students for Free or Reduced-Price Lunch: 2000 and 2008
      2. Table 287 Residence and Migration of College Freshmen by State: 2008
    5. Section 5 LAW ENFORCEMENT, COURTS, AND PRISONS
      1. Table 323 Hate Crimes by Bias Motivation and Location of Incident: 2009
      2. Table 324 Arrests by Sex and Age: 2009
      3. Table 325 Arrests by Race: 2009
      4. Table 332 Judicial Officers and Judicial Caseloads for the Federal Judiciary: 2000 to 2010
      5. Table 334 U.S. Courts of Appeals—Nature of Suit or Offense in Cases Arising From the U.S. District Courts: 2000 to 2010
      6. Table 335 Total Incoming Caseloads in State Trial Courts, by Case Category: 2008
    6. Section 6 GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT
      1. Table 362 Coastline Counties Most Frequently Hit by Hurricanes: 1960 to 2008
    7. Section 7 ELECTIONS
      1. Table 408 Apportionment of Membership in House of Representatives by State: 1800 to 2010
    8. Section 15 BUSINESS ENTERPRISE
      1. Table 770 Minority-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
      2. Table 771 Hispanic-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
      3. Table 772 Black-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
      4. Table 773 Asian-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
      5. Table 774 Native Hawaiian-and Other Pacific Islander-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
      6. Table 775 American-Indian-and Alaska Native-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
    9. Section 17 AGRICULTURE
      1. Table 830 Family Farm Household Income and Wealth, 2005 to 2009, and by Gross Sales, 2009
      2. Table 868 Horticultural Specialty Crop Operations, Value of Sales, and Total Land Area Used to Grow Horticultural Crops: 2009
    10. Section 24 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS
      1. Table 1131 Information Industries—Establishments, Employees, and Payroll by State: 2007
  10. Guide to Tabular Presentation
  11. Telephone and Internet Contacts
    1. Executive Office of the President
      1. Office of Management and Budget
    2. Department of Agriculture
      1. Economic Research Service Information Center
      2. National Agricultural Statistics Service
    3. Department of Commerce
      1. U.S. Census Bureau Customer Services Branch
      2. Bureau of Economic Analysis
      3. International Trade Administration
      4. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    4. Department of Defense
      1. Department of Defense
    5. Department of Education
      1. National Library of Education
    6. Department of Energy
      1. Energy Information Administration
    7. Department of Health and Human Services
      1. Health Resources and Services Administration
      2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
      3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      4. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
      5. National Center for Health Statistics
    8. Department of Homeland Security
      1. Office of Public Affairs
    9. Department of Housing and Urban Development
      1. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and Development
    10. Department of the Interior
      1. U.S. Geological Survey
    11. Department of Justice
      1. Bureau of Justice Statistics
      2. National Criminal Justice Reference Service
      3. Federal Bureau of Investigation
    12. Department of Labor
      1. Bureau of Labor Statistics
      2. Employment and Training Administration
    13. Department of Transportation
      1. Federal Aviation Administration
      2. Bureau of Transportation Statistics
      3. Federal Highway Administration
      4. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
    14. Department of the Treasury
      1. Internal Revenue Service Statistics of Income Division
    15. Department of Veterans Affairs
      1. Department of Veterans Affairs
    16. Independent Agencies
      1. Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts
      2. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
      3. Environmental Protection Agency
      4. National Science Foundation
      5. Securities and Exchange Commission
      6. Social Security Administration
  12. Section 1. Population
    1. Introduction
    2. Decennial censuses
    3. Current Population Survey (CPS)
    4. American Community Survey (ACS)
    5. Population estimates and projections
    6. Immigration
    7. Metropolitan and micropolitan areas
    8. Urban and rural
    9. Residence
    10. Race
    11. Hispanic population
    12. Foreign-born and native populations
    13. Mobility status
    14. Living arrangements
    15. Householder
    16. Family
    17. Subfamily
    18. Married couple
    19. Statistical reliability
    20. Figure 1.1 Percent Change in Population for States-April 1, 2000 to 2010
  13. Section 2. Births, Deaths, Marriages, and Divorces
    1. Introduction
    2. Registration of vital events
    3. Births and deaths
    4. Fertility and life expectancy
    5. Marriage and divorce
    6. Vital statistics rates
    7. Race
    8. Statistical reliability
  14. Section 3. Health and Nutrition
    1. Introduction
    2. National health expenditures
    3. Medicare, Medicaid, and CHIP
    4. Health resources
    5. Disability and illness
    6. Statistical reliability
  15. Section 4. Education
    1. Introduction
    2. Types and sources of data
    3. School attendance
    4. Schools
    5. School year
    6. Statistical reliability
  16. Section 5. Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons
    1. Introduction
    2. Legal jurisdiction and law enforcement
    3. Crime
    4. Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
    5. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
    6. Courts
    7. Juvenile offenders
    8. Prisoners and jail inmates
    9. Statistical reliability
  17. Section 6. Geography and Environment
    1. Introduction
    2. Area
    3. Geography
    4. Environment
    5. Climate
  18. Section 7. Elections
    1. Introduction
    2. Presidential election
    3. Congressional election
    4. Voter eligibility and participation
    5. Statistical reliability
  19. Section 8. State and Local Government Finances and Employment
    1. Introduction
    2. Governmental units
    3. Finances
    4. Employment and payrolls
    5. Statistical reliability
  20. Section 9. Federal Government Finances and Employment
    1. Introduction
    2. Budget concept
    3. Debt concept
    4. Treasury receipts and outlays
    5. Income tax returns and tax collections
    6. Employment and payrolls
    7. Figure 9.1 Federal Budget Summary-1990 to 2011
  21. Section 10. National Security and Veterans Affairs
    1. Introduction
    2. Department of Defense (DoD)
    3. Reserve components
    4. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
    5. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
    6. Coast Guard
    7. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
    8. The Customs and Border Protection (CBP)
    9. The Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
    10. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)
    11. Figure 10.1 Officers and Enlisted Personnel by Military Branch: 2010
    12. Figure 10.2 Department of Defense Personnel by Sex: 2010
  22. Section 11. Social Insurance and Human Services
    1. Introduction
    2. Social Security Act
    3. Retirement programs for government employees
    4. Workers’ compensation
    5. Income support
    6. Federal food stamp program
    7. Health and welfare services
    8. Noncash benefits
    9. Statistical reliability
  23. Section 12. Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
    1. Introduction
    2. Types of data
    3. Labor force
    4. Hours and earnings
    5. Industry and occupational groups
    6. Productivity
    7. Unions
    8. Work stoppages
    9. Seasonal adjustment
    10. Statistical reliability
  24. Section 13. Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth
    1. Introduction
    2. National income and product
    3. Gross domestic product by industry
    4. Regional Economic Accounts
    5. Consumer Expenditure Survey
    6. Distribution of money income to families and individuals
    7. Poverty
    8. Statistical reliability
  25. Section 14. Prices
    1. Introduction
    2. Consumer price indexes (CPI)
    3. Producer price index (PPI)
    4. BEA price indexes
    5. Measures of inflation
    6. International price indexes
  26. Section 15. Business Enterprise
    1. Introduction
    2. Business firms
    3. Economic census
    4. Survey of Business Owners
    5. North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
    6. Quarterly Financial Report
    7. Multinational companies
    8. Statistical reliability
  27. Section 16. Science and Technology
    1. Introduction
    2. Research and development outlays
    3. Scientists, engineers, and technicians
  28. Section 17. Agriculture
    1. Introduction
    2. Farms and farmland
    3. Farm income
    4. Crops
    5. Livestock
    6. Statistical reliability
  29. Section 18. Forestry, Fishing, and Mining
    1. Introduction
    2. Forestry
    3. Fisheries
    4. Mining and mineral products
    5. Figure 18.1 Crude Oil Production and Imports-1990 to 2009
  30. Section 19. Energy and Utilities
    1. Introduction
    2. Btu conversion factors
    3. Electric power industry
  31. Section 20. Construction and Housing
    1. Introduction
    2. Censuses and surveys
    3. Housing units
    4. Statistical reliability
  32. Section 21. Manufactures
    1. Introduction
    2. Censuses and annual surveys
    3. Establishments and classification
    4. Establishment
    5. Durable goods
    6. Nondurable goods
    7. Statistical reliability
  33. Section 22. Wholesale and Retail Trade
    1. Introduction
    2. Censuses
    3. Current surveys
    4. E-commerce
    5. Statistical reliability
  34. Section 23. Transportation
    1. Introduction
    2. Civil aviation
    3. Air carriers and service
    4. Vessel shipments, entrances, and clearances
    5. Units of measurement
    6. Federal-aid highway systems
    7. Functional systems
    8. Regulatory bodies
    9. Railroads
    10. Postal Service
    11. Statistical reliability
  35. Section 24. Information and Communications
    1. Introduction
    2. Information industry
    3. Advertising
    4. Statistical reliability
  36. Section 25. Banking, Finance, and Insurance
  37. Section 26. Arts, Recreation, and Travel
    1. Introduction
    2. Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation Industry
    3. Recreation and leisure activities
    4. Parks and recreation
    5. Travel
    6. Statistical reliability
  38. Section 27. Accommodation, Food Services, and Other Services
    1. Introduction
    2. Censuses
    3. Current surveys
    4. Statistical reliability
  39. Section 28. Foreign Commerce and Aid
    1. Introduction
    2. International accounts
    3. Foreign aid
    4. Exports
    5. Imports
    6. Area coverage
    7. Statistical reliability
  40. Section 29. Puerto Rico and the Island Areas
    1. Introduction
    2. Jurisdiction
    3. Censuses
    4. Puerto Rico Community Survey
    5. Information in other sections
  41. Section 30. International Statistics
    1. Introduction
    2. Statistical coverage, country names, and classifications
    3. Economic associations
    4. Quality and comparability of the data
    5. International comparisons of national accounts data
    6. International Standard Industrial Classification
    7. International maps
  42. Federal Agency Statistical Reports
    1. Executive Office of the President
    2. U.S. Department of Agriculture
    3. Central Intelligence Agency
    4. U.S. Department of Commerce
    5. U.S. Department of Education
    6. U.S. Department of Energy
    7. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
    8. U.S. Department of Justice
    9. Federal Bureau of Investigation
    10. U.S. Department of Labor
    11. U.S. Department of Transportation
    12. U.S. Department of Treasury
  43. Appendix I. Guide to Sources of Statistics
    1. U.S. GOVERNMENT
      1. Administrative Office of the United States Courts
      2. Agency for International Development
      3. Army, Corps of Engineers
      4. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
      5. Bureau of Economic Analysis
      6. Bureau of Justice Statistics
      7. Bureau of Labor Statistics
      8. Bureau of Land Management
      9. Census Bureau
      10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
      11. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
      12. Central Intelligence Agency
      13. Coast Guard (See Department of Homeland Security)
      14. Comptroller of the Currency
      15. Office of the Clerk U.S. House of Representatives
      16. Council of Economic Advisers
      17. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
      18. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service
      19. Department of Transportation
      20. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics
      21. Department of the Treasury, Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
      22. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service
      23. Department of State
      24. Department of Defense
      25. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Conservation Service
      26. Department of Homeland Security, Coast Guard
      27. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
      28. Department of Health and Human Services
      29. Department of Labor
      30. Department of Housing and Urban Development
      31. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service
      32. Department of Education
      33. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Public Debt
      34. Employment and Training Administration
      35. General Services Administration, Federal Real Property Council
      36. Drug Enforcement Administration
      37. Geological Survey
      38. Energy Information Administration
      39. Federal Bureau of Investigation
      40. Internal Revenue Service
      41. Farm Credit Administration
      42. Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Services
      43. Export-Import Bank of the United States
      44. Fish and Wildlife Service
      45. Federal Railroad Administration
      46. Environmental Protection Agency
      47. Federal Highway Administration
      48. Federal Communications Commission
      49. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
      50. Forest Service
      51. Department of Veterans Affairs
      52. International Trade Administration, Office of Travel and Tourism Industries
      53. Mine Safety and Health Administration
      54. National Transportation Safety Board
      55. Small Business Administration
      56. National Science Foundation
      57. Securities and Exchange Commission
      58. National Park Service
      59. Social Security Administration
      60. National Endowment for the Arts
      61. Library of Congress
      62. National Aeronautics and Space Administration
      63. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
      64. Railroad Retirement Board, Chicago, Illinois
      65. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
      66. National Center for Education Statistics
      67. International Trade Commission
      68. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
      69. National Guard Bureau
      70. National Center for Health Statistics
      71. Office of Personnel Management
      72. National Endowment for the Humanities
      73. National Credit Union Administration
      74. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
      75. Office of Management and Budget
      76. Patent and Trademark Office
      77. Maritime Administration
    2. NONGOVERNMENT
      1. American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, District of Columbia
      2. Carl H. Pforzheimer and Company, New York, New York
      3. American Gas Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      4. Chronicle of Higher Education, Incorporated, Washington, District of Columbia
      5. The Bureau of National Affairs, Incorporated, Washington, District of Columbia
      6. College Board, New York, New York
      7. American Dental Association, Chicago, Illinois
      8. Commodity Research Bureau, Logical Systems, Incorporated, Chicago, Illinois
      9. American Council of Life Insurers, Washington, District of Columbia
      10. The Conference Board, New York, New York
      11. Boy Scouts of America, Irving, Texas
      12. American Bureau of Metal Statistics, Incorporated, Secaucus, New Jersey
      13. Book Industry Study Group, Incorporated, New York, New York
      14. Congresstional Quarterly (CQ) Press, Washington, District of Columbia
      15. Association of Racing Commissioners International, Incorporated, Lexington, Kentucky
      16. The Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York, New York
      17. Association of American Railroads, Washington, District of Columbia
      18. Consumer Electronics Association (Electronic Industries Alliance), Arlington, Virginia
      19. American Jewish Committee, New York, New York
      20. Air Transport Association of America, Incorporated, Washington, District of Columbia
      21. American Public Transportation Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      22. The Council of State Governments, Lexington, Kentucky
      23. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, District of Columbia
      24. Aerospace Industries Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      25. American Osteopathic Association, Chicago, Illinois
      26. American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois
      27. Association for Manufacturing Technology, McLean, Virginia
      28. American Forest and Paper Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      29. Credit Union National Association, Incorporated, Madison, Wisconsin
      30. Insurance Information Institute, New York, New York
      31. Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, District of Columbia
      32. International Air Transport Association
      33. International City Management Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      34. Institute for Criminal Justice Ethics, New York, New York
      35. International Monetary Fund, Washington, District of Columbia
      36. International Telecommunication Union, Geneva Switzerland
      37. Investment Company Institute, Washington, District of Columbia
      38. Jane’s Information Group, Coulsdon, United Kingdon and Alexandria, Virginia
      39. Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
      40. Information Today, Incorporated, Medford, New Jersey
      41. Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, Washington, District of Columbia
      42. Independent Petroleum Association of America, Washington, District of Columbia
      43. McGraw-Hill Construction Dodge, a Division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, New York
      44. Health Forum, an American Hospital Association Company, Chicago, Illinois
      45. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia
      46. Giving USA Foundation, Indianapolis, Indiana
      47. National Academy of Social Insurance, Washington, District of Columbia
      48. Girl Scouts of the USA, New York, New York
      49. National Association of Home Builders, Washington, District of Columbia
      50. General Aviation Manufacturers Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      51. National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials, Washington, District of Columbia
      52. The Foundation Center, New York, New York
      53. National Association of Realtors, Washington, District of Columbia
      54. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy
      55. National Association of State Budget Officers, Washington, District of Columbia
      56. Federal National Mortgage Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      57. National Association of State Park Directors, Raleigh, North Carolina
      58. Euromonitor International, London, England
      59. National Catholic Educational Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      60. Editor and Publisher Company, New York, New York
      61. National Council of Churches USA, New York, New York
      62. Edison Electric Institute, Washington, District of Columbia
      63. National Education Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      64. Dow Jones and Company, New York, New York
      65. International Labour Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
      66. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, Massachusetts
      67. PennWell Corporation, Tulsa, Oklahoma
      68. Puerto Rico Planning Board, San Juan, Puerto Rico
      69. Radio Advertising Bureau, New York, New York
      70. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France
      71. Regional Airline Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      72. Securities Industry Association, New York, New York
      73. Standard and Poor’s Corporation, New York, New York
      74. United Nations Statistics Division, New York, New York
      75. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Geneva Switzerland
      76. The New York Times Almanac, 2008
      77. United States Telecom Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      78. New York Stock Exchange, Incorporated, New York, New York
      79. University of Michigan, Center for Political Studies, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan
      80. National Sporting Goods Association, Mount Prospect, Illinois
      81. Warren Communications News, Washington, District of Columbia
      82. National Safety Council, Itasca, Illinois
      83. World Almanac, New York, New York
      84. National Restaurant Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      85. The World Bank Group, Washington, District of Columbia
      86. National Marine Manufacturers Association, Chicago, Illinois
      87. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
      88. National Golf Foundation, Jupiter, Florida
      89. World Trade Organization
      90. Reed Business Information, New York, New York
  44. Appendix I. Guide to State Statistical Abstracts
    1. Alabama
    2. Alaska
    3. Arizona
    4. Arkansas
    5. California
    6. Colorado
    7. Connecticut
    8. Delaware
    9. District of Columbia
    10. Florida
    11. Georgia
    12. Hawaii
    13. Idaho
    14. Illinois
    15. Indiana
    16. Iowa
    17. Kansas
    18. Kentucky
    19. Louisiana
    20. Maine
    21. Maryland
    22. Massachusetts
    23. Michigan
    24. Minnesota
    25. Mississippi
    26. Missouri
    27. Montana
    28. Nebraska
    29. Nevada
    30. New Hampshire
    31. New Jersey
    32. New Mexico
    33. New York
    34. North Carolina
    35. North Dakota
    36. Ohio
    37. Oklahoma
    38. Oregon
    39. Pennsylvania
    40. Rhode Island
    41. South Carolina
    42. South Dakota
    43. Tennessee
    44. Texas
    45. Utah
    46. Vermont
    47. Virginia
    48. Washington
    49. West Virginia
    50. Wisconsin
    51. Wyoming
  45. Appendix I. Guide to Foreign Statistical Abstracts
    1. Australia
    2. Austria
    3. Belgium
    4. Canada
    5. Czech Republic
    6. Denmark
    7. Finland
    8. France
    9. Germany
    10. Greece
    11. Hungary
    12. Iceland
    13. Ireland
    14. Italy
  46. Appendix II. Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: Concepts, Components, and Population
    1. Introduction
    2. Defining Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas
    3. Principal Cities and Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Area Titles
    4. Defining New England City and Town Areas
    5. Changes in Definitions Over Time
    6. Figure A1 Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas of the United States
    7. Figure A2 Metropolitan and Micropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs)
  47. Appendix III. Limitations of the Data
    1. Introduction
    2. Principal data bases
      1. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, National Agriculture Statistics Service
        1. Census of Agriculture 
          1. Universes, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        2. Basic Area Frame Sample
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors Minimized through rigid quality controls on the collection process and careful review of all reported data.
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. Multiple Frame Surveys
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        4. Objective Yield Surveys
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
      2. U.S. BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS (BJS)
        1. National Crime Victimization Survey
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material 
      3. U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
        1. Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) 
          1. Universe, Frequency and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        2. Consumer Price Index (CPI)
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error 
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. Current Employment Statistics (CES) Program
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Errors 
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        4. National Compensation Survey (NCS) 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        5. Producer Price Index (PPI) 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error 
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material 
      4. BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
        1. Survey of Consumer Finances 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
      5. U.S. CENSUS BUREAU 
        1. 2007 Economic Census (Industry Series, Geographic Area Series and Subject Series Reports) (for NAICS sectors 21 to 81).
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Sources of Additional Material 
        2. American Community Survey (ACS) 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. American Housing Survey 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        4. Annual Survey of Government Employment and Payroll
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operations 
          3. Editing and Imputation Procedures
          4. Imputation 
          5. Estimates of Sampling Error
          6. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          7. Sources of Additional Material 
        5. Annual Survey of Government Finances
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operations
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        6. Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM)
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        7. Census of Population 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
          7. Content Reinterview Survey 
        8. County Business Patterns
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Estimates of Sampling Error
          4. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          5. Sources of Additional Materials 
        9. Current Population Survey (CPS) 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        10. Foreign Trade—Export Statistics
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error 
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        11. Foreign Trade—Import Statistics
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error 
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material 
        12. Monthly Retail Trade and Food Service Survey 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        13. Monthly Survey of Construction
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material 
        14. Nonemployer Statistics
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Estimates of Sampling Error
          4. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          5. Sources of Additional Material
        15. Service Annual Survey
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Estimates of Sampling Error 
          4. Other (Nonsampling) Errors
          5. Sources of Additional Material
      6. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Center for Education Statistics
        1. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data Survey (IPEDS), Completions
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material 
        2. National Household Education Surveys (NHES) Program
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) 
          1. Universe, Frequency and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Estimates of Sampling Error
          4. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          5. Sources of Additional Material
      7. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION
        1. Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
      8. U.S. INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
        1. Corporation Income Tax Returns
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        2. Individual Income Tax Returns 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. Partnership Income Tax Returns
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        4. Sole Proprietorship Income Tax Returns
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
      9. U.S. NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS (NCHS)
        1. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        2. National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. National Vital Statistics System
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        4. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
  48. Appendix IV. Weights and Measures
  49. Appendix V. Tables Deleted From Earlier Editions of the Statistical Abstract
  50. Index

FedStats.net

Last modified
Table of contents
  1. Story
  2. Spotfire Dashboard
  3. Research Notes
  4. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012 on CD-ROM
    1. Readme File
      1. Technical Support
      2. Launching the Program
      3. CD-ROM Directory
      4. System Requirements for Adobe Acrobat Reader 9.2
    2. 2012 Data Tables
    3. What is the Statistical Abstract?
    4. Sources of Data
    5. Overview
    6. Suggested citation
  5. Cover
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Preface
  8. Contents
  9. New Tables
    1. Section 1 POPULATION
      1. Table 8 Intercensal Resident Population by Sex and Age: 2001 to 2009
      2. Table 18 Resident Population by Hispanic Origin and State: 2010
    2. Section 2 BIRTHS, DEATHS, MARRIAGES, AND DIVORCES
      1. Table 90 Women Who Had a Child in the Last Year by Living Arrangement, Age, and Educational Attainment: 2010
      2. Table 94 Women With Births in the Past 12 Months by Citizenship Status, Educational Attainment, and Poverty Status, by State: 2009
      3. Table 97 Sexual Identity Among Men and Women: 2006 to 2008
      4. Table 127 Suicide Deaths and Death Rates by Age and Method: 2007
      5. Table 132 People Who Got Married, and Divorced in the Past 12 Months by State: 2009
    3. Section 3 HEALTH AND NUTRITION
      1. Table 140 National Health Expenditures, by Sponsor: 1990 to 2009
    4. Section 4 EDUCATION
      1. Table 263 Public Elementary and Secondary Schools by School Type, Racial/Ethnic Concentration of Students, and Eligibility of Students for Free or Reduced-Price Lunch: 2000 and 2008
      2. Table 287 Residence and Migration of College Freshmen by State: 2008
    5. Section 5 LAW ENFORCEMENT, COURTS, AND PRISONS
      1. Table 323 Hate Crimes by Bias Motivation and Location of Incident: 2009
      2. Table 324 Arrests by Sex and Age: 2009
      3. Table 325 Arrests by Race: 2009
      4. Table 332 Judicial Officers and Judicial Caseloads for the Federal Judiciary: 2000 to 2010
      5. Table 334 U.S. Courts of Appeals—Nature of Suit or Offense in Cases Arising From the U.S. District Courts: 2000 to 2010
      6. Table 335 Total Incoming Caseloads in State Trial Courts, by Case Category: 2008
    6. Section 6 GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT
      1. Table 362 Coastline Counties Most Frequently Hit by Hurricanes: 1960 to 2008
    7. Section 7 ELECTIONS
      1. Table 408 Apportionment of Membership in House of Representatives by State: 1800 to 2010
    8. Section 15 BUSINESS ENTERPRISE
      1. Table 770 Minority-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
      2. Table 771 Hispanic-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
      3. Table 772 Black-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
      4. Table 773 Asian-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
      5. Table 774 Native Hawaiian-and Other Pacific Islander-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
      6. Table 775 American-Indian-and Alaska Native-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
    9. Section 17 AGRICULTURE
      1. Table 830 Family Farm Household Income and Wealth, 2005 to 2009, and by Gross Sales, 2009
      2. Table 868 Horticultural Specialty Crop Operations, Value of Sales, and Total Land Area Used to Grow Horticultural Crops: 2009
    10. Section 24 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS
      1. Table 1131 Information Industries—Establishments, Employees, and Payroll by State: 2007
  10. Guide to Tabular Presentation
  11. Telephone and Internet Contacts
    1. Executive Office of the President
      1. Office of Management and Budget
    2. Department of Agriculture
      1. Economic Research Service Information Center
      2. National Agricultural Statistics Service
    3. Department of Commerce
      1. U.S. Census Bureau Customer Services Branch
      2. Bureau of Economic Analysis
      3. International Trade Administration
      4. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    4. Department of Defense
      1. Department of Defense
    5. Department of Education
      1. National Library of Education
    6. Department of Energy
      1. Energy Information Administration
    7. Department of Health and Human Services
      1. Health Resources and Services Administration
      2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
      3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      4. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
      5. National Center for Health Statistics
    8. Department of Homeland Security
      1. Office of Public Affairs
    9. Department of Housing and Urban Development
      1. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and Development
    10. Department of the Interior
      1. U.S. Geological Survey
    11. Department of Justice
      1. Bureau of Justice Statistics
      2. National Criminal Justice Reference Service
      3. Federal Bureau of Investigation
    12. Department of Labor
      1. Bureau of Labor Statistics
      2. Employment and Training Administration
    13. Department of Transportation
      1. Federal Aviation Administration
      2. Bureau of Transportation Statistics
      3. Federal Highway Administration
      4. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
    14. Department of the Treasury
      1. Internal Revenue Service Statistics of Income Division
    15. Department of Veterans Affairs
      1. Department of Veterans Affairs
    16. Independent Agencies
      1. Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts
      2. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
      3. Environmental Protection Agency
      4. National Science Foundation
      5. Securities and Exchange Commission
      6. Social Security Administration
  12. Section 1. Population
    1. Introduction
    2. Decennial censuses
    3. Current Population Survey (CPS)
    4. American Community Survey (ACS)
    5. Population estimates and projections
    6. Immigration
    7. Metropolitan and micropolitan areas
    8. Urban and rural
    9. Residence
    10. Race
    11. Hispanic population
    12. Foreign-born and native populations
    13. Mobility status
    14. Living arrangements
    15. Householder
    16. Family
    17. Subfamily
    18. Married couple
    19. Statistical reliability
    20. Figure 1.1 Percent Change in Population for States-April 1, 2000 to 2010
  13. Section 2. Births, Deaths, Marriages, and Divorces
    1. Introduction
    2. Registration of vital events
    3. Births and deaths
    4. Fertility and life expectancy
    5. Marriage and divorce
    6. Vital statistics rates
    7. Race
    8. Statistical reliability
  14. Section 3. Health and Nutrition
    1. Introduction
    2. National health expenditures
    3. Medicare, Medicaid, and CHIP
    4. Health resources
    5. Disability and illness
    6. Statistical reliability
  15. Section 4. Education
    1. Introduction
    2. Types and sources of data
    3. School attendance
    4. Schools
    5. School year
    6. Statistical reliability
  16. Section 5. Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons
    1. Introduction
    2. Legal jurisdiction and law enforcement
    3. Crime
    4. Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
    5. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
    6. Courts
    7. Juvenile offenders
    8. Prisoners and jail inmates
    9. Statistical reliability
  17. Section 6. Geography and Environment
    1. Introduction
    2. Area
    3. Geography
    4. Environment
    5. Climate
  18. Section 7. Elections
    1. Introduction
    2. Presidential election
    3. Congressional election
    4. Voter eligibility and participation
    5. Statistical reliability
  19. Section 8. State and Local Government Finances and Employment
    1. Introduction
    2. Governmental units
    3. Finances
    4. Employment and payrolls
    5. Statistical reliability
  20. Section 9. Federal Government Finances and Employment
    1. Introduction
    2. Budget concept
    3. Debt concept
    4. Treasury receipts and outlays
    5. Income tax returns and tax collections
    6. Employment and payrolls
    7. Figure 9.1 Federal Budget Summary-1990 to 2011
  21. Section 10. National Security and Veterans Affairs
    1. Introduction
    2. Department of Defense (DoD)
    3. Reserve components
    4. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
    5. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
    6. Coast Guard
    7. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
    8. The Customs and Border Protection (CBP)
    9. The Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
    10. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)
    11. Figure 10.1 Officers and Enlisted Personnel by Military Branch: 2010
    12. Figure 10.2 Department of Defense Personnel by Sex: 2010
  22. Section 11. Social Insurance and Human Services
    1. Introduction
    2. Social Security Act
    3. Retirement programs for government employees
    4. Workers’ compensation
    5. Income support
    6. Federal food stamp program
    7. Health and welfare services
    8. Noncash benefits
    9. Statistical reliability
  23. Section 12. Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
    1. Introduction
    2. Types of data
    3. Labor force
    4. Hours and earnings
    5. Industry and occupational groups
    6. Productivity
    7. Unions
    8. Work stoppages
    9. Seasonal adjustment
    10. Statistical reliability
  24. Section 13. Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth
    1. Introduction
    2. National income and product
    3. Gross domestic product by industry
    4. Regional Economic Accounts
    5. Consumer Expenditure Survey
    6. Distribution of money income to families and individuals
    7. Poverty
    8. Statistical reliability
  25. Section 14. Prices
    1. Introduction
    2. Consumer price indexes (CPI)
    3. Producer price index (PPI)
    4. BEA price indexes
    5. Measures of inflation
    6. International price indexes
  26. Section 15. Business Enterprise
    1. Introduction
    2. Business firms
    3. Economic census
    4. Survey of Business Owners
    5. North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
    6. Quarterly Financial Report
    7. Multinational companies
    8. Statistical reliability
  27. Section 16. Science and Technology
    1. Introduction
    2. Research and development outlays
    3. Scientists, engineers, and technicians
  28. Section 17. Agriculture
    1. Introduction
    2. Farms and farmland
    3. Farm income
    4. Crops
    5. Livestock
    6. Statistical reliability
  29. Section 18. Forestry, Fishing, and Mining
    1. Introduction
    2. Forestry
    3. Fisheries
    4. Mining and mineral products
    5. Figure 18.1 Crude Oil Production and Imports-1990 to 2009
  30. Section 19. Energy and Utilities
    1. Introduction
    2. Btu conversion factors
    3. Electric power industry
  31. Section 20. Construction and Housing
    1. Introduction
    2. Censuses and surveys
    3. Housing units
    4. Statistical reliability
  32. Section 21. Manufactures
    1. Introduction
    2. Censuses and annual surveys
    3. Establishments and classification
    4. Establishment
    5. Durable goods
    6. Nondurable goods
    7. Statistical reliability
  33. Section 22. Wholesale and Retail Trade
    1. Introduction
    2. Censuses
    3. Current surveys
    4. E-commerce
    5. Statistical reliability
  34. Section 23. Transportation
    1. Introduction
    2. Civil aviation
    3. Air carriers and service
    4. Vessel shipments, entrances, and clearances
    5. Units of measurement
    6. Federal-aid highway systems
    7. Functional systems
    8. Regulatory bodies
    9. Railroads
    10. Postal Service
    11. Statistical reliability
  35. Section 24. Information and Communications
    1. Introduction
    2. Information industry
    3. Advertising
    4. Statistical reliability
  36. Section 25. Banking, Finance, and Insurance
  37. Section 26. Arts, Recreation, and Travel
    1. Introduction
    2. Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation Industry
    3. Recreation and leisure activities
    4. Parks and recreation
    5. Travel
    6. Statistical reliability
  38. Section 27. Accommodation, Food Services, and Other Services
    1. Introduction
    2. Censuses
    3. Current surveys
    4. Statistical reliability
  39. Section 28. Foreign Commerce and Aid
    1. Introduction
    2. International accounts
    3. Foreign aid
    4. Exports
    5. Imports
    6. Area coverage
    7. Statistical reliability
  40. Section 29. Puerto Rico and the Island Areas
    1. Introduction
    2. Jurisdiction
    3. Censuses
    4. Puerto Rico Community Survey
    5. Information in other sections
  41. Section 30. International Statistics
    1. Introduction
    2. Statistical coverage, country names, and classifications
    3. Economic associations
    4. Quality and comparability of the data
    5. International comparisons of national accounts data
    6. International Standard Industrial Classification
    7. International maps
  42. Federal Agency Statistical Reports
    1. Executive Office of the President
    2. U.S. Department of Agriculture
    3. Central Intelligence Agency
    4. U.S. Department of Commerce
    5. U.S. Department of Education
    6. U.S. Department of Energy
    7. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
    8. U.S. Department of Justice
    9. Federal Bureau of Investigation
    10. U.S. Department of Labor
    11. U.S. Department of Transportation
    12. U.S. Department of Treasury
  43. Appendix I. Guide to Sources of Statistics
    1. U.S. GOVERNMENT
      1. Administrative Office of the United States Courts
      2. Agency for International Development
      3. Army, Corps of Engineers
      4. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
      5. Bureau of Economic Analysis
      6. Bureau of Justice Statistics
      7. Bureau of Labor Statistics
      8. Bureau of Land Management
      9. Census Bureau
      10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
      11. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
      12. Central Intelligence Agency
      13. Coast Guard (See Department of Homeland Security)
      14. Comptroller of the Currency
      15. Office of the Clerk U.S. House of Representatives
      16. Council of Economic Advisers
      17. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
      18. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service
      19. Department of Transportation
      20. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics
      21. Department of the Treasury, Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
      22. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service
      23. Department of State
      24. Department of Defense
      25. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Conservation Service
      26. Department of Homeland Security, Coast Guard
      27. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
      28. Department of Health and Human Services
      29. Department of Labor
      30. Department of Housing and Urban Development
      31. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service
      32. Department of Education
      33. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Public Debt
      34. Employment and Training Administration
      35. General Services Administration, Federal Real Property Council
      36. Drug Enforcement Administration
      37. Geological Survey
      38. Energy Information Administration
      39. Federal Bureau of Investigation
      40. Internal Revenue Service
      41. Farm Credit Administration
      42. Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Services
      43. Export-Import Bank of the United States
      44. Fish and Wildlife Service
      45. Federal Railroad Administration
      46. Environmental Protection Agency
      47. Federal Highway Administration
      48. Federal Communications Commission
      49. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
      50. Forest Service
      51. Department of Veterans Affairs
      52. International Trade Administration, Office of Travel and Tourism Industries
      53. Mine Safety and Health Administration
      54. National Transportation Safety Board
      55. Small Business Administration
      56. National Science Foundation
      57. Securities and Exchange Commission
      58. National Park Service
      59. Social Security Administration
      60. National Endowment for the Arts
      61. Library of Congress
      62. National Aeronautics and Space Administration
      63. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
      64. Railroad Retirement Board, Chicago, Illinois
      65. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
      66. National Center for Education Statistics
      67. International Trade Commission
      68. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
      69. National Guard Bureau
      70. National Center for Health Statistics
      71. Office of Personnel Management
      72. National Endowment for the Humanities
      73. National Credit Union Administration
      74. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
      75. Office of Management and Budget
      76. Patent and Trademark Office
      77. Maritime Administration
    2. NONGOVERNMENT
      1. American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, District of Columbia
      2. Carl H. Pforzheimer and Company, New York, New York
      3. American Gas Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      4. Chronicle of Higher Education, Incorporated, Washington, District of Columbia
      5. The Bureau of National Affairs, Incorporated, Washington, District of Columbia
      6. College Board, New York, New York
      7. American Dental Association, Chicago, Illinois
      8. Commodity Research Bureau, Logical Systems, Incorporated, Chicago, Illinois
      9. American Council of Life Insurers, Washington, District of Columbia
      10. The Conference Board, New York, New York
      11. Boy Scouts of America, Irving, Texas
      12. American Bureau of Metal Statistics, Incorporated, Secaucus, New Jersey
      13. Book Industry Study Group, Incorporated, New York, New York
      14. Congresstional Quarterly (CQ) Press, Washington, District of Columbia
      15. Association of Racing Commissioners International, Incorporated, Lexington, Kentucky
      16. The Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York, New York
      17. Association of American Railroads, Washington, District of Columbia
      18. Consumer Electronics Association (Electronic Industries Alliance), Arlington, Virginia
      19. American Jewish Committee, New York, New York
      20. Air Transport Association of America, Incorporated, Washington, District of Columbia
      21. American Public Transportation Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      22. The Council of State Governments, Lexington, Kentucky
      23. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, District of Columbia
      24. Aerospace Industries Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      25. American Osteopathic Association, Chicago, Illinois
      26. American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois
      27. Association for Manufacturing Technology, McLean, Virginia
      28. American Forest and Paper Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      29. Credit Union National Association, Incorporated, Madison, Wisconsin
      30. Insurance Information Institute, New York, New York
      31. Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, District of Columbia
      32. International Air Transport Association
      33. International City Management Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      34. Institute for Criminal Justice Ethics, New York, New York
      35. International Monetary Fund, Washington, District of Columbia
      36. International Telecommunication Union, Geneva Switzerland
      37. Investment Company Institute, Washington, District of Columbia
      38. Jane’s Information Group, Coulsdon, United Kingdon and Alexandria, Virginia
      39. Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
      40. Information Today, Incorporated, Medford, New Jersey
      41. Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, Washington, District of Columbia
      42. Independent Petroleum Association of America, Washington, District of Columbia
      43. McGraw-Hill Construction Dodge, a Division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, New York
      44. Health Forum, an American Hospital Association Company, Chicago, Illinois
      45. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia
      46. Giving USA Foundation, Indianapolis, Indiana
      47. National Academy of Social Insurance, Washington, District of Columbia
      48. Girl Scouts of the USA, New York, New York
      49. National Association of Home Builders, Washington, District of Columbia
      50. General Aviation Manufacturers Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      51. National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials, Washington, District of Columbia
      52. The Foundation Center, New York, New York
      53. National Association of Realtors, Washington, District of Columbia
      54. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy
      55. National Association of State Budget Officers, Washington, District of Columbia
      56. Federal National Mortgage Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      57. National Association of State Park Directors, Raleigh, North Carolina
      58. Euromonitor International, London, England
      59. National Catholic Educational Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      60. Editor and Publisher Company, New York, New York
      61. National Council of Churches USA, New York, New York
      62. Edison Electric Institute, Washington, District of Columbia
      63. National Education Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      64. Dow Jones and Company, New York, New York
      65. International Labour Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
      66. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, Massachusetts
      67. PennWell Corporation, Tulsa, Oklahoma
      68. Puerto Rico Planning Board, San Juan, Puerto Rico
      69. Radio Advertising Bureau, New York, New York
      70. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France
      71. Regional Airline Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      72. Securities Industry Association, New York, New York
      73. Standard and Poor’s Corporation, New York, New York
      74. United Nations Statistics Division, New York, New York
      75. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Geneva Switzerland
      76. The New York Times Almanac, 2008
      77. United States Telecom Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      78. New York Stock Exchange, Incorporated, New York, New York
      79. University of Michigan, Center for Political Studies, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan
      80. National Sporting Goods Association, Mount Prospect, Illinois
      81. Warren Communications News, Washington, District of Columbia
      82. National Safety Council, Itasca, Illinois
      83. World Almanac, New York, New York
      84. National Restaurant Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      85. The World Bank Group, Washington, District of Columbia
      86. National Marine Manufacturers Association, Chicago, Illinois
      87. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
      88. National Golf Foundation, Jupiter, Florida
      89. World Trade Organization
      90. Reed Business Information, New York, New York
  44. Appendix I. Guide to State Statistical Abstracts
    1. Alabama
    2. Alaska
    3. Arizona
    4. Arkansas
    5. California
    6. Colorado
    7. Connecticut
    8. Delaware
    9. District of Columbia
    10. Florida
    11. Georgia
    12. Hawaii
    13. Idaho
    14. Illinois
    15. Indiana
    16. Iowa
    17. Kansas
    18. Kentucky
    19. Louisiana
    20. Maine
    21. Maryland
    22. Massachusetts
    23. Michigan
    24. Minnesota
    25. Mississippi
    26. Missouri
    27. Montana
    28. Nebraska
    29. Nevada
    30. New Hampshire
    31. New Jersey
    32. New Mexico
    33. New York
    34. North Carolina
    35. North Dakota
    36. Ohio
    37. Oklahoma
    38. Oregon
    39. Pennsylvania
    40. Rhode Island
    41. South Carolina
    42. South Dakota
    43. Tennessee
    44. Texas
    45. Utah
    46. Vermont
    47. Virginia
    48. Washington
    49. West Virginia
    50. Wisconsin
    51. Wyoming
  45. Appendix I. Guide to Foreign Statistical Abstracts
    1. Australia
    2. Austria
    3. Belgium
    4. Canada
    5. Czech Republic
    6. Denmark
    7. Finland
    8. France
    9. Germany
    10. Greece
    11. Hungary
    12. Iceland
    13. Ireland
    14. Italy
  46. Appendix II. Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: Concepts, Components, and Population
    1. Introduction
    2. Defining Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas
    3. Principal Cities and Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Area Titles
    4. Defining New England City and Town Areas
    5. Changes in Definitions Over Time
    6. Figure A1 Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas of the United States
    7. Figure A2 Metropolitan and Micropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs)
  47. Appendix III. Limitations of the Data
    1. Introduction
    2. Principal data bases
      1. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, National Agriculture Statistics Service
        1. Census of Agriculture 
          1. Universes, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        2. Basic Area Frame Sample
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors Minimized through rigid quality controls on the collection process and careful review of all reported data.
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. Multiple Frame Surveys
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        4. Objective Yield Surveys
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
      2. U.S. BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS (BJS)
        1. National Crime Victimization Survey
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material 
      3. U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
        1. Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) 
          1. Universe, Frequency and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        2. Consumer Price Index (CPI)
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error 
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. Current Employment Statistics (CES) Program
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Errors 
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        4. National Compensation Survey (NCS) 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        5. Producer Price Index (PPI) 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error 
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material 
      4. BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
        1. Survey of Consumer Finances 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
      5. U.S. CENSUS BUREAU 
        1. 2007 Economic Census (Industry Series, Geographic Area Series and Subject Series Reports) (for NAICS sectors 21 to 81).
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Sources of Additional Material 
        2. American Community Survey (ACS) 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. American Housing Survey 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        4. Annual Survey of Government Employment and Payroll
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operations 
          3. Editing and Imputation Procedures
          4. Imputation 
          5. Estimates of Sampling Error
          6. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          7. Sources of Additional Material 
        5. Annual Survey of Government Finances
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operations
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        6. Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM)
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        7. Census of Population 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
          7. Content Reinterview Survey 
        8. County Business Patterns
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Estimates of Sampling Error
          4. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          5. Sources of Additional Materials 
        9. Current Population Survey (CPS) 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        10. Foreign Trade—Export Statistics
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error 
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        11. Foreign Trade—Import Statistics
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error 
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material 
        12. Monthly Retail Trade and Food Service Survey 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        13. Monthly Survey of Construction
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material 
        14. Nonemployer Statistics
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Estimates of Sampling Error
          4. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          5. Sources of Additional Material
        15. Service Annual Survey
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Estimates of Sampling Error 
          4. Other (Nonsampling) Errors
          5. Sources of Additional Material
      6. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Center for Education Statistics
        1. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data Survey (IPEDS), Completions
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material 
        2. National Household Education Surveys (NHES) Program
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) 
          1. Universe, Frequency and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Estimates of Sampling Error
          4. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          5. Sources of Additional Material
      7. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION
        1. Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
      8. U.S. INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
        1. Corporation Income Tax Returns
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        2. Individual Income Tax Returns 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. Partnership Income Tax Returns
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        4. Sole Proprietorship Income Tax Returns
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
      9. U.S. NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS (NCHS)
        1. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        2. National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. National Vital Statistics System
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        4. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
  48. Appendix IV. Weights and Measures
  49. Appendix V. Tables Deleted From Earlier Editions of the Statistical Abstract
  50. Index

  1. Story
  2. Spotfire Dashboard
  3. Research Notes
  4. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012 on CD-ROM
    1. Readme File
      1. Technical Support
      2. Launching the Program
      3. CD-ROM Directory
      4. System Requirements for Adobe Acrobat Reader 9.2
    2. 2012 Data Tables
    3. What is the Statistical Abstract?
    4. Sources of Data
    5. Overview
    6. Suggested citation
  5. Cover
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Preface
  8. Contents
  9. New Tables
    1. Section 1 POPULATION
      1. Table 8 Intercensal Resident Population by Sex and Age: 2001 to 2009
      2. Table 18 Resident Population by Hispanic Origin and State: 2010
    2. Section 2 BIRTHS, DEATHS, MARRIAGES, AND DIVORCES
      1. Table 90 Women Who Had a Child in the Last Year by Living Arrangement, Age, and Educational Attainment: 2010
      2. Table 94 Women With Births in the Past 12 Months by Citizenship Status, Educational Attainment, and Poverty Status, by State: 2009
      3. Table 97 Sexual Identity Among Men and Women: 2006 to 2008
      4. Table 127 Suicide Deaths and Death Rates by Age and Method: 2007
      5. Table 132 People Who Got Married, and Divorced in the Past 12 Months by State: 2009
    3. Section 3 HEALTH AND NUTRITION
      1. Table 140 National Health Expenditures, by Sponsor: 1990 to 2009
    4. Section 4 EDUCATION
      1. Table 263 Public Elementary and Secondary Schools by School Type, Racial/Ethnic Concentration of Students, and Eligibility of Students for Free or Reduced-Price Lunch: 2000 and 2008
      2. Table 287 Residence and Migration of College Freshmen by State: 2008
    5. Section 5 LAW ENFORCEMENT, COURTS, AND PRISONS
      1. Table 323 Hate Crimes by Bias Motivation and Location of Incident: 2009
      2. Table 324 Arrests by Sex and Age: 2009
      3. Table 325 Arrests by Race: 2009
      4. Table 332 Judicial Officers and Judicial Caseloads for the Federal Judiciary: 2000 to 2010
      5. Table 334 U.S. Courts of Appeals—Nature of Suit or Offense in Cases Arising From the U.S. District Courts: 2000 to 2010
      6. Table 335 Total Incoming Caseloads in State Trial Courts, by Case Category: 2008
    6. Section 6 GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT
      1. Table 362 Coastline Counties Most Frequently Hit by Hurricanes: 1960 to 2008
    7. Section 7 ELECTIONS
      1. Table 408 Apportionment of Membership in House of Representatives by State: 1800 to 2010
    8. Section 15 BUSINESS ENTERPRISE
      1. Table 770 Minority-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
      2. Table 771 Hispanic-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
      3. Table 772 Black-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
      4. Table 773 Asian-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
      5. Table 774 Native Hawaiian-and Other Pacific Islander-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
      6. Table 775 American-Indian-and Alaska Native-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
    9. Section 17 AGRICULTURE
      1. Table 830 Family Farm Household Income and Wealth, 2005 to 2009, and by Gross Sales, 2009
      2. Table 868 Horticultural Specialty Crop Operations, Value of Sales, and Total Land Area Used to Grow Horticultural Crops: 2009
    10. Section 24 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS
      1. Table 1131 Information Industries—Establishments, Employees, and Payroll by State: 2007
  10. Guide to Tabular Presentation
  11. Telephone and Internet Contacts
    1. Executive Office of the President
      1. Office of Management and Budget
    2. Department of Agriculture
      1. Economic Research Service Information Center
      2. National Agricultural Statistics Service
    3. Department of Commerce
      1. U.S. Census Bureau Customer Services Branch
      2. Bureau of Economic Analysis
      3. International Trade Administration
      4. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    4. Department of Defense
      1. Department of Defense
    5. Department of Education
      1. National Library of Education
    6. Department of Energy
      1. Energy Information Administration
    7. Department of Health and Human Services
      1. Health Resources and Services Administration
      2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
      3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      4. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
      5. National Center for Health Statistics
    8. Department of Homeland Security
      1. Office of Public Affairs
    9. Department of Housing and Urban Development
      1. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and Development
    10. Department of the Interior
      1. U.S. Geological Survey
    11. Department of Justice
      1. Bureau of Justice Statistics
      2. National Criminal Justice Reference Service
      3. Federal Bureau of Investigation
    12. Department of Labor
      1. Bureau of Labor Statistics
      2. Employment and Training Administration
    13. Department of Transportation
      1. Federal Aviation Administration
      2. Bureau of Transportation Statistics
      3. Federal Highway Administration
      4. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
    14. Department of the Treasury
      1. Internal Revenue Service Statistics of Income Division
    15. Department of Veterans Affairs
      1. Department of Veterans Affairs
    16. Independent Agencies
      1. Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts
      2. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
      3. Environmental Protection Agency
      4. National Science Foundation
      5. Securities and Exchange Commission
      6. Social Security Administration
  12. Section 1. Population
    1. Introduction
    2. Decennial censuses
    3. Current Population Survey (CPS)
    4. American Community Survey (ACS)
    5. Population estimates and projections
    6. Immigration
    7. Metropolitan and micropolitan areas
    8. Urban and rural
    9. Residence
    10. Race
    11. Hispanic population
    12. Foreign-born and native populations
    13. Mobility status
    14. Living arrangements
    15. Householder
    16. Family
    17. Subfamily
    18. Married couple
    19. Statistical reliability
    20. Figure 1.1 Percent Change in Population for States-April 1, 2000 to 2010
  13. Section 2. Births, Deaths, Marriages, and Divorces
    1. Introduction
    2. Registration of vital events
    3. Births and deaths
    4. Fertility and life expectancy
    5. Marriage and divorce
    6. Vital statistics rates
    7. Race
    8. Statistical reliability
  14. Section 3. Health and Nutrition
    1. Introduction
    2. National health expenditures
    3. Medicare, Medicaid, and CHIP
    4. Health resources
    5. Disability and illness
    6. Statistical reliability
  15. Section 4. Education
    1. Introduction
    2. Types and sources of data
    3. School attendance
    4. Schools
    5. School year
    6. Statistical reliability
  16. Section 5. Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons
    1. Introduction
    2. Legal jurisdiction and law enforcement
    3. Crime
    4. Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
    5. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
    6. Courts
    7. Juvenile offenders
    8. Prisoners and jail inmates
    9. Statistical reliability
  17. Section 6. Geography and Environment
    1. Introduction
    2. Area
    3. Geography
    4. Environment
    5. Climate
  18. Section 7. Elections
    1. Introduction
    2. Presidential election
    3. Congressional election
    4. Voter eligibility and participation
    5. Statistical reliability
  19. Section 8. State and Local Government Finances and Employment
    1. Introduction
    2. Governmental units
    3. Finances
    4. Employment and payrolls
    5. Statistical reliability
  20. Section 9. Federal Government Finances and Employment
    1. Introduction
    2. Budget concept
    3. Debt concept
    4. Treasury receipts and outlays
    5. Income tax returns and tax collections
    6. Employment and payrolls
    7. Figure 9.1 Federal Budget Summary-1990 to 2011
  21. Section 10. National Security and Veterans Affairs
    1. Introduction
    2. Department of Defense (DoD)
    3. Reserve components
    4. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
    5. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
    6. Coast Guard
    7. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
    8. The Customs and Border Protection (CBP)
    9. The Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
    10. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)
    11. Figure 10.1 Officers and Enlisted Personnel by Military Branch: 2010
    12. Figure 10.2 Department of Defense Personnel by Sex: 2010
  22. Section 11. Social Insurance and Human Services
    1. Introduction
    2. Social Security Act
    3. Retirement programs for government employees
    4. Workers’ compensation
    5. Income support
    6. Federal food stamp program
    7. Health and welfare services
    8. Noncash benefits
    9. Statistical reliability
  23. Section 12. Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings
    1. Introduction
    2. Types of data
    3. Labor force
    4. Hours and earnings
    5. Industry and occupational groups
    6. Productivity
    7. Unions
    8. Work stoppages
    9. Seasonal adjustment
    10. Statistical reliability
  24. Section 13. Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth
    1. Introduction
    2. National income and product
    3. Gross domestic product by industry
    4. Regional Economic Accounts
    5. Consumer Expenditure Survey
    6. Distribution of money income to families and individuals
    7. Poverty
    8. Statistical reliability
  25. Section 14. Prices
    1. Introduction
    2. Consumer price indexes (CPI)
    3. Producer price index (PPI)
    4. BEA price indexes
    5. Measures of inflation
    6. International price indexes
  26. Section 15. Business Enterprise
    1. Introduction
    2. Business firms
    3. Economic census
    4. Survey of Business Owners
    5. North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)
    6. Quarterly Financial Report
    7. Multinational companies
    8. Statistical reliability
  27. Section 16. Science and Technology
    1. Introduction
    2. Research and development outlays
    3. Scientists, engineers, and technicians
  28. Section 17. Agriculture
    1. Introduction
    2. Farms and farmland
    3. Farm income
    4. Crops
    5. Livestock
    6. Statistical reliability
  29. Section 18. Forestry, Fishing, and Mining
    1. Introduction
    2. Forestry
    3. Fisheries
    4. Mining and mineral products
    5. Figure 18.1 Crude Oil Production and Imports-1990 to 2009
  30. Section 19. Energy and Utilities
    1. Introduction
    2. Btu conversion factors
    3. Electric power industry
  31. Section 20. Construction and Housing
    1. Introduction
    2. Censuses and surveys
    3. Housing units
    4. Statistical reliability
  32. Section 21. Manufactures
    1. Introduction
    2. Censuses and annual surveys
    3. Establishments and classification
    4. Establishment
    5. Durable goods
    6. Nondurable goods
    7. Statistical reliability
  33. Section 22. Wholesale and Retail Trade
    1. Introduction
    2. Censuses
    3. Current surveys
    4. E-commerce
    5. Statistical reliability
  34. Section 23. Transportation
    1. Introduction
    2. Civil aviation
    3. Air carriers and service
    4. Vessel shipments, entrances, and clearances
    5. Units of measurement
    6. Federal-aid highway systems
    7. Functional systems
    8. Regulatory bodies
    9. Railroads
    10. Postal Service
    11. Statistical reliability
  35. Section 24. Information and Communications
    1. Introduction
    2. Information industry
    3. Advertising
    4. Statistical reliability
  36. Section 25. Banking, Finance, and Insurance
  37. Section 26. Arts, Recreation, and Travel
    1. Introduction
    2. Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation Industry
    3. Recreation and leisure activities
    4. Parks and recreation
    5. Travel
    6. Statistical reliability
  38. Section 27. Accommodation, Food Services, and Other Services
    1. Introduction
    2. Censuses
    3. Current surveys
    4. Statistical reliability
  39. Section 28. Foreign Commerce and Aid
    1. Introduction
    2. International accounts
    3. Foreign aid
    4. Exports
    5. Imports
    6. Area coverage
    7. Statistical reliability
  40. Section 29. Puerto Rico and the Island Areas
    1. Introduction
    2. Jurisdiction
    3. Censuses
    4. Puerto Rico Community Survey
    5. Information in other sections
  41. Section 30. International Statistics
    1. Introduction
    2. Statistical coverage, country names, and classifications
    3. Economic associations
    4. Quality and comparability of the data
    5. International comparisons of national accounts data
    6. International Standard Industrial Classification
    7. International maps
  42. Federal Agency Statistical Reports
    1. Executive Office of the President
    2. U.S. Department of Agriculture
    3. Central Intelligence Agency
    4. U.S. Department of Commerce
    5. U.S. Department of Education
    6. U.S. Department of Energy
    7. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
    8. U.S. Department of Justice
    9. Federal Bureau of Investigation
    10. U.S. Department of Labor
    11. U.S. Department of Transportation
    12. U.S. Department of Treasury
  43. Appendix I. Guide to Sources of Statistics
    1. U.S. GOVERNMENT
      1. Administrative Office of the United States Courts
      2. Agency for International Development
      3. Army, Corps of Engineers
      4. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
      5. Bureau of Economic Analysis
      6. Bureau of Justice Statistics
      7. Bureau of Labor Statistics
      8. Bureau of Land Management
      9. Census Bureau
      10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
      11. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
      12. Central Intelligence Agency
      13. Coast Guard (See Department of Homeland Security)
      14. Comptroller of the Currency
      15. Office of the Clerk U.S. House of Representatives
      16. Council of Economic Advisers
      17. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service
      18. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service
      19. Department of Transportation
      20. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics
      21. Department of the Treasury, Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau
      22. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service
      23. Department of State
      24. Department of Defense
      25. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Conservation Service
      26. Department of Homeland Security, Coast Guard
      27. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
      28. Department of Health and Human Services
      29. Department of Labor
      30. Department of Housing and Urban Development
      31. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service
      32. Department of Education
      33. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Public Debt
      34. Employment and Training Administration
      35. General Services Administration, Federal Real Property Council
      36. Drug Enforcement Administration
      37. Geological Survey
      38. Energy Information Administration
      39. Federal Bureau of Investigation
      40. Internal Revenue Service
      41. Farm Credit Administration
      42. Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Services
      43. Export-Import Bank of the United States
      44. Fish and Wildlife Service
      45. Federal Railroad Administration
      46. Environmental Protection Agency
      47. Federal Highway Administration
      48. Federal Communications Commission
      49. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
      50. Forest Service
      51. Department of Veterans Affairs
      52. International Trade Administration, Office of Travel and Tourism Industries
      53. Mine Safety and Health Administration
      54. National Transportation Safety Board
      55. Small Business Administration
      56. National Science Foundation
      57. Securities and Exchange Commission
      58. National Park Service
      59. Social Security Administration
      60. National Endowment for the Arts
      61. Library of Congress
      62. National Aeronautics and Space Administration
      63. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
      64. Railroad Retirement Board, Chicago, Illinois
      65. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
      66. National Center for Education Statistics
      67. International Trade Commission
      68. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
      69. National Guard Bureau
      70. National Center for Health Statistics
      71. Office of Personnel Management
      72. National Endowment for the Humanities
      73. National Credit Union Administration
      74. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
      75. Office of Management and Budget
      76. Patent and Trademark Office
      77. Maritime Administration
    2. NONGOVERNMENT
      1. American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, District of Columbia
      2. Carl H. Pforzheimer and Company, New York, New York
      3. American Gas Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      4. Chronicle of Higher Education, Incorporated, Washington, District of Columbia
      5. The Bureau of National Affairs, Incorporated, Washington, District of Columbia
      6. College Board, New York, New York
      7. American Dental Association, Chicago, Illinois
      8. Commodity Research Bureau, Logical Systems, Incorporated, Chicago, Illinois
      9. American Council of Life Insurers, Washington, District of Columbia
      10. The Conference Board, New York, New York
      11. Boy Scouts of America, Irving, Texas
      12. American Bureau of Metal Statistics, Incorporated, Secaucus, New Jersey
      13. Book Industry Study Group, Incorporated, New York, New York
      14. Congresstional Quarterly (CQ) Press, Washington, District of Columbia
      15. Association of Racing Commissioners International, Incorporated, Lexington, Kentucky
      16. The Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York, New York
      17. Association of American Railroads, Washington, District of Columbia
      18. Consumer Electronics Association (Electronic Industries Alliance), Arlington, Virginia
      19. American Jewish Committee, New York, New York
      20. Air Transport Association of America, Incorporated, Washington, District of Columbia
      21. American Public Transportation Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      22. The Council of State Governments, Lexington, Kentucky
      23. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, District of Columbia
      24. Aerospace Industries Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      25. American Osteopathic Association, Chicago, Illinois
      26. American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois
      27. Association for Manufacturing Technology, McLean, Virginia
      28. American Forest and Paper Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      29. Credit Union National Association, Incorporated, Madison, Wisconsin
      30. Insurance Information Institute, New York, New York
      31. Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, District of Columbia
      32. International Air Transport Association
      33. International City Management Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      34. Institute for Criminal Justice Ethics, New York, New York
      35. International Monetary Fund, Washington, District of Columbia
      36. International Telecommunication Union, Geneva Switzerland
      37. Investment Company Institute, Washington, District of Columbia
      38. Jane’s Information Group, Coulsdon, United Kingdon and Alexandria, Virginia
      39. Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
      40. Information Today, Incorporated, Medford, New Jersey
      41. Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, Washington, District of Columbia
      42. Independent Petroleum Association of America, Washington, District of Columbia
      43. McGraw-Hill Construction Dodge, a Division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, New York
      44. Health Forum, an American Hospital Association Company, Chicago, Illinois
      45. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia
      46. Giving USA Foundation, Indianapolis, Indiana
      47. National Academy of Social Insurance, Washington, District of Columbia
      48. Girl Scouts of the USA, New York, New York
      49. National Association of Home Builders, Washington, District of Columbia
      50. General Aviation Manufacturers Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      51. National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials, Washington, District of Columbia
      52. The Foundation Center, New York, New York
      53. National Association of Realtors, Washington, District of Columbia
      54. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy
      55. National Association of State Budget Officers, Washington, District of Columbia
      56. Federal National Mortgage Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      57. National Association of State Park Directors, Raleigh, North Carolina
      58. Euromonitor International, London, England
      59. National Catholic Educational Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      60. Editor and Publisher Company, New York, New York
      61. National Council of Churches USA, New York, New York
      62. Edison Electric Institute, Washington, District of Columbia
      63. National Education Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      64. Dow Jones and Company, New York, New York
      65. International Labour Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
      66. National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, Massachusetts
      67. PennWell Corporation, Tulsa, Oklahoma
      68. Puerto Rico Planning Board, San Juan, Puerto Rico
      69. Radio Advertising Bureau, New York, New York
      70. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France
      71. Regional Airline Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      72. Securities Industry Association, New York, New York
      73. Standard and Poor’s Corporation, New York, New York
      74. United Nations Statistics Division, New York, New York
      75. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Geneva Switzerland
      76. The New York Times Almanac, 2008
      77. United States Telecom Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      78. New York Stock Exchange, Incorporated, New York, New York
      79. University of Michigan, Center for Political Studies, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan
      80. National Sporting Goods Association, Mount Prospect, Illinois
      81. Warren Communications News, Washington, District of Columbia
      82. National Safety Council, Itasca, Illinois
      83. World Almanac, New York, New York
      84. National Restaurant Association, Washington, District of Columbia
      85. The World Bank Group, Washington, District of Columbia
      86. National Marine Manufacturers Association, Chicago, Illinois
      87. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
      88. National Golf Foundation, Jupiter, Florida
      89. World Trade Organization
      90. Reed Business Information, New York, New York
  44. Appendix I. Guide to State Statistical Abstracts
    1. Alabama
    2. Alaska
    3. Arizona
    4. Arkansas
    5. California
    6. Colorado
    7. Connecticut
    8. Delaware
    9. District of Columbia
    10. Florida
    11. Georgia
    12. Hawaii
    13. Idaho
    14. Illinois
    15. Indiana
    16. Iowa
    17. Kansas
    18. Kentucky
    19. Louisiana
    20. Maine
    21. Maryland
    22. Massachusetts
    23. Michigan
    24. Minnesota
    25. Mississippi
    26. Missouri
    27. Montana
    28. Nebraska
    29. Nevada
    30. New Hampshire
    31. New Jersey
    32. New Mexico
    33. New York
    34. North Carolina
    35. North Dakota
    36. Ohio
    37. Oklahoma
    38. Oregon
    39. Pennsylvania
    40. Rhode Island
    41. South Carolina
    42. South Dakota
    43. Tennessee
    44. Texas
    45. Utah
    46. Vermont
    47. Virginia
    48. Washington
    49. West Virginia
    50. Wisconsin
    51. Wyoming
  45. Appendix I. Guide to Foreign Statistical Abstracts
    1. Australia
    2. Austria
    3. Belgium
    4. Canada
    5. Czech Republic
    6. Denmark
    7. Finland
    8. France
    9. Germany
    10. Greece
    11. Hungary
    12. Iceland
    13. Ireland
    14. Italy
  46. Appendix II. Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: Concepts, Components, and Population
    1. Introduction
    2. Defining Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas
    3. Principal Cities and Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Area Titles
    4. Defining New England City and Town Areas
    5. Changes in Definitions Over Time
    6. Figure A1 Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas of the United States
    7. Figure A2 Metropolitan and Micropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs)
  47. Appendix III. Limitations of the Data
    1. Introduction
    2. Principal data bases
      1. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, National Agriculture Statistics Service
        1. Census of Agriculture 
          1. Universes, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        2. Basic Area Frame Sample
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors Minimized through rigid quality controls on the collection process and careful review of all reported data.
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. Multiple Frame Surveys
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        4. Objective Yield Surveys
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
      2. U.S. BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS (BJS)
        1. National Crime Victimization Survey
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material 
      3. U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
        1. Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) 
          1. Universe, Frequency and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        2. Consumer Price Index (CPI)
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error 
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. Current Employment Statistics (CES) Program
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Errors 
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        4. National Compensation Survey (NCS) 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        5. Producer Price Index (PPI) 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error 
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material 
      4. BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM
        1. Survey of Consumer Finances 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
      5. U.S. CENSUS BUREAU 
        1. 2007 Economic Census (Industry Series, Geographic Area Series and Subject Series Reports) (for NAICS sectors 21 to 81).
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Sources of Additional Material 
        2. American Community Survey (ACS) 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. American Housing Survey 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        4. Annual Survey of Government Employment and Payroll
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operations 
          3. Editing and Imputation Procedures
          4. Imputation 
          5. Estimates of Sampling Error
          6. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          7. Sources of Additional Material 
        5. Annual Survey of Government Finances
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operations
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        6. Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM)
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        7. Census of Population 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
          7. Content Reinterview Survey 
        8. County Business Patterns
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Estimates of Sampling Error
          4. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          5. Sources of Additional Materials 
        9. Current Population Survey (CPS) 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        10. Foreign Trade—Export Statistics
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error 
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        11. Foreign Trade—Import Statistics
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error 
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material 
        12. Monthly Retail Trade and Food Service Survey 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        13. Monthly Survey of Construction
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material 
        14. Nonemployer Statistics
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Estimates of Sampling Error
          4. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          5. Sources of Additional Material
        15. Service Annual Survey
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Estimates of Sampling Error 
          4. Other (Nonsampling) Errors
          5. Sources of Additional Material
      6. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Center for Education Statistics
        1. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data Survey (IPEDS), Completions
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material 
        2. National Household Education Surveys (NHES) Program
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) 
          1. Universe, Frequency and Types of Data 
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Estimates of Sampling Error
          4. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          5. Sources of Additional Material
      7. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION
        1. Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
      8. U.S. INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
        1. Corporation Income Tax Returns
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        2. Individual Income Tax Returns 
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. Partnership Income Tax Returns
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        4. Sole Proprietorship Income Tax Returns
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
      9. U.S. NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS (NCHS)
        1. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        2. National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        3. National Vital Statistics System
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation 
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors
          6. Sources of Additional Material
        4. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS)
          1. Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data
          2. Type of Data Collection Operation
          3. Data Collection and Imputation Procedures
          4. Estimates of Sampling Error
          5. Other (nonsampling) Errors 
          6. Sources of Additional Material
  48. Appendix IV. Weights and Measures
  49. Appendix V. Tables Deleted From Earlier Editions of the Statistical Abstract
  50. Index

Story

FedStat.net: Commemorating over 135 years of making statistics available to citizens everywhere

In a related story about FedStats.gov, I mentioned that Data.gov has been around for about three years now and is touted as the prime example of the Open Government Data Initiative based on its growth in number of data sets and communities using them. However, there have been two activities that have been around much longer, with more high-quality data sets, and a larger community, namely FedStats.gov and FedStats.net.

In this story I write about FedStats.net based on the 2012 Annual Statistical Abstract as a Data-Driven Document Dashboard. The Annual Statistical Abstract has been the first source of data for citizens for over 136 years and I rebuilt it to commemorate that great accomplishement.

The first thing I wanted to do was to have metadata and data be together in the spreadsheet, not separately, like Data.gov and most other Open Government Data Initiatives sites, so the user gets both in the same click download. Even better, the Web site, catalog, data (and metadata), and application are all integrated together into a Knowledge Base and a Spreadsheet.

Some highlights to look for are the following:

  • FedStats.net Data and Metadata "Very Big Table": 1407 rows with 7 copyrighted tables
  • FedStats.net Data, Metadata, and Data Story "Big Table": 840 rows
  • FedStats.net Data Story, Metadata, and Data "Very Little Table": 45 rows
  • 27 New Tables with Results For Each

For example Table 90 Women Who Had a Child in the Last Year by Living Arrangement, Age, and Educational Attainment: 2010, has my summary caption: More Women (Age 15-29) With Less Education Having Children Outside of Marriage. This is similar to a recent New York Times article on Unmarried Families Increasingly the Norm

The 27 New Tables with their titles and my Summary Captions are show below:

Table 8 Intercensal Resident Population by Sex and Age: 2001 to 2009

Median Age Has Risen Slightly in the Past Ten Years
 
Table 18 Resident Population by Hispanic Origin and State: 2010
Top Ten States With Hispanic or Latino Percent Population
 
Table 94 Women With Births in the Past 12 Months by Citizenship Status, Educational Attainment, and Poverty Status, by State: 2009
Top Ten States With Percent Below Poverty
 
Table 97 Sexual Identity Among Men and Women: 2006 to 2008
More Than 90% of People Are Heterosexual or Straight
 
Table 127 Suicide Deaths and Death Rates by Age and Method: 2007
Firearms Are the Most Frequently Used Method of Suicide
 
Table 132 People Who Got Married, and Divorced in the Past 12 Months by State: 2009
Top Ten Divorce Rate States
 
Table 140 National Health Expenditures, by Sponsor: 1990 to 2009
National Health Expenditures, by Sponsor in Billions of Dollars
 
Table 263 Public Elementary and Secondary Schools by School Type, Racial/Ethnic Concentration of Students, and Eligibility of Students for Free or Reduced-Price Lunch: 2000 and 2008
Select a row in the Table Reformatted for Spotfire to see the Details-on-Demand
 
Table 287 Residence and Migration of College Freshmen by State: 2008
Net Migration Has Incresed in Two Years
 
Table 323 Hate Crimes by Bias Motivation and Location of Incident: 2009
Mosts Hate Crimes Occur in the Residence/Home
 
Table 324 Arrests by Sex and Age: 2009
About Three Times the Number of Male Versus Female Arrests
 
Table 325 Arrests by Race: 2009
About Twice the Number of White Versus Black Arrests
 
Table 332 Judicial Officers and Judicial Caseloads for the Federal Judiciary: 2000 to 2010
Bankruptcy's Filed Exceeded One Million Except in 2007
 
Table 334 U.S. Courts of Appeals—Nature of Suit or Offense in Cases Arising From the U.S. District Courts: 2000 to 2010
Total Number of Appeals Cases Has Fallen Slightly
 
Table 335 Total Incoming Caseloads in State Trial Courts, by Case Category: 2008
Top Ten States With Total Incoming State Trial Court Caseloads
 
Table 362 Coastline Counties Most Frequently Hit by Hurricanes: 1960 to 2008Percent Changes in Population and Housing Have Decreased Dramatically in Hurricane Counties in Recent Years
 
Table 408 Apportionment of Membership in House of Representatives by State: 1800 to 2010
Top Ten States With Members in the House of Representatives
 
Table 770 Minority-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
Other Services Business Are the Largest Category of Minority-Owned Firms
 
Table 771 Hispanic-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
Construction Business Are the Largest Category of Hispanic-Owned Firms
 
Table 772 Black-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
Health Care & Social Assistance Business Are the Largest Category of Hispanic-Owned Firms
 
Table 773 Asian-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
Other Services Business Are the Largest Category of Asian-Owned Firms
 
Table 774 Native Hawaiian-and Other Pacific Islander-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
Other Services Business Are the Largest Category of Native Hawaiian- & Other Pacific Islander-Owned Firms
 
Table 775 American-Indian-and Alaska Native-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007
Construction Business Are the Largest Category of American Indian- & Alaska Native-Owned Firms
 
Table 830 Family Farm Household Income and Wealth, 2005 to 2009, and by Gross Sales, 2009
Total Median Household Farm Income Has Declined Slightly
 
Table 868 Horticultural Specialty Crop Operations, Value of Sales, and Total Land Area Used to Grow Horticultural Crops: 2009
Horticultural Speciality Crops Produce The Highest Values of Sales & Use the Largest Land Area By Far
 
Table 1131 Information Industries—Establishments, Employees, and Payroll by State: 2007
Top Ten States With Largest Annual Payroll

Spotfire Dashboard

For Internet Explorer Users and Those Wanting Full Screen Display Use: Web Player Get Spotfire for iPad App

Research Notes

Note 868 - Farmers Markets Characteristics: 2005 [Excel 33k] | [PDF 64k] should be 867 at http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/agriculture.html

Workflow:

http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/accommodation_food_other_services.html

Copy, Delete Extra Rows, and Paste to Excel, and Format

Do all 30 and then copy the Spreadsheet URLs at: http://semanticommunity.net/StatAbs2012/

Watch for problems like above

The do all PDF text and graphics to Wiki like 2010? All in one page? Then Index for Spreadsheet and Search?

 

 

Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012 on CD-ROM

Readme File

Source: http://semanticommunity.net/StatAbs2012/ReadMe.txt

 
The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the standard summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States. It is designed to serve as a convenient volume for statistical reference and as a guide to other statistical publications and sources. The latter function is served by the introductory text to each section, the source note appearing below each table, and Appendix I, which comprises the Guide to Sources of Statistics, the Guide to State Statistical Abstracts, and the Guide to Foreign Statistical Abstracts.
 
The Statistical Abstract sections and tables are compiled into one Adobe® PDF named StatAbstract2012.pdf.  This PDF is bookmarked by section and by table and can be searched using the Acrobat® Search feature within Acrobat®.  The Statistical Abstract on CD-ROM is best viewed using Adobe® Acrobat® 7, or any subsequent version of Acrobat® or Acrobat® Reader®.
 
The Statistical Abstract tables and the metropolitan areas tables from Appendix II are available as Excel®(.xls or .xlw) spreadsheets.  In most   cases, these spreadsheet files offer the user direct access to more data than are shown either in the publication or Adobe® Acrobat®. These files usually contain more years of data, more geographic areas, and/or more categories of subjects than those shown in the Acrobat® version.

Technical Support

 
Assistance needed using this CD-ROM can be found at:
 
General use questions: (301) 763-7710
 
Text Telephone (TTY): (301) 457-2347 or the Federal Relay Service at (800) 877-8339
 
Data Tables/Content: (301) 763-1171
 
 
E-Mail Support: techsupp@census.gov
 
10:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon and 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. (EST)
 
Also, users with visual impairments having difficulty accessing PDF documents may contact technical support.

Launching the Program

 
If your autoplay setting is not disabled, a menu will automatically load when the CD-ROM is inserted in the drive.  
 
Run launch.exe from the CD-ROM root directory if this menu does not automatically load.

CD-ROM Directory

 
Folders:
 
AutoPlay: AutoPlay Media Studio software and support files
 
Images: Graphics used for HTML documents
 
Reader: Adobe® Acrobat® Reader® 9.2 installer
 
Sprdshts: Microsoft® Excel® files
 
Viewer: Microsoft® Excel® Viewer 2003 installer
 
Key Files:D:\ = [CD-ROM Drive]
 
D:\Appendices.pdf: Appendices from the Statistical Abstract in Adobe® Portable Document Format (PDF)
 
D:\Autorun.inf: Information files used to Autoplay the CD-ROM
 
D:\Excel_index.htm: Table of contents for the Excel® files
 
D:\StatAb2012.exe: AutoPlay interface software
 
D:\StatAbstract2012.pdf: Statistical Abstract sections in Adobe® Portable Document Format (PDF)

System Requirements for Adobe Acrobat Reader 9.2

 
Windows
  • Intel® 1.3 GHz processor 
  • Microsoft Windows 2000 with Service Pack 4, Microsoft® Windows® XP Home, Professional, or Tablet PC Edition with Service Pack 2 or 3, Windows Server® 2003 and 2008, Windows Vista® Home Basic, Home Premium, Business, Ultimate, or Enterprise with Service Pack 1 or Service Pack 2, Microsoft Windows 7 Starter, Home Premium, Professional, Ultimate or Enterprise 
  • 128MB of RAM (256MB recommended) 
  • 335MB of available hard disk space
  • Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0, 6.0 with Service Pack 1, 7.0 or 8.0; Firefox 2.0, 3.0 or 3.5

2012 Data Tables

Source: http://semanticommunity.net/StatAbs2...stract2012.pdf and http://semanticommunity.net/StatAbs2...Appendices.pdf

cb_head.gif

Source: Source: http://semanticommunity.net/StatAbs2012/

statab2012book.jpg

 


Instructions:
To view the collection of Excel tables for a Section, click on the table numbers in the Tables column associated with that Section. This will open a directory view of the Excel tables for that Section, which can then be clicked to open.

The file names for the Excel tables are structured as such:

12S####.xls or .xlw

12 - year of publication
S - Statistical Abstract
#### - Table Number
.xls/.xlw - Excel file type

 


uscensus_solo_red_norule.jpg

 

         
Section Tables
Section 1. Population 1-77
Section 2. Births, Deaths, Marriages, and Divorces 78-133
Section 3. Health and Nutrition 134-218
Section 4. Education 219-305
Section 5. Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons 306-357
Section 6. Geography and Environment 358-396
Section 7. Elections 397-427
Section 8. State and Local Government Finances and Employment 428-468
Section 9. Federal Government Finances and Employment 469-502
Section 10. National Security and Veterans Affairs 503-537
Section 11. Social Insurance and Human Services 538-585
Section 12. Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings 586-666
Section 13. Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth 667-723
Section 14. Prices 724-743
Section 15. Business Enterprise 744-798
Section 16. Science and Technology 799-822
Section 17. Agriculture 823-878
Section 18. Forestry, Fishing, and Mining 879-922
Section 19. Energy and Utilities 923-960
Section 20. Construction and Housing 961-1006
Section 21. Manufactures 1007-1041
Section 22. Wholesale and Retail Trade 1042-1062
Section 23. Transportation 1063-1127
Section 24. Information and Communications 1128-1161
Section 25. Banking, Finance, and Insurance 1162-1227
Section 26. Arts, Recreation, and Travel 1228-1271
Section 27. Accommodation, Food Services, and Other Services 1272-1285
Section 28. Foreign Commerce and Aid 1286-1312
Section 29. Puerto Rico and the Island Areas 1313-1328
Section 30. International Statistics 1329-1406
Appendix II - Metropolitan Statistical Areas Appendix II

What is the Statistical Abstract?

Source: http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/

The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is the authoritative and comprehensive summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States.

Use the Abstract as a convenient volume for statistical reference, and as a guide to sources of more information both in print and on the Web.

Sources of data include the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bureau of Economic Analysis, and many other Federal agencies and private organizations.

 
The U.S. Census Bureau is terminating the collection of data for the Statistical Compendia program effective October 1, 2011. The Statistical Compendium program is comprised of the Statistical Abstract of the United States and its supplemental products - - the State and Metropolitan Area Data Book and the County and City Data Book. In preparation for the Fiscal Year 2012 (FY 2012) budget, the Census Bureau did a comprehensive review of a number of programs and had to make difficult proposals to terminate and reduce a number of existing programs in order to acquire funds for higher priority programs. The decision to propose the elimination of this program was not made lightly. To access the most current data, please refer to the organizations cited in the source notes for each table of the Statistical Abstract.

Sources of Data

The Abstract is also your guide to sources of other data from the Census Bureau, other Federal agencies, and private organizations.

Overview

Source: http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/overview.html

The Statistical Abstract of the United States is the standard summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States. It is also designed to serve as a guide to other statistical publications and sources. The latter function is served by the introductory text to each section, the source note appearing below each table, and Appendix I, which comprises the Guide to Sources of Statistics, the Guide to State Statistical Abstracts, and the Guide to Foreign Statistical Abstracts.

This volume includes a selection of data from many statistical sources, both government and private. Publications cited as sources usually contain additional statistical detail and more comprehensive discussions of definitions and concepts. Data not available in publications issued by the contributing agency but obtained from the Internet or unpublished records are identified in the source notes. More information on the subjects covered in the tables so noted may generally be obtained from the source.

Although emphasis in the Statistical Abstract is primarily given to national data, many tables present data for regions and individual states and a smaller number for metropolitan areas and cities. Appendix II, Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: Concepts, Components, and Population, presents explanatory text, a complete current listing and population data for metropolitan and micropolitan areas defined as of December 2009. Statistics for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and for island areas of the United States are included in many state tables and are supplemented by information in Section 29. Additional information for states, cities, counties, metropolitan areas, and other small units, as well as more historical data are available in various supplements to the Abstract.

Suggested citation

U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States: 2012 (131st Edition) Washington, DC, 2011; <http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/>.

Cover

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...tab/cover2.pdf

Map of the United States, Showing Census Regions and Divisions

Cover.png

 

Acknowledgments

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...tab/acknow.pdf

Jean F. Mullin was responsible for the technical supervision and coordination of this volume under the direction of Ian R. O’Brien, Chief, Statistical Compendia Branch. Assisting in the research and analytical phases of assigned sections and in the development aspects of new tables were Brian Clark, Richard P. Kersey, Christine Nguyen, Michael Sellner, and Sean R. Wilburn. Catherine B. Lavender provided primary editorial assistance. Other editorial assistance was rendered by Stacey Barber, Alethea S. Carter,Jennifer Grimes, April C. Harris, Jennifer Harrison, Michael Lopez, Alexandra Nguyen, Juan Rodriguez, Melissa Swindell, and Kevin Younes.

 
Maps were designed and produced by Connie Beard, Stephen Jones, and Scott Wilcox of the Cartographic Products Branch within the Geography Division.
 
Monique D. Lindsay, Connie Nadzadi, Faye Brock, Christine E. Geter, and Taunisha Gates of Editorial Services provided publications management and editorial review under the direction of Janet S. Sweeney. Linda Chen and Donald Meyd of the Administrative and Customer Services Division, Francis Grailand Hall, Chief, provided printing management and graphics design and composition for print and electronic media. General direction and production management were provided by Claudette E. Bennett, Assistant Division Chief.
 
The cooperation of many contributors to this volume is gratefully acknowledged. The source note below each table credits the various government and private sector agencies that have collaborated in furnishing the information for the Statistical Abstract.
 
This book is dedicated to the many branch chiefs, statisticians, editors, and information assistants who have worked on the Statistical Abstract through the years. Special thanks to Lars B. Johanson, Glenn W. King, and Rosemary E. Clark, whose advice and expertise is still sought out long after their retirements.
 

Preface

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...ab/preface.pdf

The Statistical Abstract of the United States, published since 1878, is a comprehensive collection of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the United States. It is designed to serve as a convenient volume for statistical reference and as a guide to other statistical publications and sources. The latter function is served by the introductory text to each section, the source note appearing below each table, and Appendix I, which is comprised of the Guide to Sources of Statistics, the Guide to State Statistical Abstracts, and the Guide to Foreign Statistical Abstracts.

 
This volume includes a selection of data from many statistical sources, both government and private. Publications cited as sources usually contain additional statistical detail and more comprehensive discussions of definitions and concepts. Data not available in publications issued by the contributing agency, but obtained from the Internet or unpublished records are identified in the source notes. More information on the subjects covered in the tables may generally be obtained from the source.
 
Except as indicated, figures are for the United States as presently constituted. Although emphasis in the Statistical Abstract is primarily given to national data, many tables present data for regions and individual states and a smaller number for metropolitan areas and cities. Appendix II, Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: Concepts, Components, and Population, presents explanatory text, a complete current listing, and population data for metropolitan and micropolitan areas defined as of November 2009. Statistics for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and for island areas of the United States are included in many state tables and are supplemented by information in Section 29. Additional information for states, cities, counties, metropolitan areas, and other small units, as well as more historical data, are available in various supplements to the Statistical Abstract (see inside back cover).
 
Statistics in this edition are generally for the most recent year or period available by early June 2011. Each year over 1,400 tables and charts are reviewed and evaluated; new tables and charts of current interest are added, continuing series are updated, and less timely data are condensed or eliminated. Text notes and appendices are revised as appropriate. In addition two special features USA Statistics in Brief, and State Rankings can be found on our Web site: <http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/>.
 
Changes in this edition—This year we have introduced 27 new tables covering a wide range of subject areas. These include new data from the 2010 Decennial Census, and the Survey of Business Owners, as well as changes to the organization and presentation of national health expenditures data from the U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid. In addition, we have introduced new material on a wide variety of topics, such as, migration of college freshmen, hate crimes, judicial caseloads, hurricanes, suicides, congressional apportionment, minority-owned businesses, family farms, and horticuluture sales. For a complete list of new tables, see A New Tables,@ p. xi.
 
Statistical Abstract on other media —The Abstract is available on the Internet and on CD-ROM. Both versions contain the same material as the book, except for a few copyrighted tables for which we did not receive permission to release in these formats. Our Internet site
<http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab> contains this 2012 edition plus selected earlier editions in Adobe Acrobat .pdf format. The CD-ROM version and internet site also include spreadsheet files for each table in the book.
 
Statistics for states and metropolitan areas—Extensive data for the states and metropolitan areas of the United States can be found in the State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2010. This publication, as well as, selected rankings of the states and metropolitan areas, is also available on our Internet site at <http://www.census.gov/compendia/smadb>.
 
Statistics for counties and cities— Extensive data for counties can be found in the County and City Data Book: 2007.
It features items covering everything from age and agriculture to retail trade and water use for all states and counties with U.S. totals for comparison. This publication is available on our Internet site at <www.census.gov/compendia/ccdb>.
 
The database for USA Counties features over 6,000 items. Files include data published for 2009 population estimates (latest) and many items from the 2000 and 2010 Census of Population and Housing, the American Community Survey 2005–2009, the 1990 census, the 1980 census and the 2007, 2002, 1997, 1992, 1987, 1982 and 1977 economic censuses.
 
Information in USA Counties is derived from the following general topics: Accommodation and Food Services, Age, Agriculture, Ancestry, Banking, Building Permits, Business, Civilian Labor Force, Crime, Earnings, Education, Elections, Employment, Government, Health, Households, Housing, Income, Manufacturing, Population, Poverty, Race and Hispanic or Latino Origin, Retail Trade, Social Programs, Taxes, Veterans, Vital Statistics, Water Use, and Wholesale Trade.
 
Files contain a collection of data from the U.S. Census Bureau and other federal agencies, such as the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Internal Revenue Service, and the Social Security Administration.
For further information on the USA Counties database, please see <http://censtats.census.gov/usa/usa.shtml>.
 
Limitations of the data—The contents of this volume were taken from many sources. All data from censuses, surveys, and from administrative records are subject to error arising from a number of factors: Sampling variability (for statistics based on samples), reporting errors in the data for individual units, incomplete coverage, nonresponse, imputations, and processing error. (See also Appendix III,
p. 919). The Census Bureau cannot accept responsibility for the accuracy or limitations of the data presented here, other than for those for which it collects. The responsibility for selection of the material and for proper presentation, however, rests with the Census Bureau.
 
For additional information on data presented—Please consult the source publications available in local libraries, on the Internet, or contact the agency indicated in the source notes. Contact the Census Bureau only if it is cited as the source.
 
Suggestions and comments—Users of the Statistical Abstract and its supplements (see inside back cover) are urged to make their data needs known for consideration in planning future editions. Suggestions and comments for improving coverage and presentation of data should be sent to the Director, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC 20233; or e-mail us at <ACSD.US.Data@census.gov> or visit <ask.census.gov> for further information on the Abstract.

Contents

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...b/contents.pdf

MY NOTE: Cannot Copy This PDF, But Can Get It From the Wiki

New Tables

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/.../newtables.pdf

Table Number Section Page Number
  Sec. 1. POPULATION 1
8 Intercensal Resident Population by Sex and Age: 2001 to 2009 11
18 Resident Population by Hispanic Origin and State: 2010 23
  Sec. 2. BIRTHS, DEATHS, MARRIAGES, AND DIVORCES 63
90 Women Who Had a Child in the Last Year by Living Arrangement, Age, and Educational Attainment: 2010 70
94 Women With Births in the Past 12 Months by Citizenship Status, Educational Attainment, and Poverty Status, by State: 2009 72
97 Sexual Identity Among Men and Women: 2006 to 2008 74
127 Suicide Deaths and Death Rates by Age and Method: 2007 94
132 People Who Got Married, and Divorced in the Past 12 Months by State: 2009 97
  Sec. 3. HEALTH AND NUTRITION 99
140 National Health Expenditures, by Sponsor: 1990 to 2009 104
  Sec. 4. EDUCATION 143
263
Public Elementary and Secondary Schools by School Type, Racial/Ethnic Concentration of Students, and Eligibility of Students for
Free or Reduced-Price Lunch: 2000 and 2008
171
287 Residence and Migration of College Freshmen by State: 2008 184
  Sec. 5. LAW ENFORCEMENT, COURTS, AND PRISONS 193
323 Hate Crimes by Bias Motivation and Location of Incident: 2009 205
324 Arrests by Sex and Age: 2009 206
325 Arrests by Race: 2009 206
332
Judicial Officers and Judicial Caseloads for the Federal Judiciary: 2000 to 2010
209
334 U.S. Courts of Appeals—Nature of Suit or Offense in Cases Arising From the U.S. District Courts: 2000 to 2010 210
335 Total Incoming Caseloads in State Trial Courts, by Case Category: 2008 211
  Sec. 6. GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT 221
362
Coastline Counties Most Frequently Hit by Hurricanes: 1960 to 2008
224
  Sec. 7. ELECTIONS 243
408
Apportionment of Membership in House of Representatives by State: 1800 to 2010
252
  Sec. 15. BUSINESS ENTERPRISE 489
770 Minority-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007 508
771 Hispanic-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007 508
772 Black-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007 509
773 Asian-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007 509
774 Native Hawaiian-and Other Pacific Islander-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007 510
775 American-Indian-and Alaska Native-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007 510
  Sec. 17. AGRICULTURE 533
830
Family Farm Household Income and Wealth, 2005 to 2009, and by Gross Sales, 2009
538
868 Horticultural Specialty Crop Operations, Value of Sales, and Total Land Area Used to Grow Horticultural Crops: 2009 554
  Sec. 24. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS 707
1131 Information Industries—Establishments, Employees, and Payroll by State: 2007 711
 

Section 1 POPULATION

Table 8 Intercensal Resident Population by Sex and Age: 2001 to 2009

Table 18 Resident Population by Hispanic Origin and State: 2010

Section 2 BIRTHS, DEATHS, MARRIAGES, AND DIVORCES

Table 90 Women Who Had a Child in the Last Year by Living Arrangement, Age, and Educational Attainment: 2010

Table 94 Women With Births in the Past 12 Months by Citizenship Status, Educational Attainment, and Poverty Status, by State: 2009

Table 97 Sexual Identity Among Men and Women: 2006 to 2008

Table 127 Suicide Deaths and Death Rates by Age and Method: 2007

Table 132 People Who Got Married, and Divorced in the Past 12 Months by State: 2009

Section 3 HEALTH AND NUTRITION

Table 140 National Health Expenditures, by Sponsor: 1990 to 2009

Section 4 EDUCATION

Table 263 Public Elementary and Secondary Schools by School Type, Racial/Ethnic Concentration of Students, and Eligibility of Students for Free or Reduced-Price Lunch: 2000 and 2008

Table 287 Residence and Migration of College Freshmen by State: 2008

Section 5 LAW ENFORCEMENT, COURTS, AND PRISONS

Table 323 Hate Crimes by Bias Motivation and Location of Incident: 2009

Table 324 Arrests by Sex and Age: 2009

Table 325 Arrests by Race: 2009

Table 332 Judicial Officers and Judicial Caseloads for the Federal Judiciary: 2000 to 2010

Table 334 U.S. Courts of Appeals—Nature of Suit or Offense in Cases Arising From the U.S. District Courts: 2000 to 2010

Table 335 Total Incoming Caseloads in State Trial Courts, by Case Category: 2008

Section 6 GEOGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT

Table 362 Coastline Counties Most Frequently Hit by Hurricanes: 1960 to 2008

Section 7 ELECTIONS

Table 408 Apportionment of Membership in House of Representatives by State: 1800 to 2010

Section 15 BUSINESS ENTERPRISE

Table 770 Minority-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007

Table 771 Hispanic-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007

Table 772 Black-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007

Table 773 Asian-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007

Table 774 Native Hawaiian-and Other Pacific Islander-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007

Table 775 American-Indian-and Alaska Native-Owned Firms by Kind of Business: 2007

Section 17 AGRICULTURE

Table 830 Family Farm Household Income and Wealth, 2005 to 2009, and by Gross Sales, 2009

Table 868 Horticultural Specialty Crop Operations, Value of Sales, and Total Land Area Used to Grow Horticultural Crops: 2009

Section 24 INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS

Table 1131 Information Industries—Establishments, Employees, and Payroll by State: 2007

Guide to Tabular Presentation

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...atab/guide.pdf

 
Example of Table Structure
 
Table 537. Seizure Statistics for Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) by Commodity and Trading Partner: 2009 and 2010
[In thousands of dollars (260,698 represents $260,698,000, except as indicated). Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is dedicated to protecting against the importation of goods which infringe/violate Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) by devoting substantial resources toward identifying and seizing shipments of infringing articles]
 
Commodity 2009 2010 Trading partner 2009 2010
Number of IPR Seizures 14,841 19,959 China 204,656 124,681
Total domestic value of IPR seizures 1 260,698 188,125 Hong Kong 26,887 26,173
Footwear 99,779 45,750 India 3,047 1,571
Consumer electronics 2 31,774 33,588 Taiwan 2,454 1,138

Handbags/

wallets/backpacks

21,502 15,422 Korea, South 1,510 1,049
Wearing apparel 21,462 18,682 Jordan (NA) 7,713
Watches /parts 15,534 7,848 Malaysia (NA) 1,286

Computers/

Technology Components

12,546 9,502 United Arab Emirates (NA) 493
Media 3 11,100 12,681 Canada (NA) 609
Pharmaceuticals 11,058 5,662 Vietnam 604 742
All other commodities 19,941 23,377 All other countries 16,575 22,668
 
NA Not available. 1 Domestic value is the cost of the seized goods, plus the costs of shipping and importing the goods intothe U.S. and an amount for profit. 2 Consumer electronics includes cell phones and accessories, radios, power strips, electrical tools and appliances. 3 Includes motion pictures on tape, laser disc, and DVD; interactive and computer software on CD-ROMand floppy discs; and music on CD or tape.
 
Source: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Customs and Border Protection, “Import, Commercial Enforcement, Intellectual Property Rights, Seizure Statistics,” <http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/trade/pri...r/pub/seizure/>.
 

Headnotes immediately below table titles provide information important for correct interpretation or evaluation of the table as a whole or for a major segment of it. 

Footnotes below the bottom rule of the tables give information relating to specific items or figures within the table.

Unit indicators show the specified quantities in which data items are presented. They are used for two primary reasons. Sometimes data are not available in absolute form and are estimates (as in the case of many surveys). In other cases we round the numbers in order to show more data, as in the case above.

EXAMPLES OF UNIT INDICATOR INTERPRETATION FROM TABLE

Year Item Unit Indicator Number shown Multiplier
2009 Total domestic value of IPR seizures. $ Thousands........... 260,698 1,000

To Determine the Figure it is Necessary to Multiply the Number Shown by the Unit Indicator:

Value of seizures by Customs and Border Protection−260,698 x$1,000=$260,698,000($261million)

When a table presents data with more than one unit indicator, they aref ound in the headnotes and column headings (Tables 2 and 26), spanner(Table 37), stub (Table 25), or unit column (Table 159). When the data in a table are shown in the same unit indicator, it is shown as the first part of the headnote (Table 2).If no unit indicator is shown, data presented are in absolute form (Table 2).

Averages—An average is a single number or value that is often used to represent the ‘‘typical value’’ of a group of numbers. It is regarded as a measure of ‘‘location’’ or ‘‘central tendency’’ of a group of numbers. 

The arithmetic mean is the type of average used most frequently. It is derived by summing the individual item values of a particular group and dividing the total by the number of items. The arithmetic mean is often referred to as simply the ‘‘mean’’ or ‘‘average.’’

The median of a group is the middle number f value when each item in the group is arranged according to size (lowest to highest or visa versa); it generally has the number of items above it as well as below it. If there is an even number of items in the group, the median is taken to be the average of the two middle numbers.

Per capita (or per person) quantities—a per capita figure represents an average computed for every person in a specified group (or population). It is derived by taking the total for an item (such as income, taxes, or retail sales) and dividing it by the number of persons in the specified population.

Index numbers

—An index number is the measure of difference or change, usually expressed as a percent, relating one quantity (the variable) of a specified kind to another quantity of the same kind. Index numbers are widely used to express changes in prices over periods of time, but may also be used to express differences between related subjects for a single point in time.

 
To compute a price index, a base year or period is selected. The base year price (of the commodity or service) is then designated as the base or reference price to which the prices for other years or periods are related. Many price indexes use the year 1982 as the base year; in tables this is shown as ‘‘1982=100.’’ A method of expressing the price relationship is: The price of a set of one or more items for a related year (e.g. 1990) divided by the price of the same set of items for the base year (e.g. 1982). The result multiplied by 100 provides the index number. When 100 is subtracted from the index number, the result equals the percent change in price from the base year.

Average annual percent change—

Unless otherwise stated in the Abstract (as in Section 1, Population), average annual percent change is computed by use of a compound interest formula. This formula assumes that the rate of change is constant throughout as pecified compounding period (1 year for average annual rates of change). The formula is similar to that used toc ompute the balance of a savings account that receives compound interest. According to this formula, at the end of a compounding period the amount of accrued change (e.g., school enrollment or bank interest) is added to the amount that existed at the beginning of the period. As a result, over time (e.g., with each year or quarter), the same rate of change is applied to a larger and larger figure.

 
The exponential formula, which is based on continuous compounding, is often used to measure population change. It is preferred by population experts, because they view population and population-related subjects as changing without interruption, ever ongoing. Both exponential and compound interest formulas assume a constant rate of change. The former, however, applies the amount of change continuously to the base rather than at the end of each compounding period. When the average annual rates are small (e.g., less than 5 percent) both formulas give virtually the same results. For an explanation of these two formulas as they relate to population, see U.S.Census Bureau, The Methods and Materials of Demography, Vol.2, 3d printing (rev.), 1975, pp.372−381.

Current and constant dollars—

Statistics in some tables in a number of sections are expressed in both current and constant dollars (see e.g., Table 659 in Section 13, Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth). Current dollar figures reflect actual prices or costs prevailing during the specified year(s). Constant dollar figures are estimates representing an effort to remove the effects of price changes from statistical series reported in dollar terms. In general, constant dollar series are derived by dividing current dollar estimates by the appropriate price index for the appropriate period (e.g.,the Consumer Price Index). The result is a series as it would presumably exist if the base year — in other words, as if the dollar had constant purchasing power. Any changes in this constant dollar series would reflect only changes in real volume of output, income, expenditures, or other measure.

Explanation of Symbols

The following symbols, used in the tables throughout this book, are explained in condensed form in footnotes to the tables where they appear: 

−Represents zero or rounds to less than half the unit of measurement shown.
B Base figure too small to meet statistical standards for reliability of a derived figure.
D Figure withheld to avoid disclosure pertaining to a specific organization or individual.
NA Data not enumerated, tabulated, or otherwise available separately.
S Figure does not meet publication standards for reasons other than that covered by symbol B, above.
X Figure not applicable because column heading and stub line make entry impossible, absurd, or meaningless.
Z Entry would amount to less than half the unit of measurement shown.

In many tables, details will not add to the totals shown because of rounding.

Telephone and Internet Contacts

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...b/contacts.pdf

To help Abstract users find more data and information about statistical publications, we are issuing this list of contacts for federal agencies with major statistical programs. The intent is to give a single, first-contact point-of-entry for users of statistics. These agencies will provide general information on their statistical programs and publications, as well as specific information on how to order their publications. We are also including the Internet (World Wide Web) addresses for many of these agencies. These URLs were current in July 2011.

Executive Office of the President

Office of Management and Budget

Administrator
Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs
Office of Management and Budget
725 17th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20503
Information: 202-395-3080 Internet address:

Department of Agriculture

Economic Research Service Information Center

U.S. Department of Agriculture
1800 M Street, NW
Washington, DC 20036-5831
Information and Publications: 202-694-5050
Internet address:

National Agricultural Statistics Service

National Agricultural Statistics Service USDA-NASS
1400 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC 20250
Information hotline: 1-800-727-9540Internet address:

Department of Commerce

U.S. Census Bureau Customer Services Branch

4600 Silver Hill Road
Washington, DC 20233
Information and Publications:1-800-923-8282
Internet address:

Bureau of Economic Analysis

Bureau of Economic Analysis
1441 L Street, NW
Washington, DC 20230
Information and Publications: 202-606-9900
Internet address: http://www.bea.gov/

International Trade Administration

International Trade Administration

1401 Constitution Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20230
Information: 1-800-872-8723
Internet address: http://trade.gov/

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Central Library

U.S. Department of Commerce
1315 East-West Highway
SSMC3, 2nd Floor
Silver Spring, MD 20910
Library: 301-713-2600 x.124Internet address:

Department of Defense

Department of Defense

Office of Public Communication

1400 Defense Pentagon
Washington, DC 20301-1400
Information: 703-571-3343Internet address:

Department of Education

National Library of Education

U.S. Department of Education

400 Maryland Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20202
Education Information and Statistics: 1-800-872-5327Education Publications: 1-877-433-7827
Internet address: http://www.ed.gov/

Department of Energy

Energy Information Administration

National Energy Information Center

Energy Information Administration
1000 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC 20585
Information and Publications: 202-586-8800
Internet address:

Department of Health and Human Services

Health Resources and Services Administration

HRSA Information Center
P.O. Box 2910
Merrifield, VA 22118
Information Center: 1-888-275-4772Internet address: http://www.hrsa.gov/

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
1 Choke Cherry Road
Rockville, MD 20857
Information: 240-276-2130 Publications: 1-877-726-4727Internet address:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Public Inquiries/MASO
1600 Clifton Road
Atlanta, GA 30333
Public Inquiries: 1-800-232-4636Internet address: http://www.cdc.gov/

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
7500 Security Boulevard
Baltimore, MD 21244
Information: 1-877-267-2323Internet address:

National Center for Health Statistics

National Center for Health Statistics
3311 Toledo Road
Hyattsville, MD 20782
Information: 1-800-232-4636Internet address:

Department of Homeland Security

Office of Public Affairs

245 Murray Lane, SW, Bldg. 410
Washington, DC 20528
Information and Publications: 202-282-8010
Internet address: http://www.dhs.gov

Department of Housing and Urban Development

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Community Planning and Development

4517th St., SW
Washington, DC 20410
Information: 202-708-1112Publications: 1-800-767-7468Internet address: http://www.hud.gov/

Department of the Interior

U.S. Geological Survey

USGS National Center
12201 Sunrise Valley Drive
Reston, VA 20192
Information and Publications: 1-888-275-8747
Internet address for minerals:
Internet address for other materials: http://ask.usgs.gov/

Department of Justice

Bureau of Justice Statistics

Statistics Division
810 7th Street, NW
Washington, DC 20531
Information and Publications: 1-800-851-3420
Internet address:

National Criminal Justice Reference Service

P.O. Box 6000
Rockville, MD 20849-6000
Publications: 1-800-851-3420 Internet address: http://www.ncjrs.gov/

Federal Bureau of Investigation

Federal Bureau of Investigations
J. Edgar Hoover Building
935 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20535-0001
Information: 202-324-3000 Internet address: http://www.fbi.gov/

Department of Labor

Bureau of Labor Statistics

Office of Publications and Special Studies Services
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Postal Square Building
2 Mass. Ave., NE
Washington, DC 20212-0001
Information and Publications: 202-691-5200
Internet address: http://www.bls.gov/

Employment and Training Administration

U.S. Department of Labor
Francis Perkins Building
200 Constitution Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20210
Information and Publications: 1-877-872-5627
Internet address: http://www.doleta.gov/

Department of Transportation

Federal Aviation Administration

800 Independence Ave., SW
Washington, DC 20591
Information and Publications: 1-866-835-5322
Internet address: http://www.faa.gov/

Bureau of Transportation Statistics

1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
Products and Statistical Information: 1-800-853-1351
Internet address: http://www.bts.gov/

Federal Highway Administration

Office of Public Affairs
U.S. Department of Transportation
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
Information: 202-366-4000Internet address:

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Office of Public & Consumer Affairs
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE - West Building
Washington, DC 20590
Information and Publications: 1-888-327-4236
Internet address:

Department of the Treasury

Internal Revenue Service Statistics of Income Division

Internal Revenue Service
P. O. Box 2608
Washington, DC 20013-2608
Information and Publications:
202-874-0410
Internet address:

Department of Veterans Affairs

Department of Veterans Affairs

Office of Public Affairs
810 Vermont Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20420
Information: 202-273-6000Internet address: http://www.va.gov/

Independent Agencies

Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts

Office of Public Affairs
1 Columbus Circle, NE
Washington, DC 20544
Information: 202-502-2600Internet address:

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

Division of Research and Statistics
Federal Reserve System
20th & Constitution Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20551
Information: 202-452-3000 Publications: 202-452-3245Internet address:

Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental Protection Agency
Ariel Rios Building
1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20460
Publications: 1-800-490-9198Internet address: http://www.epa.gov/

National Science Foundation

Office of Legislation and Public Affairs
National Science Foundation
4201 Wilson Boulevard
Arlington, Virginia 22230
Information: 703-292-5111 Publications: 703-292-7827Internet address: http://www.nsf.gov/

Securities and Exchange Commission

Office of Public Affairs
Securities and Exchange Commission
100 F Street, NE
Washington, DC 20549
Information: 202-942-8088 Publications: 202-551-4040Internet address: http://www.sec.gov/

Social Security Administration

Social Security Administration
Office of Public Inquiries
6401 Security Boulevard
Baltimore, MD 21235
Information and Publications:
1-800-772-1213
Internet Address:

Section 1. Population

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/12statab/pop.pdf

Introduction

This section presents statistics on the growth, distribution, and characteristics of the U.S. population. The principal source of these data is the U.S. Census Bureau, which conducts a decennial census of population, a monthly population survey, a program of population estimates and projections, and a number of other periodic surveys.

Decennial censuses

The U.S. Constitution provides for a census of the population every 10 years, primarily to establish a basis for apportionment of members of the House of Representatives among the states. For over a century after the first census in 1790, the census organization was a temporary one, created only for each decennial census. In 1902, the Census Bureau was established as a permanent federal agency, responsible for enumerating the population and also for compiling statistics on other population and housing characteristics.
 
Historically, the enumeration of the population has been a complete (100 percent) count. That is, an attempt is made to account for every person, for each person’s residence, and for other characteristics (sex, age, family relationships, etc.). Since the 1940 census, in addition to the complete count information, some data have been obtained from representative samples of the population. In the 1990 and 2000 censuses, variable sampling rates were employed. For most of the country, 1 in every 6 households (about 17 percent) received the long form or sample questionnaire; in governmental units estimated to have fewer than 2,500 inhabitants, every other household (50 percent) received the sample questionnaire to enhance the reliability of sample data for small areas. Exact agreement is not to be expected between sample data and the 100-percent count. For Census 2010, only the short form questionnaire was used. Sample data may be used with confidence where large numbers are involved and assumed to indicate trends and relationships where small numbers are involved.

Current Population Survey (CPS)

This is a monthly nationwide survey of a scientifically selected sample representing the noninstitutionalized civilian population. The sample is located in 824 areas with coverage in every state and the District of Columbia and is subject to sampling error. At the present time, about 60,000 occupied households are eligible for interview every month; of these, about 8 percent are, for various reasons, unavailable for interview.
 
While the primary purpose of the CPS is to obtain monthly statistics on the labor force, it also serves as a vehicle for inquiries on other subjects. Using CPS data, the Census Bureau issues a series of publications under the general title of Current Population Reports.
 
Estimates of population characteristics based on the CPS will not agree with the counts from the census because the CPS and the census use different procedures for collecting and processing the data for racial groups, the Hispanic population, and other topics. Caution should also be used when comparing estimates for various years because of the periodic introduction of changes into the CPS. Beginning in January 1994, a number of changes were introduced into the CPS that affect all data comparisons with prior years. These changes included the results of a major redesign of the survey questionnaire and collection methodology and the introduction of 1990 census population controls, adjusted for the estimated undercount. Beginning with the 2001 CPS Annual Demographic Supplement, the independent estimates used as control totals for the CPS are based on civilian population benchmarks consistent with Census 2000. In March 2002, the sample size of the Annual Demographic Supplement was increased to approximately 78,000. In 2003 the name of the March supplement was changed to Annual Social and Economic Supplement. These changes in population controls had relatively little impact on derived measures such as means, medians, and percent distribution, but did have a significant impact on levels.
 

American Community Survey (ACS)

This is a nationwide survey to obtain data about demographic, social, economic, and housing information of people, households, and housing units. The survey collects the same type of information that has been collected from the long-form questionnaire of Census 2000, which the American Community Survey has replaced. Beginning 2006, the estimates include the household population and the population living in institutions, college dormitories, and other group quarters.

Population estimates and projections

Estimates of the United States population are derived by updating the resident population enumerated in Census 2000 with information on the components of population change: births, deaths, and net international migration. The April 1, 2000, population used in these estimates reflects modifications to the Census 2000 population as documented in the Count Question Resolution program.
 
Registered births and deaths are estimated from data supplied by the National Center for Health Statistics. The net international migration component consists of four parts: (1) the net international migration of the foreign born, (2) the net migration of natives to and from the United States, (3) the net migration between the United States and Puerto Rico, and (4) the net overseas movement of the Armed Forces population. Data from the ACS are used to estimate the annual net migration of the foreign-born population. Estimates of the net migration of natives and net migration between Puerto Rico and the United States prior to 2005 are derived from the Demographic Analysis and Population Estimates (DAPE) project (see Population Division Working Paper Series, No. 63 and No. 64). Estimates for net migration between Puerto Rico and the U.S. for 2005 and later years are derived from the ACS and the Puerto Rico Community Survey. Estimates of the net overseas movement of the Armed Forces are derived from data collected by the Defense Manpower Data Center.
 
Estimates for state and county areas are based on the same components of change data and sources as the national estimates with the addition of net internal migration. Estimates of net internal migration are derived from federal income tax returns from the Internal Revenue Service, group quarters data from the Federal-State Cooperative Program, and Medicare data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
 
The population by age for April 1, 1990, reflects modifications to the 1990 census data counts. The review of detailed 1990 information indicated that respondents tended to report age as of the date of completion of the questionnaire, not as of April 1, 1990. In addition, there may have been a tendency for respondents to round up their age if they were close to having a birthday. A detailed explanation of the age modification procedure appears in 1990 Census of Population and Housing, Data Paper Listing CPH-L74.
 
Population estimates and projections are available on the Census Bureau Web site, see <http://www.census.gov>. These estimates and projections are consistent with official decennial census figures with no adjustment for estimated net census coverage. However, the categories for these estimates and projections by race have been modified and are not comparable to the census race categories (see section below under ‘‘Race’’). For details on methodology, see the sources cited below the individual tables.

Immigration

Immigration (migration to a country) is one component of international migration; the other component is emigration (migration from a country). In its simplest form, international migration is defined as any movement across a national border. In the United States, federal statistics on international migration are produced primarily by the U.S. Census Bureau and the Office of Immigration Statistics of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
 
The Census Bureau collects data used to estimate international migration through its decennial censuses and numerous surveys of the U.S. population.
 
The Office of Immigration Statistics publishes immigration data in annual flow reports and the Yearbook of Immigration Statistics. Data for these publications are collected from several administrative data sources including the DS-230 Application for Immigrant Visa and Alien Registration (U.S. Department of State) for new arrivals, and the I-485 Application to Register Permanent Residence or Adjust Status (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services—USCIS) for persons adjusting immigrant status.
 
An immigrant, or legal permanent resident, is a foreign national who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United States. New arrivals are foreign nationals living abroad who apply for an immigrant visa at a consular office of the Department of State, while individuals adjusting status are already living in the United States and file an application for adjustment of status to lawful permanent residence with USCIS. Individuals adjusting status include refugees, asylees, and various classes of nonimmigrants. A refugee is an alien outside the United States who is unable or unwilling to return to his or her country of origin because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution. Asylees must meet the same criteria as refugees, but are located in the United States or at a port of entry. After 1 year of residence, refugees and asylees are eligible to adjust to legal permanent resident status. Nonimmigrants are foreign nationals granted temporary entry into the United States. The major activities for which nonimmigrant admission is authorized include temporary visits for business or pleasure, academic or vocational study, temporary employment, and to act as a representative of a foreign government or international organization. DHS collects information on the characteristics of a proportion of nonimmigrant admissions, those recorded on the I-94 Arrival/Departure Record.
 
U.S. immigration law gives preferential immigration status to persons with a close family relationship with a U.S. citizen or legal permanent resident, persons with needed job skills, persons who qualify as refugees or asylees, and persons who are from countries with relatively low levels of immigration to the United States. Immigration to the United States can be divided into two general categories: (1) classes of admission subject to the annual worldwide limitation and (2) classes of admission exempt from worldwide limitations. Numerical limits are imposed on visas issued and not on admissions. In 2008, the annual limit for preference visas subject to limitation was 388,704, which included a family-sponsored preference limit of 226,000 and an employment-based preference limit of 162,704. Classes of admission exempt from the worldwide limitation include immediate relatives of U.S. citizens, refugees and asylees adjusting to permanent residence, and other various classes of special immigrants.

Metropolitan and micropolitan areas

The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas according to published standards that are applied to Census Bureau data. The general concept of a metropolitan or micropolitan statistical area is that of a core area containing a substantial population nucleus, together with adjacent communities having a high degree of economic and social integration with that core. Currently defined metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas are based on application of 2000 standards to 2000 decennial census data as updated by application of those standards to more recent Census Bureau population estimates. The term ‘‘metropolitan area’’ (MA) was adopted in 1990 and referred collectively to metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), consolidated metropolitan statistical areas (CMSAs), and primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs). The term ‘‘core-based statistical area’’ (CBSA) became effective in 2003 and refers collectively to metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas. For descriptive details and a list of titles and components of metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas, see Appendix II.

Urban and rural

For Census 2010, the Census Bureau classified as urban all territory, population, and housing units located within urbanized areas (UAs) and urban clusters (UCs). A UA consists of densely settled territory that contains 50,000 or more people, while a UC consists of densely settled territory with at least 2,500 people but fewer than 50,000 people. From the 1950 census through the 1990 census, the urban population consisted of all people living in UAs and most places outside of UAs with a census population of 2,500 or more.
 
UAs and UCs encompass territory that generally consists of:
• A cluster of one or more block groups or census blocks each of which has a population density of at least 1,000 people per square mile at the time.
• Surrounding block groups and census blocks each of which has a population density of at least 500 people per square mile at the time.
• Less densely settled blocks that form enclaves or indentations, or are used to connect discontiguous areas with qualifying densities.
 
They also may include an airport located adjacent to qualifying densely settled area if it has an annual enplanement (aircraft boarding) of at least 10,000 people. ‘‘Rural’’ for Census 2010 consists of all territory, population, and housing units located outside of UAs and UCs. Prior to Census 2000, rural consisted of all territory, population, and housing outside of UAs and outside of other places designated as ‘‘urban.’’ For Census 2010, many more geographic entities, including metropolitan areas, counties, and places, contain both urban and rural territory, population, and housing units.

Residence

In determining residence, the Census Bureau counts each person as an inhabitant of a usual place of residence (i.e., the place where one lives and sleeps most of the time). While this place is not necessarily a person’s legal residence or voting residence, the use of these different bases of classification would produce the same results in the vast majority of cases.

Race

For the 1990 census, the Census Bureau collected and published racial statistics as outlined in Statistical Policy Directive No. 15 issued by the OMB. This directive provided standards on ethnic and racial categories for statistical reporting to be used by all federal agencies. According to the directive, the basic racial categories were American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black, and White. (The directive identified Hispanic origin as an ethnicity.) The question on race for Census 2000 was different from the one for the 1990 census in several ways. Most significantly, respondents were given the option of selecting one or more race categories to indicate their racial identities. Because of these changes, the Census 2000 data on race are not directly comparable with data from the 1990 census or earlier censuses. Caution must be used when interpreting changes in the racial composition of the United States population over time. Census 2010 adheres to the federal standards for collecting and presenting data on race and ethnicity as established by the OMB in October 1997. Starting with Census 2000, the OMB requires federal agencies to use a minimum of five race categories: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Additionally, to collect data on individuals of mixed race parentage, respondents were allowed to select one or more races. For respondents unable to identify with any of these five race categories, the OMB approved and included a sixth category—‘‘Some other race’’ on the Census 2000 questionnaire. The Census 2000 question on race included 15 separate response categories and three areas where respondents could write in a more specific race group. The response categories and write-in answers can be combined to create the five minimum OMB race categories plus ‘‘Some other race.’’ People who responded to the question on race by indicating only one race are referred to as the race alone population, or the group that reported only one race category. Six categories make up this population: White alone, Black or African American alone, American Indian and Alaska Native alone, Asian alone, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone, and Some other race alone. Individuals who chose more than one of the six race categories are referred to as the Two or More Races population, or as the group that reported more than one race. Additionally, respondents who reported one race together with those who reported the same race plus one or more other races are combined to create the race alone or in combination categories. For example, the White alone or in combination group consists of those respondents who reported only White or who reported White combined with one or more other race groups, such as ‘‘White and Black or African American,’’ or ‘‘White and Asian and American Indian and Alaska Native.’’ Another way to think of the group who reported White alone or in combination is as the total number of people who identified entirely or partially as White. This group is also described as people who reported White, whether or not they reported any other race.
 
The alone or in combination categories are tallies of responses rather than respondents. That is, the alone or in combination categories are not mutually exclusive. Individuals who reported two races were counted in two separate and distinct alone or in combination race categories, while those who reported three races were counted in three categories, and so on. Consequently, the sum of all alone or in combination categories equals the number of races reported, which exceeds the total population.
 
The concept of race, as used by the Census Bureau, reflects self-identification by people according to the race or races with which they most closely identify. These categories are sociopolitical constructs and should not be interpreted as being scientific or anthropological in nature. Furthermore, the race categories include both racial and national-origin groups. Additionally, data are available for the American Indian and Alaska Native tribes. A detailed explanation of race can be found at <http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/doc/sf1.pdf>.
 
Data for the population by race for April 1, 2000, (shown in Tables 6, 10, and 11) are modified counts and are not comparable to Census 2000 race categories. These numbers were computed using Census 2000 data by race and had been modified to be consistent with the 1997 OMB’s ‘‘Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity,’’ (Federal Register Notice, Vol. 62, No 210, October 1997). A detailed explanation of the race modification procedure appears at <http://www.census.gov/popest/archive...SF-01-US1.html>.
 
In the CPS and other household sample surveys in which data are obtained through personal interview, respondents are asked to classify their race as: (1) White; (2) Black, African American, or Negro; (3) American Indian or Alaska Native; (4) Asian; or (5) Native
Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. Beginning January 2003, respondents were allowed to report more than one race to indicate their mixed racial heritage.

Hispanic population

The Census Bureau collected data on the Hispanic-origin population in the 2000 and 2010 censuses by using a self-identification question. Persons of Spanish/Hispanic/Latino origin are those who classified themselves in one of the specific Hispanic origin categories listed on the questionnaire—Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, as well as those who indicated that they were of Other Spanish/ Hispanic/Latino origin (persons whose origins are from Spain, the Spanish-speaking countries of Central or South America, or the Dominican Republic).
 
In the CPS, information on Hispanic persons is gathered by using a self-identification question. The respondents are first asked whether or not they are of Hispanic, Spanish, or Latino origin and based on their response are further classified into the following categories: Mexican or Mexican American or Chicano; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Central or South American; or Other Hispanic, Spanish, or Latino origin group.
 
Traditional and current data collection and classification treat race and Hispanic origin as two separate and distinct concepts in accordance with guidelines from the OMB. Race and Hispanic origin are two separate concepts in the federal statistical system. People who are Hispanic may be any race and people in each race group may be either Hispanic or Not Hispanic. Also, each person has two attributes, their race (or races) and whether or not they are Hispanic. The overlap of race and Hispanic origin is the main comparability issue. For example, Black Hispanics (Hispanic Blacks) are included in both the number of Blacks and in the number of Hispanics. For further information, see <http://www.census.gov/population/www...ompraceho.html>.

Foreign-born and native populations

The Census Bureau separates the U.S. resident population into two groups based on whether or not a person was a U.S. citizen or U.S. national at the time of birth. Anyone born in the United States, Puerto Rico, or a U.S. Island Area (such as Guam), or born abroad to a U.S. citizen parent is a U.S. citizen at the time of birth and consequently included in the native population. The term foreign-born population refers to anyone who is not a U.S. citizen or a U.S. national at birth. This includes naturalized U.S. citizens, legal permanent resident aliens (immigrants), temporary migrants (such as foreign students), humanitarian migrants (such as refugees), and people illegally present in the United States. The Census Bureau provides a variety of demographic, social, economic, geographic, and housing information on the foreign-born population in the United States at <http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/foreign/>.

Mobility status

The U.S. population is classified according to mobility status on the basis of a comparison between the place of residence of each individual at the time of the survey or census and the place of residence at a specified earlier date. Nonmovers are all persons who were living in the same house or apartment at the end of the period as at the beginning of the period. Movers are all persons who were living in a different house or apartment at the end of the period than at the beginning of the period. Movers are further classified as to whether they were living in the same or different county, state, region, or were movers from abroad. Movers from abroad include all persons whose place of residence was outside the United States (including Puerto Rico, other U.S. Island Area, or a foreign country) at the beginning of the period.

Living arrangements

Living arrangements refer to residency in households or in group quarters. A ‘‘household’’ comprises all persons who occupy a ‘‘housing unit,’’ that is, a house, an apartment or other group of rooms, or a single room that constitutes ‘‘separate living quarters.’’ A household includes the related family members and all the unrelated persons, if any, such as lodgers, foster children, or employees who share the housing unit. A person living alone or a group of unrelated persons sharing the same housing unit is also counted as a household. See text, Section 20, Construction and Housing, for definition of housing unit.
 
All persons not living in housing units are classified as living in group quarters. These individuals may be institutionalized, e.g., under care or custody in juvenile facilities, jails, correctional centers, hospitals, or nursing homes; or they may be residents in noninstitutional group quarters such as college dormitories, group homes, or military barracks.

Householder

The householder is the person in whose name the home is owned or rented. If a home is owned or rented jointly by a married couple, either the husband or the wife may be listed first.

Family

The term family refers to a group of two or more persons related by birth, marriage, or adoption and residing together in a household. A family includes among its members the householder.

Subfamily

A subfamily consists of a married couple and their children, if any, or one parent with one or more never-married children under 18 years old living in a household. Subfamilies are divided into ‘‘related’’ and ‘‘unrelated’’ subfamilies. A related subfamily is related to, but does not include, the householder or the spouse of the householder. Members of a related subfamily are also members of the family with whom they live. The number of related subfamilies, therefore, is not included in the count of families. An unrelated subfamily may include persons such as guests, lodgers, or resident employees and their spouses and/or children; none of whom is related to the householder.

Married couple

A married couple is defined as a husband and wife living together in the same household, with or without children and other relatives.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau data, see Appendix III.

Figure 1.1 Percent Change in Population for States-April 1, 2000 to 2010

Figure 1.1 Percent Change in Population for States-April 1, 2000 to 2010.png

Section 2. Births, Deaths, Marriages, and Divorces

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...ab/vitstat.pdf

Introduction

This section presents vital statistics data on natality, mortality, marriages, and divorces, as well as factors that help explain fertility, such as, use of contraception, sexual activity, and prevalence of abortions and fetal deaths. Vital statistics are collected and disseminated for the nation through the National Vital Statistics System by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and published annually in Vital Statistics of the United States, National Vital Statistics Reports (NVSR), and other selected publications. Reports are also issued by various state bureaus participating in the National Vital Statistics System. Factors influencing fertility are collected in NCHS’s National Survey of Family Growth and the U.S. Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey and American Community Survey published in Fertility of American Women. Data on abortions are published by the Alan Guttmacher Institute in selected issues of Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health.

Registration of vital events

The registration of births, deaths, fetal deaths, and other vital events in the United States is primarily a state and local function. There are 57 vital registration jurisdictions in the United States: the 50 states, five territories (Puerto Rico, etc.) District of Columbia, and New York City. Each of the 57 jurisdictions has a direct statistical reporting relationship with NCHS. Vital events occurring to U.S. residents outside the United States are not included in the data.

Births and deaths

The live-birth, death, and fetal-death statistics prepared by NCHS are based on vital records filed in the registration offices of all states, New York City, and the District of Columbia. The annual collection of death statistics on a national basis began in 1900 with a national death-registration area of ten states and the District of Columbia; a similar annual collection of birth statistics for a national birth-registration area began in 1915, also with ten reporting states and the District of Columbia. Since 1933, the birth- and death-registration areas have comprised the entire United States, including Alaska (beginning 1959) and Hawaii (beginning 1960). National statistics on fetal deaths were first compiled for 1918 and annually since 1922. Prior to 1951, birth statistics came from a complete count of records received in the Public Health Service (now received in NCHS). From 1951 through 1971, they were based on a 50-percent sample of all registered births (except for a complete count in 1955 and a 20- to 50-percent sample in 1967). Beginning in 1972, they have been based on a complete count for states participating in the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program (VSCP) (for details, see the technical appendix in Vital Statistics of the United States) and on a 50- percent sample of all other areas. Beginning in 1986, all reporting areas participated in the VSCP. Mortality data have been based on a complete count of records for each area (except for a 50-percent sample in 1972). Beginning in 1970, births to and deaths of nonresident aliens of the United States and U.S. citizens outside the United States have been excluded from the data. Fetal deaths and deaths among Armed Forces abroad are excluded. Data based on samples are subject to sampling error; for details, see annual issues of Vital Statistics of the United States.
 
Mortality statistics by cause of death are compiled in accordance with World Health Organization regulations according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). The ICD is revised approximately every 10 years. The tenth revision of the ICD was employed beginning in 1999. Deaths for prior years were classified according to the revision of the ICD in use at the time. Each revision of the ICD introduces a number of discontinuities in mortality statistics; for a discussion of those between the ninth and tenth revisions of the ICD, see National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 58, No. 19. Preliminary mortality data are based on a percentage of death records weighted up to the total number of deaths reported for the given year; for a discussion of preliminary data, see National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 59, No. 4. Information on tests of statistical significance, differences between death rates, and standard errors can also be found in the reports mentioned above. Some of the tables present age-adjusted death rates in addition to crude death rates. Age-adjusted death rates shown in this section were prepared using the direct method, in which age-specific death rates for a population of interest are applied to a standard population distributed by age. Age adjustment eliminates the differences in observed rates between points in time or among compared population groups that result from age differences in population composition.

Fertility and life expectancy

The total fertility rate, defined as the number of births that 1,000 women would have in their lifetime if, at each year of age, they experienced the birth rates occurring in the specified year, is compiled and published by NCHS. See Births: Final Data for 2008, National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 59, No. 1. Data on life expectancy, the average remaining lifetime in years for persons who attain a given age, are computed and published by NCHS. For details, see Deaths: Final Data for 2007, National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 58, No. 19 and <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products.htm#nvsr>.

Marriage and divorce

In 1957 and 1958 respectively, the National Office of Vital Statistics established marriage- and divorce-registration areas. Beginning in 1957, the marriage-registration area comprised 30 states, plus Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; it currently includes 42 states and the District of Columbia. The divorce-registration area, starting in 1958 with 14 states, Alaska, Hawaii, and the Virgin Islands, currently includes a total of 31 states and the Virgin Islands. Procedures for estimating the number of marriages and divorces in the registration states are discussed in Vital Statistics of the United States,Vol. III—Marriage and Divorce. Total counts of events for registration and nonregistration states are gathered by collecting already summarized data on marriages and divorces reported by state offices of vital statistics and by county offices of registration. The collection and publication of detailed marriage and divorce statistics was suspended beginning in January 1996. For additional information, contact the National Center for Health Statistics online at

Vital statistics rates

Except as noted, vital statistics rates computed by NCHS are based on decennial census population figures as of April 1 for 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000; and on midyear population figures for other years, as estimated by the Census Bureau (see text, Section 1).

Race

Data by race for births, deaths, marriages, and divorces from NCHS are based on information contained in the certificates of registration. The Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey obtains information on race by asking respondents to classify their race as (1) White, (2) Black, (3) American Indian or Alaska Native, (4) Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and (5) Asian. Beginning with the 1989 data year, NCHS is tabulating its birth data primarily by race of the mother. In 1988 and prior years, births were tabulated by race of the child, which was determined from the race of the parents as entered on the birth certificate. Trend data by race shown in this section are by race of mother beginning with the 1980 data. Hispanic origin of the mother is reported and tabulated independently of race. Thus, persons of Hispanic origin may be any race. The majority of women of Hispanic origin are reported as White.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection, estimation, and sampling procedures and measures of reliability applicable to data from NCHS and the Census Bureau, see Appendix III.

Section 3. Health and Nutrition

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...tab/health.pdf

Introduction

This section presents statistics on health expenditures and insurance coverage, including Medicare and Medicaid, medical personnel, hospitals, nursing homes and other care facilities, injuries, diseases, disability status, nutritional intake of the population, and food consumption. Summary statistics showing recent trends on health care and discussions of selected health issues are published annually by the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) in Health, United States. Data on national health expenditures, medical costs, and insurance coverage are compiled by the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) and appear on the CMS Web site at <http://www.cms.gov/NationalHealthExpendData/> and in the annual Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement to the Health Care Financing Review. Statistics on health insurance are also collected by NCHS and are published in Series 10 of Vital and Health Statistics. NCHS also conducts periodic surveys of nutrient levels in the population, including estimates of food and nutrient intake, overweight and obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and clinical signs of malnutrition. Data are published in Series 10 and 11 of Vital and Health Statistics. Statistics on hospitals are published annually by the Health Forum, L.L.C.; an American Hospital Association (AHA) company, in AHA Hospital Statistics. The primary source for data on nutrition and on annual per capita consumption of food is Diet Quality and Food Consumption, issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Data are available on the Web site at <http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/DietQuality>.

National health expenditures

CMS compiles estimates of national health expenditures (NHE) to measure spending for health care in the United States. The NHE accounts are structured to show spending by type of expenditure (i.e., hospital care, physician and clinical care, dental care, and other professional care; home health care; retail sales of prescription drugs; other medical nondurables; nursing home care and other personal health expenditures; plus other health expenditures such as public health activities, administration, and the net cost of private health insurance; plus medical sector investment, the sum of noncommercial medical research and capital formation in medical sector structures and equipment; and by source of funding (e.g., health insurance, out-of-pocket payments, and other third party payers and programs).
 
Data used to estimate health expenditures come from existing sources, which are tabulated for other purposes. The type of expenditure estimates rely upon statistics produced by such groups as the AHA, the Census Bureau, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Source of funding estimates are constructed using administrative and statistical records from the Medicare and Medicaid programs, the U.S. Department of Defense and VA medical programs, the Social Security Administration, Census Bureau’s Governmental Finances, state and local governments, other HHS agencies, and other nongovernment sources.

Medicare, Medicaid, and CHIP

Since July 1966, the federal Medicare program has provided two coordinated plans for nearly all people aged 65 and over:
(1) a hospital insurance plan, which covers hospital and related services and (2) a voluntary supplementary medical insurance plan, financed partially by monthly premiums paid by participants, which partly covers physicians’ and related medical services. Such insurance also applies, since July 1973, to disabled beneficiaries of any age after 24 months of entitlement to cash benefits under the social security or railroad retirement programs and to persons with end stage renal disease. On January 1, 2006, Medicare began to provide coverage for prescription drugs as mandated by the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). This benefit is available on a voluntary basis to everyone with Medicare, and beneficiaries pay a monthly premium to enroll in one of Medicare’s prescription drug plans.
 
Medicaid is a health insurance program for certain low-income people. These include: certain low-income families with children; people on supplemental security income; certain low-income pregnant women and children; and people who have very high medical bills. There are special rules for those who live in nursing homes and for disabled children living at home. Medicaid is funded and administered through a state/federal partnership. Although there are broad federal requirements for Medicaid, states have a wide degree of flexibility to design their program. The Children’s Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA or Public Law 111-3) reauthorized the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP). The program went into effect on April 1, 2009. CHIP replaces the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). It will preserve coverage for the millions of children who rely on CHIP today and provides the resources for states to reach millions of additional uninsured children. CHIP was designed as a federal/state partnership, similar to Medicaid, with the goal of expanding health insurance to children whose families earn too much money to be eligible for Medicaid, but not enough money to purchase private insurance.

Health resources

Hospital statistics based on data from AHA’s yearly survey are published annually in AHA Hospital Statistics and cover all hospitals accepted for registration by the Association. To be accepted for registration, a hospital must meet certain requirements relating to number of beds, construction, equipment, medical and nursing staff, patient care, clinical records, surgical and obstetrical facilities, diagnostic and treatment facilities, laboratory services, etc. Data obtained from NCHS cover all U.S. hospitals that meet certain criteria for inclusion. The criteria are published in Vital and Health Statistics reports, Series 13. Statistics on the demographic characteristics of persons employed in the health occupations are compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and reported in Employment and Earnings (monthly) (see Table 615, Section 12, Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings). Data based on surveys of health personnel and utilization of health facilities providing long-term care, ambulatory care, emergency room care, and hospital care are presented in NCHS Series 13, data from the National Health Interview Survey. Statistics on patient visits to health care providers, as reported in health interviews, appear in NCHS Series 10, data from the National Health Care Survey.
 
The CMS’s Health Care Financing Review and its annual Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement present data for hospitals and nursing homes as well as extended care facilities and home health agencies. These data are based on records of the Medicare program and differ from those of other sources because they are limited to facilities meeting federal eligibility standards for participation in Medicare.

Disability and illness

General health statistics, including morbidity, disability, injuries, preventive care, and findings from physiological testing are collected by NCHS in its National Health Interview Survey and its National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and appear in Vital and Health Statistics, Series 10 and 11, respectively. Annual incidence data on notifiable diseases are compiled by the Public Health Service (PHS) at its Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, and are published as a supplement to its Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). The list of diseases is revised annually and includes those which, by mutual agreement of the states and PHS, are communicable diseases of national importance.

Statistical reliability

For discussion of statistical collection, estimation, and sampling procedures and measures of reliability applicable to data from NCHS and CMS, see Appendix III.

Section 4. Education

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/12statab/educ.pdf

Introduction

This section presents data primarily concerning formal education as a whole, at various levels, and for public and private schools. Data shown relate to the school–age population and school enrollment, educational attainment, education personnel, and financial aspects of education. In addition, data are shown for charter schools, homeschooling, security measures used in schools, technology usage in schools, and academic libraries. The chief sources are the decennial census of population and the Current Population Survey (CPS), both conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau (see text, Section 1, Population); annual, biennial, and other periodic surveys conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), a part of the U.S. Department of Education; and surveys conducted by the National Education Association.
 
The censuses of population have included data on school enrollment since 1840 and on educational attainment since 1940. The CPS has reported on school enrollment annually since 1945 and on educational attainment periodically since 1947.
 
NCES is continuing the pattern of statistical studies and surveys conducted by the U.S. Office of Education since 1870. The annual Digest of Education Statistics provides summary data on pupils, staff, finances, including government expenditures, and organization at the elementary, secondary, and higher education levels. It is also a primary source for detailed information on federal funds for education, projections of enrollment, graduates, and teachers. The Condition of Education, issued annually, presents a summary of information on education of particular interest to policymakers. NCES also conducts special studies periodically.
 
The census of governments, conducted by the Census Bureau every 5 years (for the years ending in “2” and “7”), provides data on school district finances and state and local government expenditures for education. Reports published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics contain data relating civilian labor force experience to educational attainment (see also Tables 593, 619, and 627 in Section 12, Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings).

Types and sources of data

The statistics in this section are of two general types. One type, exemplified by data from the Census Bureau, is based on direct interviews with individuals to obtain information about their own and their family members’ education. Data of this type relate to school enrollment and level of education attained, classified by age, sex, and other characteristics of the population. The school enrollment statistics reflect attendance or enrollment in any regular school within a given period; educational attainment statistics reflect the highest grade completed by an individual, or beginning 1992, the highest diploma or degree received.
 
Beginning in 2001, the CPS used Census 2000 population controls. From 1994 to 2000, the CPS used 1990 census population controls plus adjustment for undercount. Also the survey changed from paper to computer-assisted technology. For years 1981 through 1993, 1980 census population controls were used; 1971 through 1980, 1970 census population controls had been used. These changes had little impact on summary measures (e.g., medians) and proportional measures (e.g., enrollment rates); however, use of the controls may have significant impact on absolute numbers.
 
The second type, generally exemplified by data from the NCES and the National Education Association, is based on reports from administrators of educational institutions and of state and local agencies having jurisdiction over education. Data of this type relate to enrollment, attendance, staff, and finances for the nation, individual states, and local areas.
 
Unlike the NCES, the Census Bureau does not regularly include specialized vocational, trade, business, or correspondence schools in its surveys. The NCES includes nursery schools and kindergartens that are part of regular grade schools in their enrollment figures. The Census Bureau includes all nursery schools and kindergartens. At the higher education level, the statistics of both agencies are concerned with institutions granting degrees or offering work acceptable for degree–credit, such as junior colleges.

School attendance

All states require that children attend school. While state laws vary as to the ages and circumstances of compulsory attendance, generally they require that formal schooling begin by age 6 and continue to age 16.

Schools

The NCES defines a school as “a division of the school system consisting of students composing one or more grade groups or other identifiable groups, organized as one unit with one or more teachers to give instruction of a defined type, and housed in a school plant of one or more buildings. More than one school may be housed in one school plant, as is the case when the elementary and secondary programs are housed in the same school plant.”
 
Regular schools are those which advance a person toward a diploma or degree. They include public and private nursery schools, kindergartens, graded schools, colleges, universities, and professional schools.
 
Public schools are schools controlled and supported by local, state, or federal governmental agencies; private schools are those controlled and supported mainly by religious organizations or by private persons or organizations.
 
The Census Bureau defines elementary schools as including grades 1 through 8; high schools as including grades 9 through 12; and colleges as including junior or community colleges, regular 4-year colleges, and universities and graduate or professional schools. Statistics reported by the NCES and the National Education Association by type of organization, such as elementary level and secondary level, may not be strictly comparable with those from the Census Bureau because the grades included at the two levels vary, depending on the level assigned to the middle or junior high school by the local school systems.

School year

Except as otherwise indicated in the tables, data refer to the school year which, for elementary and secondary schools, generally begins in September of the preceding year and ends in June of the year stated. For the most part, statistics concerning school finances are for a 12-month period, usually July 1 to June 30. Enrollment data generally refer to a specific point in time, such as fall, as indicated in the tables.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection, estimation, and sampling procedures and measures of statistical reliability applicable to the Census Bureau and the NCES data, see Appendix III.

Section 5. Law Enforcement, Courts, and Prisons

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/12statab/law.pdf

Introduction

This section presents data on crimes committed, victims of crimes, arrests, and data related to criminal violations and the criminal justice system. The major sources of these data are the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts. BJS issues many reports—see our Guide to Sources for a complete listing. The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s major annual reports are Crime in the United States, Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, annual, and Hate Crimes, annual, which present data on reported crimes as gathered from state and local law enforcement agencies.

Legal jurisdiction and law enforcement

Law enforcement is, for the most part, a function of state and local officers and agencies. The U.S. Constitution reserves general police powers to the states. By act of Congress, federal offenses include only offenses against the U.S. government and against or by its employees while engaged in their official duties and offenses which involve the crossing of state lines or an interference with interstate commerce. Excluding the military, there are 52 separate criminal law jurisdictions in the United States: one in each of the 50 states, one in the District of Columbia, and the federal jurisdiction. Each of these has its own criminal law and procedure and its own law enforcement agencies. While the systems of law enforcement are quite similar among the states, there are often substantial differences in the penalties for like offenses.
 
Law enforcement can be divided into three parts: Investigation of crimes and arrests of persons suspected of committing them; prosecution of those charged with crime; and the punishment or treatment of persons convicted of crime.

Crime

The U.S. Department of Justice administers two statistical programs to measure the magnitude, nature, and impact of crime in the nation: the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). Each of these programs produces valuable information about aspects of the nation’s crime problem. Because the UCR and NCVS programs are conducted for different purposes, use different methods, and focus on somewhat different aspects of crime, the information they produce together provides a more comprehensive panorama of the nation’s crime problem than either could produce alone.

Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)

The FBI’s UCR Program, which began in 1929, collects information on the following crimes reported to law enforcement authorities—Part 1 offenses (detail data reported): murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. For Part 2 offenses, law enforcement agencies report only arrest data for 21 additional crime categories. For UCR definitions of criminal offenses (including those listed), please go to: <www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/about /offense_definitions.html>.
 
The UCR Program compiles data from monthly law enforcement reports or individual crime incident records transmitted directly to the FBI or to centralized state agencies that then report to the FBI. The Program thoroughly examines each report it receives for reasonableness, accuracy, and deviations that may indicate errors. Large variations in crime levels may indicate modified records procedures, incomplete reporting, or changes in a jurisdiction’s boundaries. To identify any unusual fluctuations in an agency’s crime counts, the Program compares monthly reports to previous submissions of the agency and with those for similar agencies.
 
The UCR Program presents crime counts for the nation as a whole, as well as for regions, states, counties, cities, towns, tribal law enforcement, and colleges and universities. This permits studies among neighboring jurisdictions and among those with similar populations and other common characteristics.
 
The UCR Program annually publishes its findings in a preliminary release in the spring of the following calendar year, followed by a detailed annual report, Crime in the United States, issued in the fall. In addition to crime counts and trends, this report includes data on crimes cleared, persons arrested (age, sex, and race), law enforcement personnel (including the number of sworn officers killed or assaulted), and the characteristics of homicides (including age, sex, and race of victims and offenders; victim-offender relationships; weapons used; and circumstances surrounding the homicides). Other periodic reports are also available from the UCR Program.

National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)

A second perspective on crime is provided by this survey of the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). The NCVS is an annual data collection (interviews of persons aged 12 or older), conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the BJS. As an ongoing survey of households, the NCVS measures crimes of violence and property both reported and not reported to police. It produces national rates and levels of personal and property victimization. No attempt is made to validate the information against police records or any other source.
 
The NCVS measures rape/sexual assault, robbery, assault, pocket-picking, purse snatching, burglary, and motor vehicle theft. The NCVS includes crimes reported to the police, as well as those not reported. Murder and kidnapping are not covered. The so-called victimless crimes, such as drunkenness, drug abuse, and prostitution, also are excluded, as are crimes for which it is difficult to identify knowledgeable respondents or to locate data records.
 
Crimes of which the victim may not be aware also cannot be measured effectively. Buying stolen property may fall into this category, as may some instances of embezzlement. Attempted crimes of many types probably are under recorded for this reason. Events in which the victim has shown a willingness to participate in illegal activity also are excluded.
 
In any encounter involving a personal crime, more than one criminal act can be committed against an individual. For example, a rape may be associated with a robbery, or a household offense, such as a burglary, can escalate into something more serious in the event of a personal confrontation. In classifying the survey measured crimes, each criminal incident has been counted only once—by the most serious act that took place during the incident and ranked in accordance with the seriousness classification system used by the FBI. The order of seriousness for crimes against persons is as follows: rape, robbery, assault, and larceny. Personal crimes take precedence over household offenses.
 
A victimization, basic measure of the occurrence of crime, is a specific criminal act as it affects a single victim. The number of victimizations is determined by the number of victims of such acts. Victimization counts serve as key elements in computing rates of victimization. For crimes against persons, the rates are based on the total number of individuals aged
12 and over or on a portion of that population sharing a particular characteristic or set of traits. As general indicators of the danger of having been victimized during the reference period, the rates are not sufficiently refined to represent true measures of risk for specific individuals or households.
 
An incident is a specific criminal act involving one or more victims; therefore the number of incidents of personal crimes is lower than that of victimizations.

Courts

Statistics on criminal offenses and the outcome of prosecutions are incomplete for the country as a whole, although data are available for many states individually.
 
Since 1982, through its National Judicial Reporting Program, the BJS has surveyed a nationally representative sample of 300 counties every 2 years and collected detailed information on demographic characteristics of felons, conviction offenses, type of sentences, sentence lengths, and time from arrest to conviction and sentencing.
 
The bulk of civil and criminal litigation in the country is commenced and determined in the various state courts. Only when the U.S. Constitution and acts of Congress specifically confer jurisdiction upon the federal courts may civil or criminal litigation be heard and decided by them. Generally, the federal courts have jurisdiction over the following types of cases: suits or proceedings by or against the United States; civil actions between private parties arising under the Constitution, laws, or treaties of the United States; civil actions between private litigants who are citizens of different states; civil cases involving admiralty, maritime, or private jurisdiction; and all matters in bankruptcy.
 
There are several types of courts with varying degrees of legal jurisdiction. These jurisdictions include original, appellate, general, and limited or special. A court of original jurisdiction is one having the authority initially to try a case and pass judgment on the law and the facts; a court of appellate jurisdiction is one with the legal authority to review cases and hear appeals; a court of general jurisdiction is a trial court of unlimited original jurisdiction in civil and/or criminal cases, also called a ‘‘major trial court’’; a court of limited or special jurisdiction is a trial court with legal authority over only a particular class of cases, such as probate, juvenile, or traffic cases.
 
The 94 federal courts of original jurisdiction are known as the U.S. district courts. One or more of these courts is established in every state and one each in the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam. Appeals from the district courts are taken to intermediate appellate courts of which there are 13, known as U.S. courts of appeals and the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. The Supreme Court of the United States is the final and highest appellate court in the federal system of courts.

Juvenile offenders

For statistical purposes, the FBI and most states classify as juvenile offenders persons under the age of 18 years who have committed a crime or crimes.
 
Delinquency cases are all cases of youths referred to a juvenile court for violation of a law or ordinance or for seriously ‘‘antisocial’’ conduct. Several types of facilities are available for those adjudicated delinquents, ranging from the short-term physically unrestricted environment to the long-term very restrictive atmosphere.

Prisoners and jail inmates

BJS started to collect annual data in 1979 on prisoners in federal and state prisons and reformatories. Adults convicted of criminal activity may be given a prison or jail sentence. A prison is a confinement facility having custodial authority over adults sentenced to confinement of more than 1 year. A jail is a facility, usually operated by a local law enforcement agency, holding persons detained pending adjudication and/or persons committed after adjudication to 1 year or less.
 
Data on inmates in local jails were collected by the BJS for the first time in 1970. Since then, BJS has conducted censuses of facilities and inmates every 5 to 6 years. In 1984, BJS initiated an annual survey of jails conducted in noncensus years.

Statistical reliability

For discussion of statistical collection, estimation and sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability pertaining to the National Crime Victimization Survey and Uniform Crime Reporting Program, see Appendix III.

Section 6. Geography and Environment

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/12statab/geo.pdf

Introduction

This section presents a variety of information on the physical environment of the United States, starting with basic area measurement data and ending with climatic data for selected weather stations around the country. The subjects covered between those points are mostly concerned with environmental trends but include related subjects such as land use, water consumption, air pollutant emissions, toxic releases, oil spills, hazardous waste sites, municipal waste and recycling, threatened and endangered wildlife, and the environmental industry.
 
The information in this section is selected from a wide range of federal agencies that compile the data for various administrative or regulatory purposes, such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), and National Atlas® of the United States. New data on 11 coastline counties most frequently hit by hurricanes may be found in Table 362.

Area

2008 Area measurements are the latest available. These measurements were calculated by computer based on the information contained in a single, consistent geographic database, the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding & Referencing system (TIGER®) database. The 2008 area measurements may be found in Table 358.

Geography

The USGS conducts investigations, surveys, and research in the fields of geography, geology, topography, geographic information systems, mineralogy, hydrology, and geothermal energy resources as well as natural hazards. The USGS provides United States cartographic data through the Earth Sciences Information Center, water resources data through the Water Resources of the United States at <http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/>. In a joint project with the U.S. Census Bureau, during the 1980s, the USGS provided the basic information on geographic features for input into a national geographic and cartographic database prepared by the Census Bureau, called TIGER® database. Since then, using a variety of sources, the Census Bureau has updated these features and their related attributes (names, descriptions, etc.) and inserted current information on the boundaries, names, and codes of legal and statistical geographic entities. The 2008 area measures, land and water, including their classifications, reflect base feature updates made in the Master Address File (MAF)/TIGER database through May 1, 2008. The boundaries of the states and equivalent areas are as of January 1, 2008. Maps prepared by the Census Bureau using the TIGER® database show the names and boundaries of entities and are available on a current basis.
 
An inventory of the nation’s land resources by type of use/cover was conducted by the National Resources Inventory Conservation Services (NRCS) every 5 years beginning in 1977 through 2003. The most recent survey results, which were published for the year 2003, covered all nonfederal land for the contiguous 48 states.

Environment

The principal federal agency responsible for pollution abatement and control activities is the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It is responsible for establishing and monitoring national air quality standards, water quality activities, solid and hazardous waste disposal, and control of toxic substances. Many of these series now appear in the Envirofacts portion of the EPA Web site at <http://www.epa.gov/enviro/>.
 
The Clean Air Act, which was last amended in 1990, requires the EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (40 CFR part 50) for pollutants considered harmful to public health and the environment. The Clean Air Act established two types of national air quality standards. Primary standards set limits to protect public health, including the health of ‘‘sensitive’’ populations such as asthmatics, children, and the elderly. Secondary standards set limits to protect public welfare, including protection against decreased visibility, damage to animals, crops vegetation, and buildings. See <http://www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html>. The EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six principal pollutants, which are called ‘‘criteria’’ pollutants. These pollutants are: Carbon Monoxide, Lead, Nitrogen Dioxide, Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and 10), Ozone, and Sulfur Dioxide. NAAQS are periodically reviewed and revised to include any additional or new health or welfare data. Table 372 gives some of the health-related standards for the six air pollutants having NAAQS. Data gathered from state networks are periodically submitted to EPA’s National Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) for summarization in annual reports on the nationwide status and trends in air quality. For details, see ‘‘Air Trends’’ on the EPA Web site at <http://www.epa.gov /airtrends/index .html>.
 
The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), published by the EPA, is a valuable source of information on approximately 650 chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or released into the environment. Sections 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) and 6607 of the Pollution Prevention Act (PPA), mandate that a publicly-accessible toxic chemical database be developed and maintained by EPA. This database, known as the TRI, contains information concerning waste management activities and the release of toxic chemicals by facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use said materials. Data on the release of these chemicals are collected from about 21,000 facilities and facilities added in 1998 that have the equivalent of 10 or more full time employees and meet the established thresholds for manufacturing, processing, or ‘‘other use’’ of listed chemicals. Facilities must report their releases and other waste management quantities. Since 1994 federal facilities have been required to report their data regardless of industry classification. In May 1997, EPA added seven new industry sectors that reported to the TRI for the first time in July 1999 for the 1998 reporting year. More current information on this program can be found at <http://www.epa.gov/tri>.

Climate

NOAA, through the National Weather Service and the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service, is responsible for climate data. NOAA maintains about 11,600 weather stations, of which over 3,000 produce autographic precipitation records, about 600 take hourly readings of a series of weather elements, and the remainder record data once a day. These data are reported monthly in the Climatological Data and Storm Data, published monthly and annually in the Local Climatological Data (published by location for major cities). Data can be found in tables 388 and 391–396.

Section 7. Elections

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...b/election.pdf

Introduction

This section relates primarily to presidential, congressional, and gubernatorial elections. Also presented are summary tables on congressional legislation; state legislatures; Hispanic and female officeholders; population of voting age; voter participation; and campaign finances.
 
Official statistics on federal elections, collected by the Clerk of the House, are published biennially in Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election and Statistics of the Congressional Election. Federal and state elections data appear also in America Votes, a biennial volume published by CQ Press (a division of Congressional Quarterly, Inc.), Washington, DC. Federal elections data also appear in the U.S. Congress, Congressional Directory, and in official state documents. Data on reported registration and voting for social and economic groups are obtained by the U.S. Census Bureau as part of the Current Population Survey (CPS) and are published in Current Population Reports, Series P20 (see text, Section 1).
 
Almost all federal, state, and local governmental units in the United States conduct elections for political offices and other purposes. The conduct of elections is regulated by state laws or, in some cities and counties, by local charter. An exception is that the U.S. Constitution prescribes the basis of representation in Congress and the manner of electing the president and grants to Congress the right to regulate the times, places, and manner of electing federal officers. Amendments to the Constitution have prescribed national criteria for voting eligibility. The 15th Amendment, adopted in 1870, gave all citizens the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The 19th Amendment, adopted in 1919, further extended the right to vote to all citizens regardless of sex. The payment of poll taxes as a prerequisite to voting in federal elections was banned by the 24th Amendment in 1964. In 1971, as a result of the 26th Amendment, eligibility to vote
in national elections was extended to all citizens, 18 years old and over.

Presidential election

The Constitution specifies how the president and vice president are selected. Each state elects, by popular vote, a group of electors equal in number to its total of members of Congress. The 23rd Amendment, adopted in 1961, grants the District of Columbia three presidential electors, a number equal to that of the least populous state. Subsequent to the election, the electors meet in their respective states to vote for president and vice president. Usually, each elector votes for the candidate receiving the most popular votes in his or her state. A majority vote of all electors is necessary to elect the president and vice president. If no candidate receives a majority, the House of Representatives, with each state having one vote, is empowered to elect the president and vice president, again, with a majority of votes required.
 
The 22nd Amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1951, limits presidential tenure to two elective terms of 4 years each or to one elective term for any person who, upon succession to the presidency, has held the office or acted as President for more than 2 years.

Congressional election

The Constitution provides that representatives be apportioned among the states according to their population, that a census of population be taken every 10 years as a basis for apportionment, and that each state have at least one representative. At the time of each apportionment, Congress decides what the total number of representatives will be. Since 1912, the total has been 435, except during 1960 to 1962 when it increased to 437, adding one representative each for Alaska and Hawaii. The total reverted to 435 after reapportionment following the 1960 census. Members are elected for 2-year terms, all terms covering the same period. The District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, and the Virgin Islands each elect one nonvoting delegate, and Puerto Rico elects a nonvoting resident commissioner.
 
The Senate is composed of 100 members, two from each state, who are elected to serve for a term of 6 years. One-third of the Senate is elected every 2 years. Senators were originally chosen by the state legislatures. The 17th Amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1913, prescribed that senators be elected by popular vote.

Voter eligibility and participation

The Census Bureau publishes estimates of the population of voting age and the percent casting votes in each state for presidential and congressional election years. These voting-age estimates include a number of persons who meet the age requirement but are not eligible to vote, (e.g. aliens and some institutionalized persons). In addition, since 1964, voter participation and voter characteristics data have been collected during November of election years as part of the CPS. These survey data include noncitizens in the voting- age population estimates, but exclude members of the Armed Forces and the institutional population.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau data, see Appendix III.

Section 8. State and Local Government Finances and Employment

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...b/stlocgov.pdf

Introduction

This section presents data on revenues, expenditures, debt, and employment of state and local governments. Nationwide statistics relating to state and local governments, their numbers, finances, and employment are compiled primarily by the U.S. Census Bureau through a program of censuses and surveys. Every fifth year (for years ending in ‘‘2’’ and ‘‘7’’), the Census Bureau conducts a census of governments involving collection of data for all governmental units in the United States. In addition, the Census Bureau conducts annual surveys which cover all the state governments and a sample of local governments.
 
Annually, the Census Bureau releases information on the Internet which presents financial data for the federal government, nationwide totals for state and local governments, and state-local data by states. Also released annually is a series on state, city, county, and school finances and on state and local public employment. There is also a series of quarterly data releases covering tax revenue and finances of major public employee retirement systems.
 
Basic information for Census Bureau statistics on governments is obtained by mail canvass from state and local officials; however, financial data for each of the state governments and for many of the large local governments are compiled from their official records and reports by Census Bureau personnel. In over two-thirds of the states, all or part of local government financial data are obtained through central collection arrangements with state governments. Financial data on the federal government are primarily based on the Budget published by the Office of Management and Budget (see text, Section 9, Federal Government Finances and Employment).

Governmental units

The governmental structure of the United States includes, in addition to the federal government and the states, thousands of local governments—counties, municipalities, townships, school districts, and many ‘‘special districts.’’ In 2007, 89,476 local governments were identified by the census of governments (see Tables 428−429). As defined by the census, governmental units include all agencies or bodies having an organized existence, governmental character, and substantial autonomy. While most of these governments can impose taxes, many of the special districts—such as independent public housing authorities and numerous local irrigation, power, and other types of districts—are financed from rentals, charges for services, benefit assessments, grants from other governments, and other nontax sources. The count of governments excludes semi-autonomous agencies through which states, cities, and counties sometimes provide for certain functions—for example, ‘‘dependent’’ school systems, state institutions of higher education, and certain other ‘‘authorities’’ and special agencies which are under the administrative or fiscal control of an established governmental unit.

Finances

The financial statistics relate to government fiscal years ending June 30 or at some date within the 12 previous months. The following governments are exceptions and are included as though they were part of the June 30 group; ending September 30, the state governments of Alabama and Michigan, the District of Columbia, and Alabama school districts; and ending August 31, the state governments of Nebraska, Texas, and Chicago school districts. New York State ends its fiscal year on March 31. The federal government ended the fiscal year June 30 until 1976 when its fiscal year, by an act of Congress, was revised to extend from Oct. 1 to Sept. 30. A 3-month quarter (July 1 to Sept. 30, 1976) bridged the transition.
 
Nationwide government finance statistics have been classified and presented in terms of uniform concepts and categories, rather than according to the highly diverse terminology, organization, and fund structure utilized by individual governments.
 
Statistics on governmental finances distinguish among general government, utilities, liquor stores, and insurance trusts. General government comprises all activities except utilities, liquor stores, and insurance trusts. Utilities include government water supply, electric light and power, gas supply, and transit systems. Liquor stores are operated by 17 states and by local governments in 6 states. Insurance trusts relate to employee retirement, unemployment compensation, and other social insurance systems administered by the federal, state, and local governments.
 
Data for cities or counties relate only to municipal or county and their dependent agencies and do not include amounts for other local governments in the same geographic location. Therefore, expenditure figures for ‘‘education’’ do not include spending by the separate school districts which administer public schools within most municipal or county areas. Variations in the assignment of governmental responsibility for public assistance, health, hospitals, public housing, and other functions to a lesser degree also have an important effect upon reported amounts of city or county expenditure, revenue, and debt.

Employment and payrolls

These data are based mainly on mail canvassing of state and local governments. Payroll includes all salaries, wages, and individual fee payments for the month specified, and employment relates to all persons on governmental payrolls during a pay period of the month covered—including paid officials, temporary help, and (unless otherwise specified) part-time as well as full-time personnel. Effective with the 1997 Census of Governments, the reference period for measuring government employment was changed from October of the calendar year to March of the calendar year. As a result, there was no annual survey of government employment covering the October 1996 period. The prior reference month of October was used from 1958 to 1995. Figures shown for individual governments cover major dependent agencies such as institutions of higher education, as well as the basic central departments and agencies of the government.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau data, see Appendix III.

Section 9. Federal Government Finances and Employment

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...tab/fedgov.pdf

Introduction

This section presents statistics relating to the financial structure and the civilian employment of the federal government. The fiscal data cover taxes, other receipts, outlays, and debt. The principal sources of fiscal data are the Budget of the United States Government and related documents, published annually by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s United States Government Annual Report and its Appendix. Detailed data on tax returns and collections are published annually by the Internal Revenue Service. The personnel data relate to staffing and payrolls. They are published by the Office of Personnel Management and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data on federally owned land and real property are collected by the General Services Administration and presented in its annual ‘‘Federal Real Property Report.’’

Budget concept

Under the unified budget concept, all federal monies are included in one comprehensive budget. These monies comprise both federal funds and trust funds. Federal funds are derived mainly from taxes and borrowing and are not restricted by law to any specific government purpose. Trust funds, such as the Unemployment Trust Fund, collect certain taxes and other receipts for use in carrying out specific purposes or programs in accordance with the terms of the trust agreement or statute. Fund balances include both cash balances with the Treasury and investments in U.S. securities. Part of the balance is obligated, part unobligated. Prior to 1985, the budget totals, under provisions of law, excluded some federal activities—including the Federal Financing Bank, the Postal Service, the Synthetic Fuels Corporation, and the lending activities of the Rural Electrification Administration. The Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (P.L.99-177) repealed the off-budget status of these entities and placed social security (Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and the federal disability insurance trust funds) off-budget. Though social security is now off-budget and, by law, excluded from coverage of the congressional budget resolutions, it continues to be a federal program. Receipts arising from the government’s sovereign powers are reported as governmental receipts and all other receipts, i.e., from business-type or market-oriented activities, are offset against outlays. Outlays are reported on a checks-issued (net) basis (i.e., outlays are recorded at the time the checks to pay bills are issued).

Debt concept

For most of U.S. history, the total debt consisted of debt borrowed by the Treasury (i.e., public debt). The present debt series includes both public debt and agency debt. The gross federal debt includes money borrowed by the Treasury and by various federal agencies; it is the broadest generally used measure of the federal debt. Total public debt is covered by a statutory debt limitation and includes only borrowing by the Treasury.

Treasury receipts and outlays

All receipts of the government, with a few exceptions, are deposited to the credit of the U.S. Treasury regardless of ultimate disposition. Under the Constitution, no money may be withdrawn from the Treasury unless appropriated by the Congress.
 
The day-to-day cash operations of the federal government clearing through the accounts of the U.S. Treasury are reported in the Daily Treasury Statement. Extensive detail on the public debt is published in the Monthly Statement of the Public Debt of the United States.
 
Budget receipts such as taxes, customs duties, and miscellaneous receipts, which are collected by government agencies, and outlays represented by checks issued and cash payments made by disbursing officers as well as government agencies are reported in the Daily Treasury Statement of Receipts and Outlays of the United States Government and in the Treasury’s United States Government Annual Report and its Appendix. These deposits in and payments from accounts maintained by government agencies are on the same basis as the unified budget.
 
The quarterly Treasury Bulletin contains data on fiscal operations and related Treasury activities, including financial statements of government corporations and other business-type activities.

Income tax returns and tax collections

Tax data are compiled by the Internal Revenue Service of the Treasury Department. The annual Internal Revenue Service Data Book gives a detailed account of tax collections by kind of tax. The agency’s annual Statistics of Income reports present detailed data from individual income tax returns and corporation income tax returns. The quarterly Statistics of Income Bulletin presents data on such diverse subjects as tax-exempt organizations, unincorporated businesses, fiduciary income tax and estate tax returns, sales of capital assets by individuals, international income and taxes reported by corporations and individuals, and estate tax wealth.

Employment and payrolls

The Office of Personnel Management collects employment and payroll data from all departments and agencies of the federal government, except the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, and the Defense Intelligence Agency. Employment figures represent the number of persons who occupied civilian positions at the end of the report month shown and who are paid for personal services rendered for the federal government, regardless of the nature of appointment or method of payment. Federal payrolls include all payments for personal services rendered during the report month and payments for accumulated annual leave of employees who separate from the service. Since most federal employees are paid on a biweekly basis, the calendar month earnings are partially estimated on the basis of the number of work days in each month where payroll periods overlap.
 
Federal employment and payroll figures are published by the Office of Personnel Management in its Federal Civilian Workforce Statistics—Employment and Trends. It also publishes biennial employment data for minority groups, data on occupations of white- and blue-collar workers, and data on employment by geographic area; reports on salary and wage distribution of federal employees are published annually. General schedule is primarily white-collar; wage system primarily blue-collar. Data on federal employment are also issued by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in its Monthly Labor Review and in Employment and Earnings and by the U.S. Census Bureau in its annual publication Public Employment.

Figure 9.1 Federal Budget Summary-1990 to 2011

Figure 9.1 Federal Budget Summary-1990 to 2011.png

Section 10. National Security and Veterans Affairs

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...ab/defense.pdf

Introduction

This section displays data for national security (national defense and homeland security) and benefits for veterans. Data are presented on national defense and its human and financial costs; active and reserve military personnel; and federally sponsored programs and benefits for veterans, and funding, budget and selected agencies for homeland security. The principal sources of these data are the annual Selected Manpower Statistics and the Atlas/Data Abstract for the United States, Annual Report of Secretary of Veterans Affairs, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Budget in Brief, U.S. Department of Homeland Security; and The Budget of the United States Government, Office of Management and Budget. For data on international expenditures and personnel, see Table 1406, Section 30.

Department of Defense (DoD)

The U.S. Department of Defense is responsible for providing the military forces of the United States. It includes the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the defense agencies. The President serves as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces; from him, the authority flows to the Secretary of Defense and through the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the commanders of unified and specified commands (e.g., U.S. Strategic Command).

Reserve components

The Reserve Components of the Armed Forces consist of the Army National Guard of the United States, Army Reserve, Naval Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve, and Coast Guard Reserve. They provide trained personnel and units available for active duty in the Armed Forces during times of war or national emergency, and at such other times as national security may require. The National Guard has dual federal/state responsibilities and uses jointly provided equipment, facilities, and budget support. The President is empowered to mobilize the National Guard and to use such of the Armed Forces as he considers necessary to enforce federal authority in any state. There is in each Armed Force a ready reserve, a standby reserve, and a retired reserve. The Ready Reserve includes the Selected Reserve, which provides trained and ready units and individuals to augment the active forces during times of war or national emergency, or at other times when required; and the Individual Ready Reserve, which is a manpower pool that can be called to active duty during times of war or national emergency and would normally be used as individual fillers for active, guard, and reserve units, and as a source of combat replacements. Most of the Ready Reserve serves in an active status. See Table 513 for Standby Reserve and Retired Reserve detail.

Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)

A veteran is someone 18 years and older (there are a few 17-year-old veterans) who is not currently on active duty, but who once served on active duty in the United States Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard, or who served in the Merchant Marine during World War II. There are many groups whose active service makes them veterans including: those who incurred a service-connected disability during active duty for training in the Reserves or National Guard, even though that service would not otherwise have counted for veteran status; members of a national guard or reserve component who have been ordered to active duty by order of the President or who have a full-time military job. The latter are called AGRs (Active Guard and Reserve). No one who has received a dishonorable discharge is a veteran.
 
The VA administers laws authorizing benefits for eligible former and present members of the Armed Forces and for the beneficiaries of deceased members. Veterans’ benefits available under various acts of Congress include compensation for service-connected disability or death; pensions for non-service-connected disability or death; vocational rehabilitation, education and training; home loan insurance; life insurance; health care; special housing and automobiles or other conveyances for certain disabled veterans; burial and plot allowances; and educational assistance to families of deceased or totally disabled veterans, servicemen missing in action, or prisoners of war. Since these benefits are legislated by Congress, the dates they were enacted and the dates they apply to veterans may be different from the actual dates the conflicts occurred. VA estimates of veterans cover all persons discharged from active U.S. military service under conditions other than dishonorable.

Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

The creation of DHS, which began operations in March 2003, represents a fusion of 22 federal agencies (legacy agencies, Coast Guard and Secret Service remained intact) to coordinate and centralize the leadership of many homeland security activities under a single department. The largest organizations under DHS include: Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), Transportation Security Administration (TSA), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the Coast Guard.

Coast Guard

With more than 218 years of service to the Nation, the Coast Guard is a military, multi-mission, maritime organization that promotes safety and safeguards U.S. economic and security interests throughout the maritime environment. As one of the five Armed Services of the United States, it is the only military organization within the DHS. Unlike its sister services in the Department of Defense (DoD), the Coast Guard is also a law enforcement and regulatory agency with broad domestic authorities.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)

FEMA manages and coordinates the federal response to and recovery from major domestic disasters and emergencies of all types in accordance with the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. The agency ensures the effectiveness of emergency response providers at all levels of government in responding to terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies. Through the Disaster Relief Fund, FEMA provides individual and public assistance to help families and communities impacted by declared disasters rebuild and recover. FEMA is also the principal component for preparing state and local governments to prevent or respond to threats or incidents of terrorism and other catastrophic events, through their state and local programs.

The Customs and Border Protection (CBP)

The Customs and Border Protection (CBP) is responsible for managing, securing, and controlling U.S. borders. This includes carrying out traditional border-related responsibilities, such as stemming the tide of illegal drugs and illegal aliens; securing and facilitating legitimate global trade and travel; and protecting the food supply and agriculture industry from pests and disease. CBP is composed of the Border Patrol and Inspections (both moved from INS) along with Customs (absorbed from the U.S. Department of Treasury) and Animal and Plant Health Inspections Services (absorbed from the U.S. Department of Agriculture).

The Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)

The Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) mission is to protect America and uphold public safety by targeting the people, money, and materials crossing the nation’s borders that support terrorist and criminal activities. ICE is the largest investigation arm of DHS. ICE is composed of five law enforcement divisions: Investigations, Intelligence, Federal Protective Service, International Affairs, and Detention and Removal Operations. ICE investigates a wide range of national security, financial and smuggling violations including drug smuggling, human trafficking, illegal arms exports, financial crimes, commercial fraud, human smuggling, document fraud, money laundering, child pornography/exploitation, and immigration fraud.

The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)

The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) was created as part of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act on November 19, 2001. TSA was originally part of the U.S. Department of Transportation, but was moved to DHS. TSA’s mission is to provide security to our nation’s transportation systems with a primary focus on aviation security.
 

Figure 10.1 Officers and Enlisted Personnel by Military Branch: 2010

Figure 10.1 Officers and Enlisted Personnel by Military Branch-2010.png

Figure 10.2 Department of Defense Personnel by Sex: 2010

Figure 10.2 Department of Defense Personnel by Sex-2010.png

Section 11. Social Insurance and Human Services

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...tab/socins.pdf

Introduction

This section presents data related to governmental expenditures for social insurance and human services; governmental programs for Old-Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance (OASDHI); governmental employee retirement; private pension plans; government unemployment and temporary disability insurance; federal supplemental security income payments and aid to the needy; child and other welfare services; and federal food programs. Also included here are selected data on workers’ compensation and vocational rehabilitation, child support, child care, charity contributions, and philanthropic trusts and foundations.
 
The principal source for these data is the Social Security Administration’s Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin which presents current data on many of the programs.

Social Security Act

Programs established by the Social Security Act provide protection against wage loss resulting from retirement, prolonged disability, death, or unemployment, and protection against the cost of medical care during old age and disability. The federal OASDI program provides monthly benefits to retired or disabled insured workers and their dependents and to survivors of insured workers. To be eligible, a worker must have had a specified period of employment in which OASDI taxes were paid. The age of eligibility for full retirement benefits had been 65 years old for many years. However, for persons born in 1938 or later that age gradually increases until it reaches age 67 for those born after 1959. Reduced benefits may be obtained as early as age 62. The worker’s spouse is under the same limitations. Survivor benefits are payable to dependents of deceased insured workers. Disability benefits are payable to an insured worker under full retirement age with a prolonged disability and to the disabled worker’s dependents on the same basis as dependents of retired workers. Disability benefits are
provided at age 50 to the disabled widow or widower of a deceased worker who was fully insured at the time of death. Disabled children, aged 18 or older, of retired, disabled, or deceased workers are also eligible for benefits. A lump sum benefit is generally payable on the death of an insured worker to a spouse or minor children. For information on the Medicare program, see Section 3, Health and Nutrition.
 
Retirement, survivors, disability, and hospital insurance benefits are funded by a payroll tax on annual earnings (up to a maximum of earnings set by law) of workers, employers, and the self-employed. The maximum taxable earnings are adjusted annually to reflect increasing wage levels (see Table 544). Effective January 1994, there is no dollar limit on wages and self-employment income subject to the hospital insurance tax. Tax receipts and benefit payments are administered through federal trust funds. Special benefits for uninsured persons; hospital benefits for persons aged 65 and over with specified amounts of social security coverage less than that required for cash benefit eligibility; and that part of the cost of supplementary medical insurance not financed by contributions from participants are financed from federal general revenues.
 
Unemployment insurance is presently administered by the U.S. Employment and Training Administration and each state’s employment security agency. By agreement with the U.S. Secretary of Labor, state agencies also administer unemployment compensation for eligible ex-military personnel and federal employees. Under state unemployment insurance laws, benefits related to the individual’s past earnings are paid to unemployed eligible workers. State laws vary concerning the length of time benefits are paid and their amount. In most states, benefits are payable for 26 weeks and, during periods of high unemployment, extended benefits are payable under a federal-state program to those who have exhausted their regular state benefits. Some states also supplement the basic benefit with allowances for dependents.
 
Unemployment insurance is funded by a federal unemployment tax levied on the taxable payrolls of most employers. Taxable payroll under the federal act and 12 state laws is the first $7,000 in wages paid each worker during a year. Forty-one states have taxable payrolls above $7,000. Employers are allowed a percentage credit of taxable payroll for contributions paid to states under state unemployment insurance laws. The remaining percent of the federal tax finances administrative costs, the federal share of extended benefits, and advances to states. About 97 percent of wage and salary workers are covered by unemployment insurance.

Retirement programs for government employees

The Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) and the Federal Employees’ Retirement System (FERS) are the two major programs providing age and service, disability, and survivor annuities for federal civilian employees. In general, employees hired after December 31, 1983, are covered under FERS and the social security program (OASDHI), and employees on staff prior to that date are members of CSRS and are covered under Medicare. CSRS employees were offered the option of transferring to FERS during 1987 and 1998. There are separate retirement systems for the uniformed services (supplementing OASDHI) and for certain special groups of federal employees. State and local government employees are covered for the most part by state and local retirement systems similar to the federal programs. In many jurisdictions these benefits supplement OASDHI coverage.

Workers’ compensation

All states provide protection against work-connected injuries and deaths, although some states exclude certain workers (e.g., domestic workers). Federal laws cover federal employees, private employees in the District of Columbia, and longshoremen and harbor workers. In addition, the Department of Labor administers ‘‘black lung’’ benefits programs for coal miners disabled by pneumoconiosis and for specified dependents and survivors. Specified occupational diseases are compensable to some extent. In most states, benefits are related to the worker’s salary. The benefits may or may not be augmented by dependents’ allowances or automatically adjusted to prevailing wage levels.

Income support

Income support programs are designed to provide benefits for persons with limited income and resources. The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program are the major programs providing monthly
payments. In addition, a number of programs provide money payments or in-kind benefits for special needs or purposes. Several programs offer food and nutritional services. Also, various federal-state programs provide energy assistance, public housing, and subsidized housing to individuals and families with low incomes. General assistance may also be available at the state or local level.
 
The SSI program, administered by the Social Security Administration, provides income support to persons aged 65 or older and blind or disabled adults and children. Eligibility requirements and federal payment standards are nationally uniform. Most states supplement the basic SSI payment for all or selected categories of persons.
 
The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 contained provisions that replaced the Aid to Families With Dependent Children (AFDC), Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS), and Emergency Assistance programs with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grant program. This law contains strong work requirements, comprehensive child support enforcement, support for families moving from welfare to work, and other features. The TANF became effective as soon as each state submitted a complete plan implementing TANF, but no later than July 1, 1997. The AFDC program provided cash assistance based on need, income, resources, and family size.

Federal food stamp program

Under the food stamp program, single persons and those living in households meeting nationwide standards for income and assets may receive coupons redeemable for food at most retail food stores or provides benefits through electronic benefit transfer. The monthly amount of benefits or allotments a unit receives is determined by household size and income. Households without income receive the determined monthly cost of a nutritionally adequate diet for their household size. This amount is updated to account for food price increases. Households with income receive the difference between the amount of a nutritionally adequate diet and 30 percent of their income, after certain allowable deductions.
 
To qualify for the program, a household must have less than $2,000 in disposable assets ($3,000 if one member is aged 60 or older), gross income below 130 percent of the official poverty guidelines for the household size, and net income below 100 percent of the poverty guidelines. Households with a person aged 60 or older or a disabled person receiving SSI, social security, state general assistance, or veterans’ disability benefits may have gross income exceeding 130 percent of the poverty guidelines. All households in which all members receive TANF or SSI are categorically eligible for food stamps without meeting these income or resource criteria. Households are certified for varying lengths of time, depending on their income sources and individual circumstances.

Health and welfare services

Programs providing health and welfare services are aided through federal grants to states for child welfare services, vocational rehabilitation, activities for the aged, maternal and child health services, maternity and infant care projects, comprehensive health services, and a variety of public health activities. For information about the Medicaid program, see Section 3, Health and Nutrition.

Noncash benefits

The U.S. Census Bureau annually collects data on the characteristics of recipients of noncash (in-kind) benefits to supplement the collection of annual money income data in the Current Population Survey (see text, Section 1, Population, and Section 13, Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth). Noncash benefits are those benefits received in a form other than money which serve to enhance or improve the economic well-being of the recipient. As for money income, the data for noncash benefits are for the calendar year prior to the date of the interview. The major categories of noncash benefits covered are public transfers (e.g., food stamps, school lunch, public housing, and Medicaid) and employer or union-provided benefits to employees.

Statistical reliability

For discussion of statistical collection, estimation, and sampling procedures and measures of statistical reliability applicable to HHS and Census Bureau data, see Appendix III.

Section 12. Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...atab/labor.pdf

Introduction

This section presents statistics on the labor force; its distribution by occupation and industry affiliation; and the supply of, demand for, and conditions of labor. The chief source of these data is the Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Comprehensive historical and current data are available from the BLS Internet site at <http://www.bls.gov/cps/>. These data are published on a current basis in the BLS monthly publication Employment and Earnings Online. Detailed data on the labor force are also available from the Census Bureau’s decennial census of population.

Types of data

Most statistics in this section are obtained by two methods: household interviews or questionnaires and reports of establishment payroll records. Each method provides data that the other cannot suitably supply. Population characteristics, for example, are readily obtainable only from the household survey, while detailed industrial classifications can be readily derived only from establishment records.
 
CPS data are obtained from a monthly sample survey of the population. The CPS is used to gather data for the calendar week, generally the week including the 12th of the month, and provides current comprehensive data on the labor force (see text, Section 1, Population). The CPS provides information on the work status of the population without duplication since each person is classified as employed, unemployed, or not in the labor force. Employed persons holding more than one job are counted only once, according to the job at which they worked the most hours during the survey week.
 
Monthly, quarterly, and annual data from the CPS are published by the BLS in Employment and Earnings Online. Data presented include national totals of the number of persons in the civilian labor force by sex, disability status, race, Hispanic origin, and age; the number employed; hours of work; industry and occupational groups; usual weekly earnings; and the number unemployed, reasons for, and duration of unemployment. Annual data shown in this section are averages of monthly figures for each calendar year, unless otherwise specified. Historical national CPS data are available at <http://www.bls.gov/cps/>.
 
The CPS also produces annual estimates of employment and unemployment for each state, 50 large metropolitan statistical areas, and selected cities. These estimates are published by the BLS in its annual Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment available at<http://www.bls.gov/gps/>. More detailed geographic data (e.g., for counties and cities) are provided by the decennial population censuses.
 
Data based on establishment records are compiled by the BLS and cooperating state agencies as part of an ongoing Current Employment Statistics program. The BLS collects survey data monthly from a probability-based sample of nonfarm, business establishments through internet electronic data interchange, touchtone data entry, and computer-assisted telephone interviews, Internet, other electronic media, fax, transcript, or mail. CES data are adjusted annually to data from government unemployment insurance administrative records, which are supplemented by data from other government agencies. The estimates exclude self-employed persons, private household workers, unpaid family workers, agricultural workers, and members of the Armed Forces. In March 2010, reporting establishments employed 2.8 million manufacturing workers (25 percent of the total manufacturing employment at the time), 20.6 million workers in private nonmanufacturing industries (21.8 percent of the total in private nonmanufacturing), and 15.6 million federal, state, and local government employees (68 percent of total government).
 
The establishment survey counts workers each time they appear on a payroll during the reference period (the payroll period that includes the 12th of the month). Thus, unlike the CPS, a person with two jobs is counted twice. The establishment survey is designed to provide estimates of nonfarm wage and salary employment, average weekly hours, and average hourly and weekly earnings by detailed industry for the nation, states, and selected metropolitan areas. Establishment survey data also are published in Employment and Earnings Online. Historical national data are available at <http://www.bls.gov/ces/>. Historical data for states and metropolitan areas are available at <http://www.bls.gov/sae/>.
 
CES estimates are currently classified by the 2007 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). All published series for the nation have a NAICS–based history extending back to at least 1990. Employment series for total nonfarm and other high-level aggregates start in 1939.
 
For more information on data concepts, sample design, and estimating methods for the CES Survey, see the BLS Handbook of Methods, Chater 2 <http://bls.gov/opub/hom/homch2.htm>.
 
The completion of the sample redesign and the conversion to NAICS for state and metropolitan area establishment survey data were implemented in March 2003 with the release of January 2003 estimates. For a discussion of the changes to the state and area establishment survey data, see ‘‘Revisions to the Current Employment Statistics State and Area Estimates Effective January 2003’’ in the March 2003 issue of Employment and Earnings Online.

Labor force

According to the CPSdefinitions, the civilian labor force comprises all civilians in the noninstitutionalized population 16 years and over classified as ‘‘employed’’ or ‘‘unemployed’’ according to the following criteria: Employed civilians comprise (a) all civilians, who, during the reference week, did any work for pay or profit (minimum of an hour’s work) or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in a family enterprise and (b) all civilians who were not working but who had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent for noneconomic reasons (illness, weather conditions, vacation, labor-management dispute, etc.) whether they were paid for the time off or were seeking other jobs. Unemployed persons comprise all civilians who had no employment during the reference week, who made specific efforts to find a job within the previous 4 weeks (such as applying directly to an employer or to a public employment service or checking with friends) and who were available for work during that week, except for temporary illness. Persons on layoff from a job and expecting recall also are classified as unemployed. All other civilian persons, 16 years old and over, are classified as ‘‘not in the labor force.’’
 
Various breaks in the CPS data series have occurred over time due to the introduction of population adjustments and other changes. For details on these breaks in series and the effect that they had on the CPS data, see the BLS Web site at
 
Beginning in January of each year, the CPS data reflect the introduction of revised population controls. For additional information on the effects of revised population controls on estimates from the CPS, see <http://www.bls.gov.cps/documentation.htm#pop>.

Hours and earnings

Average hourly earnings, based on establishment data, are gross earnings (i.e., earnings before payroll deductions) and include overtime premiums; they exclude irregular bonuses and value of payments in kind. Hours are those for which pay was received. Annual wages and salaries from the CPS consist of total monies received for work performed by an employee during the income year. It includes wages, salaries, commissions, tips, piece-rate payments, and cash bonuses earned before deductions were made for taxes, bonds, union dues, etc. Persons who worked 35 hours or more are classified as working full-time.

Industry and occupational groups

Industry data derived from the CPS for 1983−91 utilize the 1980 census industrial classification developed from the 1972 SIC. CPS data from 1971 to 1982 were based on the 1970 census classification system, which was developed from the 1967 SIC. Most of the industry categories were not affected by the change in classification.
 
The occupational classification system used in the 1980 census and in the CPS for 1983−91, evolved from the 1980 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system, first introduced in 1977. Occupational categories used in the 1980 census classification system are so radically different from the 1970 census system used in the CPS through 1982 that their implementation represented a break in historical data series.
 
Beginning in January 1992, the occupational and industrial classification systems used in the 1990 census were introduced into the CPS. (These systems were largely based on the 1980 SOC and the 1987 SIC systems, respectively.) Beginning in 2003, the 2002 occupational and industrial classification systems were introduced into the CPS. These systems were derived from the 2000 SOC and the 2002 NAICS. The composition of detailed occupational and industrial classifications in the new classification systems was substantially changed from the previous systems in use, as was the structure for aggregating them into broad groups. Consequently, the use of the new classification systems created breaks in existing data series at all levels of aggregation. CPS data using the new classification systems are available beginning 2000. Additional information on the occupational and industrial classifications systems used in the CPS, including changes over time, appear on the BLS Web site at <http://www.bls.gov/cps/documentation.htm#oi >. Establishments responding to the establishment survey are classified according to the 2007 NAICS. Previously they were classified according to the SIC manual. See text, Section 15, Business Enterprise, for information about the SIC manual and NAICS.

Productivity

BLS publishes data onproductivity as measured by output per hour (labor productivity), output per combined unit of labor and capital input (multifactor productivity), and, for industry groups and industries, output per combined unit of capital, labor, energy, materials, and purchased service inputs. Labor productivity and related indexes are published for the business sector as a whole and its major subsectors: nonfarm business, manufacturing, and nonfinancial corporations, and for over 200 detailed industries. Productivity indexes that take into account capital, labor, energy, materials, and service inputs are published for 18 major manufacturing industry groups, 86 detailed manufacturing industries, utility services, and air and railroad transportation. The major sector data are published in the BLS quarterly news release Productivity and Costs and in the annual Multifactor Productivity Trends release. Industry productivitymeasures are updated and published annually in the news releases Productivity and Costs by Industry and Multifactor Productivity Trends by Industry. The latest data are available at the Labor Productivity and Costs Web site at <http://www.bls.gov/lpc/> and the Multifactor Productivity Web site at
<http://www.bls.gov/mfp>. Detailed information on methods, limitations, and data sources appears in the BLS Handbook of Methods, BLS Bulletin 2490 (1997), Chapters 10 and 11 at <http://www.bls.gov/opub/hom /home.htm>.

Unions

As defined here, unions include traditional labor unions and employee associations similar to labor unions. Data on union membership status provided by BLS are for employed wage and salary workers and relate to their principal job. Earnings by union membership status are usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers. The information is collected through the Current Population Survey.

Work stoppages

Work stoppages include all strikes and lockouts known to BLS that last for at least 1 full day or shift and involve 1,000 or more workers. All stoppages, whether or not authorized by a union, legal or illegal, are counted. Excluded are work slowdowns and instances where employees report to work late or leave early to attend mass meetings or mass rallies.

Seasonal adjustment

Many economic statistics reflect a regularly recurring seasonal movement that can be estimated on the basis of past experience. By eliminating that part of the change which can be ascribed to usual seasonal variation (e.g., climate or school openings and closings), it is possible to observe the cyclical and other nonseasonal movements in the series. However, in evaluating deviations from the seasonal pattern—that is, changes in a seasonally adjusted series—it is important to note that seasonal adjustment is merely an approximation based on past experience. Seasonally adjusted estimates have a broader margin of possible error than the original data on which they are based, since they are subject not only to sampling and other errors, but also are affected by the uncertainties of the adjustment process itself. Consistent with BLS practices, annual estimates will be published only for not seasonally-adjusted data.

Statistical reliability

For discussion of statistical collection, estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau and BLS data, see Appendix III.

Section 13. Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...tab/income.pdf

Introduction

This section presents data on gross domestic product (GDP), gross national product (GNP), national and personal income, saving and investment, money income, poverty, and national and personal wealth. The data on income and expenditures measure two aspects of the U.S. economy. One aspect relates to the National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA), a summation reflecting the entire complex of the nation’s economic income and output and the interaction of its major components; the other relates to the distribution of money income to
families and individuals or consumer income.
 
The primary source for data on GDP, GNP, national and personal income, gross saving and investment, and fixed assets and consumer durables is the Survey of Current Business, published monthly by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). A comprehensive revision to the NIPA was released beginning in July 2009. Discussions of the revision appeared in the March, August, September, October, and November 2009 issues of the Survey of Current Business. Summary historical estimates appeared in the August 2009 issue of the Survey of Current Business. Detailed historical data can be found on BEA’s Web site at <http://www.bea.gov/>.
 
Sources of income distribution data are the decennial censuses of population, the Current Population Survey (CPS), and the American Community Survey, all products of the U.S. Census Bureau (see text, Section 1 and Section 4). Annual data on income of families, individuals, and households are presented in Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, P60 Series, in print. Many data series are also found on the Census Web site at <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/income.html>. Data on the household sector’s saving and assets are published by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in the quarterly statistical release Flow of Funds Accounts. The Federal Reserve Board also periodically conducts the Survey ofConsumer Finances, which presents financial information on family assets and net worth. The most recent survey is available at <http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/o.../scfindex.html>. Detailed information on personal wealth is published periodically by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in SOI Bulletin.

National income and product

GDP is the total output of goods and services produced by labor and property located in the United States, valued at market prices. GDP can be viewed in terms of the expenditure categories that comprise its major components: personal consumption expenditures, gross private domestic investment, net exports of goods and services, and government consumption expenditures and gross investment. The goods and services included are largely those bought for final use (excluding illegal transactions) in the market economy. A number of inclusions, however, represent imputed values, the most important of which is the rental value of owner–occupied housing. GDP, in this broad context, measures the output attributable to the factors of production located in the United States. GDP by state is the gross market value of the goods and services attributable to labor and property located in a state. It is the state counterpart of the nation’s GDP.
 
The featured measure of real GDP is an index based on chain-type annual weights. Changes in this measure of real output and prices are calculated as the average of changes based on weights for the current and preceding years. (Components of real output are weighted by price, and components of prices are weighted by output.) These annual changes are “chained” (multiplied) together to form a time series that allows for the effects of changes in relative prices and changes in the composition of output over time. Quarterly and monthly changes are based on quarterly and monthly weights, respectively.
 
The output indexes are expressed as 2005 = 100, and for recent years, in 2005 dollars; the price indexes are also based to 2005 = 100. For more information on chained–dollar indexes, see the article on this subject in the November 2003 issue of the Survey of Current Business.
 
Chained (2005) dollar estimates of most components of GDP are not published for periods prior to 1990, because during periods far from the base period, the levels of the components may provide misleading information about their contributions to an aggregate. Values are published in index form (2005 = 100) for 1929 to the present to allow users to calculate the percent changes for all components, which are accurate for all periods. In addition, BEA publishes estimates of contributions of major components to the percent change in GDP for all periods.
 
Gross national product measures theoutput attributable to all labor and property supplied by United States residents. GNP differs from “national income” mainly in that GNP includes allowances for depreciation—that is, consumption of fixed capital.
 
National income includes all net incomes net of consumption of fixed capital (CFC), earned in production. National income is the sum of compensation of employees, proprietors’ income with inventory valuation adjustment (IVA) and capital consumption adjustment (CCAdj), rental income of persons with CCAdj, corporate profits with IVA and CCAdj, net interest and miscellaneous payments, taxes on production and imports, business current transfer payments (net), and current surplus of government enterprises, less subsidies.
 
Capital consumption adjustment for corporations and for nonfarm sole proprietorships and partnerships is the difference between capital consumption based on income tax returns and capital consumption measured using empirical evidence on prices of used equipment and structures in resale markets, which have shown that depreciation for most types of assets approximates a geometric pattern. The tax return data are valued at historical costs and reflect changes over time in service lives and depreciation patterns as permitted by tax regulations. Inventory valuation adjustment represents the difference between the book value of inventories used up in production and the cost of replacing them.
 
Personal income is the current income received by persons from all sources minus their personal contributions for government social insurance. Classified as “persons” are individuals (including owners of unincorporated firms), nonprofit institutions that primarily serve individuals, private trust funds, and private noninsured welfare funds. Personal income includes personal current transfer receipts (payments not resulting from current production) from government and business such as social security benefits, public assistance, etc., but excludes transfers among persons. Also included are certain nonmonetary types of income chiefly, estimated net rental value to owner-occupants of their homes and the value of services furnished without payment by financial intermediaries. Capital gains (and losses) are excluded.
 
Disposable personal income is personal income less personal current taxes. It is the income available to persons for spending or saving. Personal current taxes are tax payments (net of refunds) by persons (except personal contributions for government social insurance) that are not chargeable to business expense. Personal taxes include income taxes, personal property taxes, motor vehicle licenses, and other miscellaneous taxes.

Gross domestic product by industry

The BEA also preparesestimates of value added by industry. Value added is a measure of the contribution of each private industry and of government to the nation’s GDP. It is defined as an industry’s gross output (which consists of sales or receipts and other operating income, commodity taxes, and inventory change) minus its intermediate inputs (which consists of energy, raw materials, semi-finished goods, and services that are purchased from domestic industries or from foreign sources). These estimates of value added are produced for 61 private industries and for 4 government classifications—federal general government and government enterprises and state and local general government and government enterprises.
 
The estimates by industry are available in current dollars and are derived from the estimates of gross domestic income, which consists of three components—the compensation of employees, gross operating surplus, and taxes on production and imports, less subsidies. Real, or inflation-adjusted, estimates are also prepared.

Regional Economic Accounts

These accounts consist of estimates of state and local area personal income and of gross domestic product by state and are consistent with estimates of personal income and gross domestic product in the Bureau’s national economic accounts. BEA’s estimates of state and local area personal income provide a framework for analyzing individual state and local economies, and they show how the economies compare with each other. The personal income of a state and/or local area is the income received by, or on behalf of, the residents of that state or area. Estimates of labor and proprietors’ earnings by place of work indicate the economic activity of business and government within that area, and estimates of personal income by place of residence indicate the income within the area that is available for spending. BEA prepares estimates for states, counties, metropolitan areas, and BEA economic areas.
 
Gross domestic product by state estimates measure the value added to the nation’s production by the labor and property in each state. GDP by state is often considered the state counterpart of the nation’s GDP. The GDP by state estimates provide the basis for analyzing the regional impacts of national economic trends. GDP by state is measured as the sum of the distributions by industry and state of the components of gross domestic income; that is, the sum of the costs incurred and incomes earned in the production of GDP by state. The GDP estimates are presented in current dollars and in real (chained
dollars) for 63 industries.

Consumer Expenditure Survey

The Consumer Expenditure Survey program began in 1980. The principal objective of the survey is to collect current consumer expenditure data, which provide a continuous flow of data on the buying habits of American consumers. The data are necessary for future revisions of the Consumer Price Index.
 
The survey conducted by the Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics consists of two components: (1) an interview panel survey in which the expenditures of consumer units are obtained in five interviews conducted every 3 months, and (2) a diary or recordkeeping survey completed by participating households for two consecutive 1-week periods.
 
Each component of the survey queries an independent sample of consumer units representative of the U.S. total population. Each quarter of the year, approximately 3,200 consumer units are sampled for the diary survey. Each consumer unit keeps a diary for two 1-week periods yielding approximately 6,400 diaries a year. The interview sample is selected on a rotating panel basis, targeted at 15,000 consumer units. Data are collected in 91 areas of the country that are representative of the U.S. total population. The survey includes students in student housing. Data from the two surveys are combined; integration is necessary to permit analysis of total family expenditures because neither the diary nor quarterly interview survey was designed to collect a complete account of consumer spending.

Distribution of money income to families and individuals

Money income statistics are based on data collected in various field surveys of income conducted since 1936. Since 1947, the Census Bureau has collected the data on an annual basis and published them in Current Population Reports,P60 Series. In each of the surveys, field representatives interview samples of the population with respect to income received during the previous year. Money income as defined by the Census Bureau differs from the BEA concept of “personal income.” Data on consumer income collected in the CPS by the Census Bureau cover money income received (exclusive of certain money receipts such as capital gains) before payments for personal income taxes, social security, union dues, medicare deductions, etc. Therefore, money income does not reflect the fact that some families receive part of their income in the form of noncash benefits (see Section 11) such as food stamps, health benefits, and subsidized housing; that some farm families receive noncash benefits in the form of rent-free housing and goods produced and consumed on the farm; or that noncash benefits are also received by some nonfarm residents, which often take the form of the use of business transportation and facilities, full or partial payments by business for retirement programs, medical and educational expenses, etc. These elements should be considered when comparing income levels. None of the aggregate income concepts (GDP, national income, or personal income) is exactly comparable with money income, although personal income is the closest. For a definition of families and households, see text, Section 1.

Poverty

Families and unrelatedindividuals are classified as being above or below poverty following the Office of Management and Budget’s Statistical Policy Directive 14. The Census Bureau uses a set of thresholds that vary by family size and composition.
 
The poverty calculation is based solely on money income and does not reflect the fact that many low-income persons receive noncash benefits such as food stamps, medicaid, and public housing.
 
The original thresholds were based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s 1961 Economy Food Plan and reflected the different consumption requirements of families. The poverty thresholds are updated every year to reflect changes in the Consumer Price Index. The following technical changes to the thresholds were made in 1981: (1) distinctions based on sex of householder were eliminated, (2) separate thresholds for farm families were dropped, and (3) the matrix was expanded to families of nine or more persons from the old cutoff of seven or more persons. These changes were incorporated in the calculation of poverty data beginning with 1981. Besides the Census Bureau Web site at <http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/poverty.html>, information on poverty guidelines and research may be found at the U.S. Department of Human Services Web site at <http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/index.shtml>.
 
In the recent past, the Census Bureau has published a number of technical papers and reports that presented experimental poverty estimates based on income definitions that counted the value of selected government noncash benefits. The Census Bureau has also published reports on after–tax income.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability pertaining to Census Bureau data, see Appendix III.

Section 14. Prices

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...tab/prices.pdf

Introduction

The Prices section contains producer and consumer prices indexes and actual prices for selected commodities. The primary sources of the data are monthly publications of the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), which include Monthly Labor Review, Consumer Price Index, Detailed Report, Producer Price Indexes, and U.S. Import and Export Price Indexes. The Bureau of Economic Analysis is the source for gross domestic product measures. Cost of living data for many urban and metropolitan areas are provided by The Council for Community and Economic Research, a private organization in Arlington, VA. Table 728 on housing price indexes appears in this edition from the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight, Housing Price Index. Other commodity, housing, and energy prices may be found in the Energy and Utilities; Forestry, Fishing and Mining; and Construction and Housing sections.
 
Most price data is measured by an index. An index is a tool that simplifies the measurement of movements in a numerical series. An index allows you to properly compare two or more values in different time periods or places by comparing both to a base year. An index of 110, for example, means there has been a 10-percent increase in price since the reference period; similarly, an index of 90 means a 10-percent decrease. Movements of the index from one date to another can be expressed as changes in index points (simply, the difference between index levels), but it is more useful to express the movements as percent changes. This is because index points are affected by the level of the index in relation to its reference period, while percent changes are not.

Consumer price indexes (CPI)

The CPI is a measure of the average change in prices over time in a ‘‘market basket’’ of goods and services purchased either by urban wage earners and clerical workers or by all urban consumers. The all urban consumer group represents 87 percent of the total U.S. population and is based on the expenditures residents of urban or metropolitan areas, including professionals, the self-employed, the poor, the unemployed, and retired people, as well as urban wage earners and clerical workers. Not included in the CPI are the spending patterns of people living in rural nonmetropolitan areas, farm families, people in the Armed Forces, and those in institutions, such as prisons and mental hospitals. Consumer inflation for all urban consumers is measured by two indexes, the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) and the Chained Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (C-CPI-U). The broadest and most comprehensive CPI is called the All Items Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) for the U.S. City Average. All CPI’s in this section have a base of 1982–84 = 100.
 
The CPI is a product of a series of interrelated samples. Data from the 1990 Census of Population determines the urban areas from which data on prices are collected and the housing units within each area that are eligible for use in the shelter component of the CPI. The Census of Population also provides data on the number of consumers represented by each area selected as a CPI price collection area. A sample (of about 14,500 families each year) serves as the basis for a Point-of-Purchase Survey that identified the places where households purchased various types of goods and services. The CPI market basket is developed from detailed expenditure information provided by families and individuals on what they actually bought. In calculating the index, each item is assigned a weight to account for its relative importance in consumers’ budgets. Price changes for the various items in each location are then averaged and local data are combined to obtain a U.S. city average. For the current CPI, this information was collected from the Consumer Expenditure Surveys for 2007 and 2008. In each of those years, about 7,000 families from around the country provided information each quarter on their spending habits
in the interview survey. To collect information on frequently purchased items, such as food and personal care products, another 7,000 families in each of these years kept diaries listing everything they bought during a 2-week period. Over the 2 year period, then, expenditure information came from approximately 28,000 weekly diaries and 60,000 quarterly interviews used to determine the importance, or weight, of the more than 200 item categories in the CPI index structure.
 
The CPI represents all goods and services purchased for consumption by the reference population. BLS has classified all expenditure items into more than 200 categories, arranged into eight major groups which are food and beverages, housing, apparel, transportation, medical care, recreation, education and communication, and other goods. The CPI does not include investment items, such as stocks, bonds, real estate, and life insurance. (These items relate to savings and not to day-to-day consumption expenses.)

Producer price index (PPI)

Dating from 1890, the PPI is the oldest continuous statistical series published by BLS. The PPI is a family of indexes that measures the average change over time in the selling prices received by domestic producers of goods and services. Imports are excluded. The target set of goods and services included in the PPI is the entire marketed output of U.S. producers. The set includes both goods and services purchased by other producers as inputs to their operations or as capital investment, as well as goods and services purchased by consumers either directly from the service producer or indirectly from a retailer. Over 10,000 PPIs for individual products and groups of products are released each month.
 
Prices used in constructing the index are collected from sellers and generally apply to the first significant large-volume commercial transaction for each commodity. The weights used in the index represent the total net selling value of commodities produced or processed in this country. Most producer price indexes have a reference base year of 1982 = 100. The reference year of the PPI shipment weights has been taken primarily from the 2002 Census of Manufactures. For further detail regarding the PPI, see the BLS Handbook of Methods, Bulletin 2490 (June 2008), Chapter 14. The PPI Web page is <http://www.bls.gov/ppi/>.

BEA price indexes

BEA chain-weighted price indexes are weighted averages of the detailed price indexes used in the deflation of the goods and services that make up the gross domestic product (GDP) and its major components. Growth rates are constructed for years and quarters using quantity weights for the current and preceding year or quarter; these growth rates are used to move the index for the preceding period forward a year or quarter at a time. All chain-weighted price indexes are expressed in terms of the reference year value 2005 = 100.
 
Personal consumption expenditures (PCE) price and quantity indexes are based on market transactions for which there are corresponding price measures. The price index provides a measure of the prices paid by persons for domestic purchases of goods and services. PCEs are defined as market value of spending by individuals and not-for-profit institutions on all goods and services. Personal consumption expenditures also include the value of certain imputed goods and services—such as the rental value of owner-occupied homes and compensation paid in kind—such as employer-paid health and life insurance premiums. More information on this index may be found at <http://www.bea.gov/bea/mp_National.htm>.

Measures of inflation

Inflation is a period of rising price levels for goods and factors of production. Inflation results in a decline in the purchasing power of the dollar. It is suggested that changes in price levels be compared from the same month of the prior year and not as a change from the prior month. The BLS offers several indexes that measure different aspects of inflation, three of which are included in this section. The CPI measures inflation as experienced by consumers in their day-to-day living expenses. The PPI measures prices at the producer level only. The International Price Program measures change in the prices of imports and exports of nonmilitary goods between the United States and other countries.

Whereas the CPI and PPI measure a benchmark approach to price levels, the BEA’s Personal Consumption Expenditures uses a chain-weight approach which links weighted averages from adjoining years. 

Other measures of inflation include the futures price and spot market price indexes from the Commodity Research Bureau and the employment cost, hourly compensation, and unit labor cost indexes from the BLS. Found in Section 12, Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings, these BLS indexes are used as a measure of the change in cost of the labor factor of production and changes in long-term interest rates that are often used to measure changes in the cost of the capital factor of production.

International price indexes

The BLS International Price Program produces export and import price indexes for non-military goods traded between the United States and the rest of the world.

The export price index provides a measure of price change for all products sold by U.S. residents to foreign buyers. The  import price index provides a measure  of price change for goods purchased  from other countries by U.S. residents.

The reference period for the indexes is 2005 = 100, unless otherwise indicated. The product universe for both the import  and export indexes includes raw materials, agricultural products, semifinished manufactures, and finished manufactures,  including both capital and consumer  goods. Price data for these items are collected primarily by mail questionnaire. In nearly all cases, the data are collected directly from the exporter or importer.

To the extent possible, the data gathered refer to prices at the U.S. border for exports and at either the foreign border or the U.S. border for imports. For nearly all products, the prices refer to transactions completed during the first week of the month. Survey respondents are asked to indicate all discounts, allowances, and rebates applicable to the reported prices, so that the price used in the calculation of the indexes is the actual price for which the product was bought or sold.

Section 15. Business Enterprise

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...b/business.pdf

Introduction

This section relates to the place and behavior of the business firm and to business initiative in the American economy. It includes data on the number, type, and size of businesses; financial data of domestic and multinational U.S. corporations; business investments, expenditures, and profits; and sales and inventories.
 
The principal sources of these data are the Survey of Current Business, published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA); the Web site of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System at <http://www.federalreserve.gov/econresdata/default.htm>; the annual Statistics of Income (SOI) reports of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS); and the U.S. Census Bureau’s Economic Census, County Business Patterns, Quarterly Financial Report for Manufacturing, Mining, and Trade Corporations (QFR), Survey of Business Owners, and Annual Capital Expenditures Survey.

Business firms

A firm is generally defined as a business organization under a single management and may include one or more establishments. The terms firm, business, company, and enterprise are used interchangeably throughout this section. A firm doing business in more than one industry is classified by industry according to the major activity of the firm as a whole.
 
The IRS concept of a business firm relates primarily to the legal entity used for tax reporting purposes. A sole proprietorship is an unincorporated business owned by one person and may include large enterprises with many employees and hired managers and part-time operators. A partnership is an unincorporated business owned by two or more persons, each of whom has a financial interest in the business. A corporation is a business that is legally incorporated under state laws. While many corporations file consolidated tax returns, most corporate tax returns represent individual corporations, some of which are affiliated through common ownership or control with other corporations filing separate returns.

Economic census

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the nation’s economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. It furnishes an important part of the framework for such composite measures as the gross domestic product estimates, input/output measures, production and price indexes, and other statistical series that measure short–term changes in economic conditions. The Census Bureau takes the economic census every 5 years, covering years ending in “2” and “7.”
 
The economic census is collected on an establishment basis. A company operating at more than one location is required to file a separate report for each store, factory, shop, or other location. Each establishment is assigned a separate industry classification based on its primary activity and not that of its parent company. Establishments responding to the establishment survey are classified into industries on the basis of their principal product or activity (determined by annual sales volume). The statistics issued by industry in the 2007 Economic Census are classified primarily on the 2007 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), and, to a lesser extent, on the 2002 NAICS used in the previous census (see below).
 
More detailed information about the scope, coverage, methodology, classification system, data items, and publications for each of the economic censuses and related surveys is published in the 2007 Economic Census User Guide at<http://www.census.gov/econ/census07/...ser_guide.html>.
 
Data from the 2007 Economic Census are released through the Census Bureau’s American FactFinder® service on the Census Bureau Web site. For more information, see <http://www.census.gov/econ/census07/>.

Survey of Business Owners

The Survey of Business Owners (SBO) provides statistics that describe the composition of U.S. businesses by gender, ethnicity, race and veteran status. Data from SBO are published in a series of releases: American Indian- and Alaska Native-Owned Firms, Asian-Owned Firms, Black-Owned Firms, Hispanic-Owned Firms, Native Hawaiian- and Other Pacific Islander-Owned Firms, Women-Owned Firms, Veteran-Owned Firms, Characteristics of Business Owners and Company Summary. Data are presented by industry classifications, geographic area, and size of firm (employment and receipts). Each owner had the option of selecting more than one race and therefore is included in each race selected. For more information, see <http://www.census.gov/econ/sbo/>.

North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)

NAICS is the standard used by federal statistical agencies in classifying business establishments for the purpose of collecting, analyzing, and publishing statistical data related to the U.S. business economy. NAICS was developed under the auspices of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and adopted in 1997 to replace the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. The official 2007 U.S. NAICS Manual includes definitions for each industry, background information, tables showing changes between 2002 and 2007, and a comprehensive index. For more information, see <http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/>.
 
Changes between 2002 NAICS and 2007 NAICS are relatively minor, but do affect totals for sectors 52 (finance and insurance), 53 (real estate, rental, and leasing), 54 (professional, scientific, and technical services), and 56 (admin., support, waste mgt., and remediation services). Nearly all industries are comparable from 2002 to 2007 NAICS classifications. Several industries in the Information sector have been consolidated.

Quarterly Financial Report

The Quarterly Financial Report (QFR) program publishes quarterly aggregate statistics on the financial conditions of U.S. corporations. The QFR requests companies to report estimates from their statements of income and retained earnings, and balance sheets. The statistical data are classified and aggregated by type of industry and asset size. The QFR sample includes manufacturing companies with assets of $250 thousand and above, and mining, wholesale, retail, and selected service companies with assets of $50 million and above. The data are available quarterlyin the Quarterly Financial Report for Manufacturing, Mining, and Trade Corporations at http://www.census.gov/econ/qfr/index.html>.

Multinational companies

BEA collects financial and operating data on U.S. multinational companies. These data provide a picture of the overall activities of foreign affiliates and U.S. parent companies, using a variety of indicators of their financial structure and operations. The data on foreign affiliates cover the entire operations of the affiliate, irrespective of the percentage of U.S. ownership. These data cover items such as sales, value added, employment and compensation of employees, capital expenditures, exports and imports, and research and development expenditures. Separate tabulations are available for all affiliates and for affiliates that are majority-owned by their U.S. parent(s). More information is available at <http://www.bea.gov/international/index.htm#omc>.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection, estimation, and sampling procedures and measures of reliability applicable to data from the Census Bureau and the Internal Revenue Service, see Appendix III.

Section 16. Science and Technology

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...ab/science.pdf

Introduction

This section presents statistics on scientific, engineering, and technological resources, with emphasis on patterns of research and development (R&D) funding and on scientific, engineering, and technical personnel; education; and employment.
 
The National Science Foundation (NSF) gathers data chiefly through recurring surveys. Current NSF publications containing data on funds for research and development and on scientific and engineering personnel include detailed statistical tables; info briefs; and annual, biennial, and special reports, see <http://www.nsf.gov/statistics>. Titles or the areas of coverage of these reports include the following: Science and Engineering Indicators; National Patterns of R&D Resources; Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering, Federal Funds for Research and Development; Federal R&D Funding by Budget Function; Federal Support to Universities, Colleges, and Selected Nonprofit Institutions; Research and Development in Industry; R&D expenditures and graduate enrollment and support in academic science and engineering; and characteristics of doctoral scientists and engineers and of recent graduates in the United States. Statistical surveys in these areas pose problems of concept and definition and the data should therefore be regarded as broad estimates rather than precise, quantitative statements. See sources for methodological and technical details.
 
The National Science Board’s biennial Science and Engineering Indicators at <http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind10/> contains data and analysis of international and domestic science and technology, including measures of inputs and outputs.

Research and development outlays

NSF defines research as ‘‘systematic study directed toward fuller scientific knowledge of the subject studied’’ and development as ‘‘the systematic use of scientific knowledge directed toward the production of useful materials, devices, systems, or methods, including design and development of prototypes and processes.’’
 
National coverage of R&D expenditures is developed primarily from periodic surveys in four principal economic sectors: (1) Government, made up primarily of federal executive agencies; (2) Industry, consisting of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing firms and the federally funded research and development centers (FFRDCs) they administer; (3) Universities and colleges, composed of universities, colleges, and their affiliated institutions, agricultural experiment stations, and associated schools of agriculture and of medicine, and FFRDCs administered by educational institutions; and (4) Other nonprofit institutions, consisting of such organizations asprivate philanthropic foundations, nonprofit research institutes, voluntary health agencies, and FFRDCs administered by nonprofit organizations.
 
The R&D funds reported consist of current operating costs, including planning and administration costs, except as otherwise noted. They exclude funds for routine testing, mapping and surveying, collection of general purpose data, dissemination of scientific information, and training of scientific personnel.

Scientists, engineers, and technicians

Scientists and engineers are defined as persons engaged in scientific and engineering work at a level requiring a knowledge of sciences equivalent at least to that acquired through completion of a 4-year college course. Technicians are defined as persons engaged in technical work at a level requiring knowledge acquired through a technical institute, junior college, or other type of training less extensive than 4-year college training. Craftsmen and skilled workers are excluded.

Section 17. Agriculture

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...b/agricult.pdf

Introduction

This section presents statistics on farms and farm operators; land use; farm income, expenditures, and debt; farm output, productivity, and marketings; foreign trade in agricultural products; specific crops; and livestock, poultry, and their products.
 
The principal sources are the reports issued by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) and the Economic Research Service (ERS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The information from the 2007 Census of Agriculture is available in printed form in the Volume 1, Geographic Area Series; in electronic format on CD-ROM; and on the Internet at <http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publica...port/index.asp>. The Department of Agriculture publishes annually
Agricultural Statistics, a general reference book on agricultural production, supplies, consumption, facilities, costs, and returns. The ERS publishes data on farm assets, debt, and income on the Internet at <http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/farmincome/>. Sources of current data on agricultural exports and imports include Outlook forU.S. Agricultural Trade, published by the ERS; the ERS Internet site at <http://www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/AgTrade/>; and the foreign trade section of the U.S. Census Bureau Web site at <http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/...ics/index.html>.
 
The field offices of the NASS collect data on crops, livestock and products, agricultural prices, farm employment, and other related subjects mainly through sample surveys. Information is obtained on crops and livestock items as well as scores of items pertaining to agricultural production and marketing. State estimates and supporting information are sent to the Agricultural Statistics Board of NASS, which reviews the estimates and issues reports containing state and national data. Among these reports are annual summaries such as Crop Production, Crop Values, Agricultural Prices, and Livestock Production, Disposition and Income.

Farms and farmland

The definitions of a farm have varied through time. Since 1850, when minimum criteria defining a farm for census purposes first were established, the farm definition has changed nine times. The current definition, first used for the 1974 census, is any place from which $1,000 or more of agricultural products were produced and sold, or normally would have been sold, during the census year.
 
Acreage designated as ‘‘land in farms’’ consists primarily of agricultural land used for crops, pasture, or grazing. It also includes woodland and wasteland not actually under cultivation or used for pasture or grazing, provided it was part of the farm operator’s total operation. Land in farms includes acres set aside under annual commodity acreage programs as well as acres in the Conservation Reserve and Wetlands Reserve Programs for places meeting the farm definition. Land in farms is an operating unit concept and includes land owned and operated as well as land rented from others. All grazing land, except land used under government permits on a per-head basis, was included as ‘‘land in farms’’ provided it was part of a farm or ranch.
 
An evaluation of coverage has been conducted for each census of agriculture since 1945 to provide estimates of the completeness of census farm counts. Beginning with the 1997 Census of Agriculture, census farm counts and totals were statistically adjusted for coverage and reported at the county level. The size of the adjustments varies considerably by state. In general, farms not on the census mail list tended to be small in acreage, production, and sales of farm products. The response rate for the 2007 Census of Agriculture was 85.2 percent as compared with a response rate of 88.0 for the 2002 Census of Agriculture and 86.2 percent for the 1997 Census of Agriculture.
 
For more explanation about census mail list compilation, collection methods, coverage measurement, and adjustments, see Appendix A, 2007 Census of Agriculture, Volume 1 reports <http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/>.

Farm income

The final agriculturalsector output comprises cash receipts from farm marketings of crops and livestock, federal government payments made directly to farmers for farm-related activities, rental value of farm homes, value of farm products consumed in farm homes, and other farm-related income such as machine hire and custom work. Farm marketings represent quantities of agricultural products sold by farmers multiplied by prices received per unit of production at the local market. Information on prices received for farm products is generally obtained by the NASS Agricultural Statistics Board from surveys of firms (such as grain elevators, packers, and processors) purchasing agricultural commodities directly from producers. In some cases, the price information is obtained directly from the producers.

Crops

Estimates of crop acreage and production by the NASS are based on current sample survey data obtained from individual producers and objective yield counts, reports of carlot shipments, market records, personal field observations by field statisticians, and reports from other sources. Prices received by farmers are marketing year averages. These averages are based on U.S. monthly prices weighted by monthly marketings during specific periods. U.S. monthly prices are state average prices weighted by marketings during the month. Marketing year average prices do not include allowances for outstanding loans, government purchases, deficiency payments or disaster payments.
 
All state prices are based on individual state marketing years, while U.S. marketing year averages are based on standard marketing years for each crop. For a listing of the crop marketing years and the participating states in the monthly program, see Crop Values. Value ofproduction is computed by multiplying state prices by each state’s production. The U.S. value of production is the sum of state values for all states. Value of production figures shown in Tables 852−856 and 858 should not be confused with cash receipts from farm marketings which relate to sales during a calendar year, irrespective of the year of production.

Livestock

Annual inventory numbers of livestock and estimates of livestock, dairy, and poultry production prepared by the Department of Agriculture are based on information from farmers and ranchers obtained by probability survey sampling methods.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability pertaining to Department of Agriculture data, see Appendix III.

Section 18. Forestry, Fishing, and Mining

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...b/natresor.pdf

Introduction

This section presents data on the area, ownership, production, trade, reserves, and disposition of natural resources. Natural resources is defined here as including forestry, fisheries, and mining and mineral products.

Forestry

Presents data on the area, ownership, and timber resource of commercial timberland; forestry statistics covering the National Forests and Forest Service cooperative programs; product data for lumber, pulpwood, woodpulp, paper and paperboard, and similar data.
 
The principal sources of data relating to forests and forest products are Forest Resources of the United States, 2007; Timber Demand and Technology Assessment; U.S. Timber Production, Trade, Consumption, and Price Statistics, 1965− 2005; Land Areas of the National Forest System, issued annually by the Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; Agricultural Statistics issued by the Department of Agriculture; and reports of the annual survey of manufactures, and the annual Current Industrial Reports, issued by the U.S. Census Bureau on the Internet and in print in the annual Manufacturing Profiles. Additional information is published in the monthly Survey of Current Business of the Bureau of Economic Analysis, and the annual Wood Pulp and Fiber Statistics and The Annual Statistics of Paper, Paperboard, and Wood Pulp of the American Forest and Paper Association, Washington, DC.
 
The completeness and reliability of statistics on forests and forest products vary considerably. The data for forest land area and stand volumes are much more reliable for areas that have been recently surveyed than for those for which only estimates are available. In general, more data are available for lumber and other manufactured products such as particle board and softwood panels, etc., than for the primary forest products such as poles and piling and fuelwood.

Fisheries

The principal source of data relating to fisheries is Fisheries of the United States, issued annually by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The NMFS collects and disseminates data on commercial landings of fish and shellfish. Annual reports include quantity and value of commercial landings of fish and shellfish disposition of landings and number and kinds of fishing vessels and fishing gear. Reports for the fish-processing industry include annual output for the wholesaling and fish processing establishments, annual and seasonal employment. The principal source for these data is the annual Fisheries of the United States.

Mining and mineral products

Presents data relating to mineral industries and their products, general summary measures of production and employment, and more detailed data on production, prices, imports and exports, consumption, and distribution for specific industries and products. Data on mining and mineral products may also be found in Sections 19, 21, and 28 of this Abstract; data on mining employment may be found in Section 12.
 
Mining comprises the extraction of minerals occurring naturally (coal, ores, crude petroleum, natural gas) and quarrying, well operation, milling, refining and processing, and other preparation customarily done at the mine or well site or as a part of extraction activity. (Mineral preparation plants are usually operated together with mines or quarries.) Exploration for minerals is included as is the development of mineral properties.
 
The principal governmental sources of these data are the Minerals Yearbook and Mineral Commodity Summaries, published by the U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of the Interior, and various monthly and annual publications of the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy. See text, Section 19, for a list of Department of Energy publications. In addition, the Census Bureau conducts a census of mineral industries every 5 years.
 
Nongovernment sources include the Annual Statistical Report of the American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, DC; Metals Week and the monthly Engineering and Mining Journal, issued by the McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., New York, NY; The Iron Age, issued weekly by the Chilton Co., Philadelphia, PA; and the Joint Association Survey of the U.S. Oil and Gas Industry, conducted jointly by the American Petroleum Institute, Independent Petroleum Association of America, and Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association.
 
Mineral statistics, with principal emphasis on commodity detail, have been collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the former Bureau of Mines since 1880. Current data in U.S. Geological Survey publications include quantity and value of nonfuel minerals produced, sold, or used by producers, or shipped; quantity of minerals stocked; crude materials treated and prepared minerals recovered; and consumption of mineral raw materials.
 
The Economic Census, conducted by the Census Bureau at various intervals since 1840, collects data on mineral industries. Beginning with the 1967 census, legislation provides for a census to be conducted every 5 years for years ending in “2” and “7.” The most recent results, published for 2007, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). The censuses provide, for the various types of mineral establishments, information on operating costs, capital expenditures, labor, equipment, and energy requirements in relation to their value of shipments and other receipts.

Figure 18.1 Crude Oil Production and Imports-1990 to 2009

Figure 18.1 Crude Oil Production and Imports-1990 to 2009.png

Section 19. Energy and Utilities

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...tab/energy.pdf

Introduction

This section presents statistics on fuel resources, energy production and consumption, electric energy, hydroelectric power, nuclear power, solar and wind energy, biomass, and the electric and gas utility industries. The principal sources are the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Edison Electric Institute, Washington, DC, and the American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. The Department of Energy was created in October 1977 and assumed and centralized the responsibilities of all or part of several agencies including the Federal Power Commission (FPC), the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the Federal Energy Administration, and the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration. For additional data on transportation, see Section 23; on fuels, see Section 18; and on energy–related housing characteristics, see Section 20.
 
The EIA, in its Annual Energy Review, provides statistics and trend data on energy supply, demand, and prices. Information is included on petroleum and natural gas, coal, electricity, hydroelectric power, nuclear power, solar, wind, wood, and geothermal energy. Among its annual reports are Annual Energy Review; Electric Power Annual; Natural Gas Annual; Petroleum Supply Annual; State Energy Consumption, Price, and Expenditure Data; U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves; Electric Sales and Revenue; Annual Energy Outlook; and International Energy Statistics. These various reports contain state, national, and international data on the production of electricity, net summer capability of generating plants, fuels used in energy production, energy sales and consumption, and hydroelectric power. The EIA also issues the Monthly Energy Review, which presents current supply, disposition, and price data and monthly publications on petroleum, coal, natural gas, and electric power.
 
Data on residential energy consumption, expenditures, and conservation activities are available from EIA’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and are published every 4 years. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), conducted on a quadrennial basis, collects information on the stock of U.S. commercial buildings, their energy-related characteristics, and their energy consumption and expenditures. Data on manufacturing energy consumption, use, and expenditures are also collected every 4 years from EIA’s Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS). Due to the long gaps between the RECS, CBECS, and MECS, tables are rotated in and out of Section 19 in an effort to keep the data as current as possible. The results from these surveys are published at <http://www.eia.gov/consumption/>.
 
The Edison Electric Institute’s monthly bulletin and annual Statistical Year Book of the Electric Utility Industry for the Year contain data on the distribution of electric energy by public utilities; information on the electric power supply, expansion of electric generating facilities, and the manufacture of heavy electric power equipment is presented in the annual Year-End Summary of the Electric Power Situation in the United States. The American Gas Association, in its monthly and quarterly bulletins and its yearbook, Gas Facts, presents data on gas utilities and financial and operating statistics.

Btu conversion factors

Various energy sources are converted from original units to the thermal equivalent using British thermal units (Btu). A Btu is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit (F) at or near 39.2 degrees F. Factors are calculated annually from the latest final annual data available; some are revised as a result. The following list provides conversion factors used in 2009 for production and consumption, in that order, for various fuels: Petroleum, 5.800 and 5.301 mil. Btu per barrel; total coal, 19.969 and 19.742 mil. Btu per short ton; and natural gas (dry), 1,025 Btu per cubic foot for both. The factors for the production of nuclear power and geothermal power were 10,460 and 21,017 Btu per kilowatt-hour, respectively. The fossil fuel steam–electric power plant generation
factor of 9,760 Btu per kilowatt-hour—was used for hydroelectric power generation and for wood and waste, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy consumed at electric utilities.

Electric power industry

In recent years, EIA has restructured the industry categories it once used to gather and report electricity statistics. The electric power industry, previously divided into electric utilities and non–utilities, now consists of the Electric Power Sector, the Commercial Sector, and the Industrial Sector.
 
The Electric Power Sector is composed of electricity-only and combined-heat-and power plants (CHPs) whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and heat, to the public.
 
Electricity-only plants are composed of traditional electric utilities, and nontraditional participants, including energy service providers, power marketers, independent power producers (IPPs), and the portion of CHPs that produce only electricity.
 
A utility is defined as a corporation, person, agency, authority, or other legal entity or instrumentality aligned with distribution facilities for delivery of electric energy for use primarily by the public. Electric utilities include investor-owned electric utilities, municipal and state utilities, federal electric utilities, and rural electric cooperatives. In total, there are more than 3,100 electric utilities in the United States.
 
An independent power producer is an entity defined as a corporation, person, agency, authority, or other legal entity or instrumentality that owns or operates facilities whose primary business is to produce electricity for use by the public. They are not generally aligned with distribution facilities and are not considered electric utilities.
 
Combined-heat-and-power producers are plants designed to produce both heat and electricity from a single heat source. These types of electricity producers can be independent power producers or industrial or commercial establishments. As some independent power producers are CHPs, their information is included in the data for the combined-heat-and-power sector. There are approximately 2,800 unregulated independent power producers and CHPs in the United States.
 
The Commercial Sector consists of commercial CHPs and commercial electricity–only plants. Industrial CHPs and industrial electricity–only plants make up the Industrial Sector. For more information, please refer to the Electric Power Annual 2009 Web site at <http://www.eia..gov/cneaf/electricit...a/epa_sum.html>.

Section 20. Construction and Housing

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/.../construct.pdf

Introduction

This section presents data on the construction industry and on various indicators of its activity and costs; on housing units and their characteristics and occupants; and on the characteristics and vacancy rates for commercial buildings. This edition contains data from the 2005 American Housing Survey.
 
The principal source of these data is the U.S. Census Bureau, which issues a variety of current publications, as well as data from the decennial census. Current construction statistics compiled by the Census Bureau appear in its New Residential Construction and New Residential Sales press releases and Web site at <http://www.census.gov/const/www/>. Statistics on expenditures by owners of residential properties are issued quarterly and annually in Expenditures for Residential Improvements and Repairs. Value of New Construction Put in Place presents data on all types of construction. Reports of the censuses of construction industries (see below) are also issued on various topics.
 
Other Census Bureau publications include the Current Housing Reports series, which comprise the quarterly Housing Vacancies, the quarterly Market Absorption of Apartments, the biennial American Housing Survey (formerly Annual Housing Survey), and reports of the censuses of housing and of construction industries.
 
Other sources include the monthly Dodge Construction Potentials ofMcGraw-Hill Construction, New York, NY, which present national and state data on construction contracts; the National Association of Home Builders with state-level data on housing starts; the NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS®, which presents data on existing home sales; the Bureau of Economic Analysis, which presents data on residential capital and gross housing product; and the U.S. Energy Information Administration, which provides data on commercial buildings through its periodic sample surveys.

Censuses and surveys

Censuses of the construction industry were first conducted by the Census Bureau for 1929, 1935, and 1939; beginning in 1967, a census has been taken every 5 years (through 2002, for years ending in ‘‘2’’ and ‘‘7’’). The latest reports are part of the 2002 Economic Census. See text, Section 15, Business Enterprise.
 
The construction sector of the economic census, covers all employer establishments primarily engaged in (1) building construction by general contractors or operative builders; (2) heavy (nonbuilding) construction by general contractors; and (3) construction by special trade contractors. This sector includes construction management and land subdividers and developers. The 2002 census was conducted in accordance with the 2002 North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS). See text, Section 15, Business Enterprise.
 
From 1850 through 1930, the Census Bureau collected some housing data as part of its censuses of population and agriculture. Beginning in 1940, separate censuses of housing have been taken at 10-year intervals. For the 1970 and 1980 censuses, data on year-round housing units were collected and issued on occupancy and structural characteristics, plumbing facilities, value, and rent; for 1990, such characteristics were presented for all housing units.
 
The American Housing Survey (Current Housing Reports Series H-150 and H-170), which began in 1973, provided an annual and ongoing series of data on selected housing and demographic characteristics until 1983. In 1984, the name of the survey was changed from the Annual Housing Survey. Currently, national data are collected every other year, and data for selected metropolitan areas are collected on a rotating basis. All samples represent a cross section of the housing stock in their respective areas. Estimates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling errors; caution should therefore be used in making comparisons between years.
 
Data on residential mortgages were collected continuously from 1890 to 1970, except 1930, as part of the decennial census by the Census Bureau. Since 1973, mortgage status data, limited to single family homes on less than 10 acres with no business on the property, have been presented in the American Housing Survey. Data on mortgage activity arecovered in Section 25, Banking and Finance.

Housing units

In general, a housing unit is a house, an apartment, a group of rooms or a single room occupied or intended for occupancy as separate living quarters; that is, the occupants live separately from any other individual in the building, and there is direct access from the outside or through a common hall. Transient accommodations, barracks for workers, and institutional-type quarters are not counted as housing units.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau data, see Appendix III.

Section 21. Manufactures

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...b/manufact.pdf

Introduction

This section presents summary data for manufacturing as a whole and more detailed information for major industry groups and selected products. The types of measures shown at the different levels include data for establishments, employment and payroll, value and quantity of production and shipments, value added by manufacture, inventories, and various indicators of financial status.
 
The principal sources of these data are U.S. Census Bureau reports of the censuses of manufactures conducted every 5 years, the Annual Survey ofManufactures, and Current Industrial Reports. Reports on current activities of industries or current movements of individual commodities are compiled by such government agencies as the Bureau of Economic Analysis; Bureau of Labor Statistics; the Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration; and by private research or trade associations.
 
The Quarterly Financial Report publishes up-to-date aggregate statistics on the financial results and position of U.S. corporations. Based upon a sample survey, the QFR presents estimated statements of income and retained earnings, balance sheets, and related financial and operating ratios for manufacturing corporations with assets of $250,000 or over, and mining, wholesale trade and retail trade corporations with assets of $50 million and over or above industry specific receipt cut-off values. These statistical data are classified by industry and by asset size.
 
Several private trade associations provide industry coverage for certain sections of the economy. They include American Iron and Steel Institute (Table 1029), Consumer Electronics Association (Table 1033), and the Aerospace Industries Association (Tables 1038 and 1040).

Censuses and annual surveys

The first census of manufactures covered the year 1809. Between 1809 and 1963, a census was conducted at periodic intervals. Since 1967, it has been taken every 5 years (for years ending in ‘‘2’’ and ‘‘7’’). Results from the 2002 census are presented in this section utilizing the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). For additional information see text, Section 15, Business Enterprise, and the Census Bureau Web site at <http://www.census.gov/econ/census07/>. Census data, either directly reported or estimated from administrative records, are obtained for every manufacturing plant with one or more paid employees.
 
The Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM), conducted for the first time in 1949, collects data for the years between censuses for the more general measure of manufacturing activity covered in detail by the censuses. The annual survey data are estimates derived from a scientifically selected sample of establishments. The Annual Survey of Manufactures is a sample survey of approximately 50,000 establishments. A new sample is selected at 5-year intervals beginning the second survey year subsequent to the Economic Census—Manufacturing. Since 2009 is the second survey year following the 2007 Economic Census, a new sample was selected based on the 2007 Economic Census—Manufacturing. The sample was supplemented by new establishments entering business in 2007 and 2008.
 
In 2007, there were approximately 328,500 active manufacturing establishments. For sample efficiency and cost considerations, the 2007 manufacturing population is partitioned into two groups: (1) establishments eligible to be mailed a questionnaire and (2) establishments not eligible to be mailed a questionnaire.

Establishments and classification

 Each of the establishments covered in the 2007 Economic Census—Manufacturing was classified in 1 of 480 industries (473 manufacturing industries and 7 former manufacturing industries) in accordance with the industry definitions in the 2007 NAICS manual. In the NAICS system, an industry is generally defined as a group of establishments that have similar production processes. To the extent practical, the system uses supply-based or production-oriented concepts in defining industries. The resulting group of establishments must be significant in terms of number, value added by manufacture, value of shipments, and number of employees. Establishments frequently make products classified both in their industry (primary products) and other industries (secondary products). Industry statistics (employment, payroll, value added by manufacture, value of shipments, etc.) reflect the activities of the establishments, which may make both primary and secondary products. Product statistics, however, represent the output of all establishments without regard for the classification of the producing establishment. For this reason, when relating the industry statistics, especially the value of shipments, to the product statistics, the composition of the industry’s output should be considered.

Establishment

An establishment is a single physical location where business is conducted or where services or industrial operations are performed. Data in this sector includes those establishments where manufacturing is performed. A separate report is required for each manufacturing establishment (plant) with one employee or more that is in operation at any time during the year. An establishment not in operation for any portion of the year is requested to return the report form with the proper notation in the “Operational Status” section of the form. In addition, the establishment is requested to report data on any employees, capital expenditures, inventories, or shipment from inventories during the year.

Durable goods

Items with a normal life expectancy of 3 years or more. Automobiles, furniture, household appliances, and mobile homes are common examples.

Nondurable goods

Items which generally last for only a short time (3 years or less). Food, beverages, clothing, shoes, and gasoline are common examples.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau data, see Appendix III.

Section 22. Wholesale and Retail Trade

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...b/domtrade.pdf

Introduction

This section presents statistics relating to the distributive trades, specifically wholesale trade and retail trade. Data shown for the trades are classified by kind of business and cover sales, establishments, employees, payrolls, and other items. The principal sources of these data are from the U.S. Census Bureau and include the 2007 Economic Census, annual and monthly surveys, and the County Business Patterns program. These data are supplemented by several tables from trade associations, such as the National Automobile Dealers Association (Table 1057). Several notable research groups are also represented, such as Nielsen Claritas (Table 1059).
 
Data on wholesale and retail trade also appear in several other sections. For instance, labor force employment and earnings data appear in Section 12, Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings; gross domestic product of the industry (Table 653) appears in Section 13, Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth; and financial data (several tables) from the quarterly Statistics of Income Bulletin, published by the Internal Revenue Service, appear in Section 15, Business Enterprise.

Censuses

Censuses of wholesale trade and retail trade have been taken at various intervals since 1929. Beginning with the 1967 census, legislation provides for a census of each area to be conducted every 5 years (for years ending in ‘‘2’’ and ‘‘7’’). For more information on the most recent census, see the Guide to the 2007 Economic Census found at<http://www .census.gov/econ/census07/www/user_guide.html>. The industries covered in the censuses and surveys of business are defined in the North American Industry Classification System, (NAICS). Retail trade refers to places of business primarily engaged in retailing merchandise to the general public; and wholesale trade, to establishmentsprimarily engaged in selling goods to other businesses and normally operating from a warehouse or office that have little
or no display of merchandise.
 
Many Census Bureau tables in this section utilize the 2002 NAICS codes, which replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS made substantial structural improvements and identifies over 350 new industries. At the same time, it causes breaks in time series far more profound than any prior revision of the previously used SIC system. For information on this system and how it affects the comparability of wholesale and retail statistics historically, see text, Section 15, Business Enterprise, and especially the Census Bureau Web site at <http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics>. In general, the 2007 Economic Census has three series of publications for these two sectors: 1) subject series with reports such as product lines and establishment and firm sizes, 2) geographic reports with individual reports for each state, and 3) industry series with individual reports for industry groups.For information on these series, see the Census Bureau Web site at <http://www.census.gov/econ/census07/>.

Current surveys

Current sample surveys conducted by the Census Bureau cover various aspects of wholesale and retail trade. Its Monthly Retail Trade and Food Services release at <http://www.census.gov/retail> contains monthly estimates of sales, inventories, and inventory/sales ratios for the United States, by kind of business. Annual figures on retail sales, year-end inventories, purchases, accounts receivable, and gross margins by kind of business are located on the Census Bureau Web site at <http://www.census.gov/econ/retail.htm>. Additionally, annual data for accommodation and food services are located at the same site.
 
Statistics from the Census Bureau’s monthly wholesale trade survey include national estimates of sales, inventories, and inventory/sales ratios for merchant wholesalers excluding manufacturers’ sales branches and offices. Data are presented by major summary groups ‘‘durable and nondurable,’’ and 4-digit NAICS industry groups. Merchant wholesalers excluding manufacturers’ sales branches and offices are those wholesalers who take title to the goods they sell (e.g., jobbers, exporters, importers, industrial distributors).
 
These data, based on reports submitted by a sample of firms, appear in the Monthly Wholesale Trade Report at <http://www.census.gov/wholesale>. This report, along with monthly sales, inventories, and inventories/sales ratios, also provides data on annual sales, inventories, and year-end inventories/sales ratios. The Annual Wholesale Trade Survey provides data on merchant wholesalers excluding manufacturer sales branches and offices as well as summary data for all merchant wholesalers. This report also provides separate data for manufacturer sales branches and offices, and electronic markets, agents, brokers, and commission merchants. Also included in the Monthly Wholesale Trade Report are data on annual sales, year-end inventories, inventories/sales ratios, operating expenses, purchases, and gross margins. Data are presented by major summary groups ‘‘durable and nondurable’’ and 4-digit NAICS industry groups for sales, end-of-year inventories, and operating expenses. The reports are available as documents on the Census Bureau Web site at <http://www.census.gov/econ/wholesale.htm>.

E-commerce

Electronic commerce (or e-commerce) is sales of goods and services over the Internet and extranet, electronic data interchange (EDI), or other online systems. Payment may or may not be made online. E-commerce data were collected in four separate Census Bureau surveys. These surveys used different measures of economic activity such as shipments for manufacturing, sales for wholesale and retail trade, and revenues for service industries. Consequently, measures of total economic and e-commerce activity vary by economic sector, are conceptually and definitionally different, and therefore, are not additive. This edition has several tables on e-commerce sales, such as Tables 1045, 1055, and 1056 in this section; and 1278 in Section 27, Accommodation, Food Services, and Other Services.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau data, see Appendix III.

Section 23. Transportation

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...atab/trans.pdf

Introduction

This section presents data on civil air transportation, both passenger and cargo, and on water transportation, including inland waterways, oceanborne commerce, the merchant marine, cargo, and vessel tonnages.
 
This section also presents statistics on revenues, passenger and freight traffic volume, and employment in various revenue-producing modes of the transportation industry, including motor vehicles, trains, and pipelines. Data are also presented on highway mileage and finances, motor vehicle travel, accidents, and registrations; and characteristics of public transit, railroads, and pipelines.
 
Principal source of transportation data is the annual National Transportation Statistics publication of the U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Principal sources of air and water transportation data are the Annual Report issued by the AirTransport Association of America, Washington, DC and the annual Waterborne Commerce of the United States issued by the Corps of Engineers of the Department of Army. In addition, the U.S. Census Bureau in its commodity flow survey (part of the census of transportation, taken every 5 years through 2007, for years ending in ‘‘2’’ and ‘‘7’’) provides data on the type, weight, and value of commodities shipped by manufacturing establishments in the United States, by means of transportation, origin, and destination. The advance reports for 2007 are part of the 2007 Economic Census. This census was conducted in accordance with the 2002 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). See text, Section 15, Business Enterprise, for a discussion of the Economic Census and NAICS.
 
The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) was established within the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) in 1992 to collect, report, and analyze transportation data. Today, BTS is a component of the USDOT Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA). BTS products include reports to Congress, the Secretary of Transportation, and stakeholders in the nation’s transportation community. These stakeholders include: federal agencies, state and local governments, metropolitan planning organizations, universities, the private sector and general public. Congress requires the BTS to report (congressional mandate, laid out in 49 U.S.C. 111 (1)) on transportation statistics to the President and Congress. The Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR), provides a data overview of U.S. transportation issues. As required by Congress, each TSAR has two essential components: a review of the state of transportation statistics with recommendations for improvements and a presentation of the data. The BTS publication National Transportation Statistics (NTS),a companion report to the TSAR, has more comprehensive and longer time-series data. NTS presents information on the
U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, economic performance, energy use, and environmental impacts. The BTS publication State Transportation Statistics presents a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This profile includes infrastructure, freight movement and passenger travel, system safety, vehicles, transportation-related economy and finance, energy usage and the environment.
 
The principal compiler of data on public roads and on operation of motor vehicles is the U.S. Department of Transportation’s (DOT) Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). These data appear in FHWA’s annual Highway Statistics and otherpublications.
 
The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), through its Traffic Safety Facts FARS/GES Annual Report, presents descriptive statistics about traffic crashes of all severities, from those that result in property damage to those that result in the loss of human life. The data for this report is a compilation of motor vehicle crash data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the General Estimates System (GES). For other publications and reports, go to the National Center for Statistics and Analysis (NCSA), Publications and Data Request. The Web site is located at <http://wwnrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/CAT/index.aspx>. DOT’s Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Office of Safety Analysis presents railroad safety information including accidents and incidents, inspections and highway-rail crossing data in its annual report Railroad Safety Statistics. The Web site is located at <http://safetydata.fra.dot.gov/officeofsafety>.
 
Data are also presented in many nongovernment publications. Among them are the weekly and annual Cars of Revenue Freight Loaded and the annual Yearbook of Railroad Facts, both published by the Association of American Railroads, Washington, DC; Public Transportation Fact Book, containing electric railway and motorbus statistics, published annually by the American Public Transportation Association, Washington, DC; and Injury Facts, issued by the National SafetyCouncil, Chicago, IL.

Civil aviation

Federal promotion and regulation of civil aviation have been carried out by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB). The CAB promoted and regulated the civil air transportation industry within the United States and between the United States and foreign countries. The Board granted licenses to provide air transportation service, approved or disapproved proposed rates and fares, and approved or disapproved proposed agreements and corporate relationships involving air carriers. In December 1984, the CAB ceased to exist as an agency. Some of its functions were transferred to the DOT, as outlined below. The responsibility for investigation of aviation accidents resides with the National Transportation Safety Board.
 
The Office of the Secretary, DOT aviation activities include: negotiation of international air transportation rights, selection of U.S. air carriers to serve capacitycontrolled international markets, oversight of international rates and fares, maintenance of essential air service to small communities, and consumer affairs. DOT’s Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) handles aviation information functions formerly assigned to CAB. Prior to BTS, the Research and Special Programs Administration handled these functions.
 
The principal activities of the FAA include: the promotion of air safety; controlling the use of navigable airspace; prescribing regulations dealing with the competency of airmen, airworthiness of aircraft and air traffic control; operation of air route traffic control centers, airport traffic control towers, and flight service stations; the design, construction, maintenance, and inspection of navigation, traffic control, and communications equipment; and the development of general aviation.
 
The CAB published monthly and quarterly financial and traffic statistical data for the certificated route air carriers. BTS continues these publications, including both certificated and noncertificated (commuter) air carriers. The FAA annually publishes data on the use of airway facilities; data related to the location of airmen, aircraft, and airports; the volume of activity in the field of nonair carrier (general aviation) flying; and aircraft production and registration.
 
General aviation comprises all civil flying (including such commercial operations as small demand air taxis, agriculture application, powerline patrol, etc.) but excludes certificated route air carriers, supplemental operators, large-aircraft commercial operators, and commuter airlines.

Air carriers and service

The CAB previously issued ‘‘certificates of public convenience and necessity’’ under Section 401 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 for scheduled and nonscheduled (charter) passenger services and cargo services. It also issued certificates under Section 418 of the Act to cargo air carriers for domestic all-cargo service only. The DOT Office of the Secretary now issues the certificates under a ‘‘fit, willing, and able’’ test of air carrier operations. Carriers operating only a 60-seat-or-less aircraft are given exemption authority to carry passengers, cargo, and mail in scheduled and nonscheduled service under Part 298 of the DOT (formerly CAB) regulations. Exemption authority carriers who offer scheduled passenger service to an essential air service point must meet the ‘‘fit, willing, and able’’ test.

Vessel shipments, entrances, and clearances

Shipments by dry cargovessels comprise shipments on all types of watercraft, except tanker vessels; shipments by tanker vessels comprise all types of cargo, liquid and dry, carried by tanker vessels. A vessel is reported as entered only at the first port which it enters in the United States, whether or not cargo is unloaded at that port.
 
A vessel is reported as cleared only at the last port at which clearance is made to a foreign port, whether or not it takes on cargo. Army and Navy vessels entering or clearing without commercial cargo are not included in the figures.

Units of measurement

Cargo (or freight) tonnage and shipping weight both represent the gross weight of the cargo including the weight of containers, wrappings, crates, etc. However, shipping weight excludes lift and cargo vans and similar substantial outer containers. Other tonnage figures generally refer to stowing capacity of vessels, 100 cubic feet being called 1 ton. Gross tonnage comprises the space within the frames and the ceiling of the hull, together with those closed-in spaces above deck available for cargo, stores, passengers, or crew, with certain minor exceptions. Net or registered tonnage is the gross tonnage less the spaces occupied by the propelling machinery, fuel, crew quarters, master’s cabin, and navigation spaces. Substantially, it represents space available for cargo and passengers. The net tonnage capacity of a ship may bear little relation to weight of cargo. Deadweight tonnage is the weight in long tons required to depress a vessel from light water line (that is, with only the machinery and equipment on board) to load line. It is, therefore, the weight of the cargo, fuel, etc., which a vessel is designed to carry with safety.

Federal-aid highway systems

The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 eliminated the historical Federal-Aid Highway Systems and created the National Highway System (NHS) and other federal-aid highway categories. The final NHS was approved by Congress in December of 1995 under the National Highway System Designation Act.

Functional systems

Roads and streets are assigned to groups according to the character of service intended. The functional systems are (1) arterial highways that generally handle the long trips, (2) collector facilities that collect and disperse traffic between the arterials and the lower systems, and (3) local roads and streets that primarily serve direct access to residential areas, farms, and other local areas.

Regulatory bodies

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) is an independent agency that regulates the interstate transmission of electricity, natural gas, and oil. FERC also reviews proposals to build liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals and interstate natural gas pipelines as well as licensing hydropower projects. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 gave FERC additional responsibilities such as regulating the transmission and wholesale sales of electricity in interstate commerce. See source for more details.

Railroads

The Surface Transportation Board (STB) was created in the Interstate Commerce Commission Termination Act of 1995, Pub. L. No.104-88, 109 Stat. 803 (1995) (ICCTA), and is the successor agency to the Interstate Commerce Commission. The STB is an economic regulatory agency that Congress charged with the fundamental missions of resolving railroad rate and service disputes and reviewing proposed railroad mergers. The STB is decisionally independent, although it is administratively affiliated with the Department of Transportation.
 
The STB serves as both an adjudicatory and a regulatory body. The agency has jurisdiction over railroad rate and service issues and rail restructuring transactions (mergers, line sales, line construction, and line abandonment); certain trucking company, moving van, and noncontiguous ocean shipping company rate matters; certain intercity passenger bus company structure, financial, and operational matters; and rates and services of certain pipelines not regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Other ICC regulatory functions were either eliminated or transferred to the Federal Highway Administration or the Bureau of Transportation Statistics within DOT.
 
Class I Railroads are regulated by the STB and subject to the Uniform System of Accounts and required to file annual and periodic reports. Railroads are classified based on their annual operating revenues. The class to which a carrier belongs is determined by comparing its adjusted operating revenues for 3 consecutive years to the following scale: Class I, $250 million or more; Class II, $20 million to $250 million; and Class III, $0 to $20 million. Operating revenue dollar ranges are indexed for inflation.

Postal Service

The U.S. Postal Service provides mail processing and delivery services within the United States. The Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act of 2006 was the first major legislative change to the Postal Service since 1971 when the Postal Reorganization Act of 1970 created the Postal Service as an independent establishment of the Federal Executive Branch. The Act of 2006 changed the way the U.S. Postal Service operates and conducts business. Now annual rate increases for market dominant products are linked to the Consumer Price Index and the Postal Service has more flexibility for pricing competitive products, enabling it to respond to dynamic market conditions and changing customer needs.
 
Revenue and cost analysis describes the Postal Service’s system of attributing revenues and costs to classes of mail and service. This system draws primarily upon probability sampling techniques to develop estimates of revenues, volumes, and weights, as well as costs by class of mail and special service. The costs attributed to classes of mail and special services are primarily incremental costs which vary in response to changes in volume; they account for roughly 60 percent of the total costs of the Postal Service. The balance represents ‘‘institutional costs.’’ Statistics on revenues, volume of mail, and distribution of expenditures are presented in the Postal Service’s annual report, Cost and Revenue Analysis, and its Annual Report of the Postmaster General and its annual Comprehensive Statement on Postal Operations.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau data, see Appendix III.

Section 24. Information and Communications

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...b/infocomm.pdf

Introduction

This section presents statistics on the various information and communications media: publishing, including newspapers, periodicals, books, and software; motion pictures, sound recordings, broadcasting, and telecommunications; and information services, such as libraries. Statistics on computer use and Internet access are also included. Data on the usage, finances, and operations of the U.S. Postal Service previously shown in this section are now presented in Section 23, Transportation.

Information industry

The U.S. Census Bureau’s Service Annual Survey, Information Services Sector,provides estimates of operating revenue of taxable firms and revenues and expenses of firms exempt from federal taxes for industries in the information sector of the economy. Similar estimates were previously issued in the Annual Survey of Communications Services. Data are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). The information sector is a newly created economic sector. It comprises establishments engaged in the following processes: (a) producing and distributing information and cultural products, (b) providing the means to transmit or distribute these products as well as data or communications, and (c) processing data. It includes establishments previously classified in the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) in manufacturing (publishing); transportation, communications, and utilities (telecommunications and broadcasting); and services (software publishing, motion picture production, data processing, online information services, and libraries).
 
This new sector is comprised of industries which existed previously, were revised from previous industry definitions, or are completely new industries. Among those which existed previously are newspaper publishers, motion picture and video production, and online information services. Revised industries include book pulishers, libraries, and archives.
 
Newly created industries include database and directory publishers, record production, music publishers, sound recording studios, cable networks, wired telecommunications carriers, paging, and satellite telecommunications.
 
Data from 1998 to 2003 are based on the 1997 NAICS; beginning 2004, data are based on the 2002 NAICS. Major revisions in many communications industries affect the comparability of these data. The following URL contains detailed information about NAICS, see <http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/>. See also the text in Section 15, Business Enterprise.
 
Several industries in the information sectors have been consolidated: paging is now included in Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (except Satellite). Cable and other program distribution and most Internet service providers are now included in Wired Telecommunications Carriers.
 
The 1997 Economic Census was the first economic census to cover the new information sector of the economy. The census, conducted every 5 years, for the years ending ‘‘2’’ and ‘‘7,’’ provides information on the number of establishments, receipts, payroll, and paid employees for the United States and various geographic levels. The most recent reports are from the 2007 Economic Census. This census was conducted in accordance with the 2007 NAICS.
 
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC), established in 1934, regulates wire and radio communications. Only the largest carriers and holding companies file annual financial reports which are publically available. The FCC has jurisdiction over interstate and foreign communication services but not over intrastate or local services. Also, the gross operating revenues of the telephone carriers reporting publically available data annually to the FCC are estimated to cover about 90 percent of the revenues of all U.S. telephone companies. Data are not service comparable with Census Bureau’s Annual Survey because of coverage and different accounting practices for those telephone companies which report to the FCC.
 
Reports filed by the broadcasting industry cover all radio and television stations operating in the United States. The private radio services represent the largest and most diverse group of licensees regulated by the FCC.
 
These services provide voice, data communications, point-to-point, and point-to-multipoint radio communications for fixed and mobile communicators. Major users of these services are small businesses, the aviation industry, the maritime trades, the land transportation industry, the manufacturing industry, state and local public safety and governmental authorities, emergency medical service providers, amateur radio operators, and personal radio operations (CB and the General Mobile Radio Service). The FCC also licenses entities as private and common carriers. Private and common carriers provide fixed and land mobile communications service on a for-profit basis. Principal sources of wire, radio, and television data are the FCC’s Annual Report and its annual Statistics of Communications Common Carriers at <http://fcc.gov/wcb/iatd/stats.html/>.
 
Statistics on publishing are available from the Census Bureau, as well as from various private agencies. Editor & Publisher Co., New York, NY, presents annual data on the number and circulation of daily and Sunday newspapers in its International Year Book. The BookIndustry Study Group, New York, NY, collects data on books sold and domestic consumer expenditures. Data on academic and public libraries are collected by the Institute of Museums and Library Services. Data on Internet use by adults are collected by the Pew Internet and American Life Project, Washington, DC, and Mediamark Research, Inc., New York, NY.

Advertising

Data on advertising previously shown in this section are now presented in Section 27, Accommodation, Food Services, and Other Services.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau data, see Appendix III.

Section 25. Banking, Finance, and Insurance

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...ab/banking.pdf

MY NOTE: No text!

Section 26. Arts, Recreation, and Travel

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/12statab/arts.pdf

Introduction

This section presents data on the arts, entertainment, and recreation economic sector of the economy, and personal recreational activities, the arts and humanities, and domestic and foreign travel.

Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation Industry

The U.S. Census Bureausurveys—County Business Patterns,Economic Census, Nonemployer Statistics and Service Annual Survey, provide data on the Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation Sector. The County Business Patterns annual data includes number of establishments, number of employees, first quarter and annual payrolls, and number of establishments by employment size class. The Economic Census, conducted every five years for the years ending ‘2’ and ‘7,’ provides information on the number of establishments, receipts, payroll, and paid employees for the United States and various geographic levels. Nonemployer statistics are an annual tabulation of economic data by industry for active businesses without paid employees that are subject to federal income tax. The Service Annual Survey provides estimates of operation revenue of taxable firms and revenues and expenses of firms exempt from federal taxes for industries in this sector of the economy. See Appendix III for more details.

Recreation and leisure activities

Data on the participation in various recreation and leisure time activities are based on several sample surveys. Data on the public’s involvement with arts events and activities are published by the National Endowment for Arts (NEA). The NEA’s Survey of Public Participation in the Arts remains the largest periodic study of arts participation in the United States. The most recent data are from the 2008 survey. Data on participation in fishing, hunting, and other forms of wildlife associated recreation are published periodically by the U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. The most recent data are from the 2006 survey. Data on participation in various sports recreation activities are published by the National Sporting Goods Association. Mediamark, Inc. also conducts periodic surveys on sports and leisure activities, as well as other topics.

Parks and recreation

The Department of the Interior has responsibility for administering the national parks. The National Park Service publishes information on visits to national park areas in its annual report, National Park Statistical Abstract. The National Parks: Index (year) is an annual report which contains brief descriptions, with acreages and visits for each area administered by the service, plus certain ‘‘related’’ areas. This information can be found at: <http://www.nature.nps.gov/stats>. Statistics for state parks are compiled by the National Association of State Park Directors.

Travel

Statistics on arrivals and departures to the United States, cities and states visited by overseas travelers, and tourism sales and employment are reported by the International Trade Administration (ITA), Office of Travel & Tourism Industries (OTTI). Data on domestic travel and travel expenditures are published by the research department of the U.S. Travel Association. Other data on household transportation characteristics are in Section 23, Transportation.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau data, see Appendix III.

Section 27. Accommodation, Food Services, and Other Services

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...b/services.pdf

Introduction

This section presents statistics relating to services other than those covered in the previous few sections (22 to 26) on wholesale and retail trade, transportation, communications, financial services, and recreation services. Data shown for services are classified by kind of business and cover sales or receipts, establishments, employees, payrolls, and other items.
 
The principal sources of these data are from the U.S. Census Bureau and include the 2007 Economic Census, annualsurveys, and the County Business Patterns program. These data are supplemented by data from several sources such as the National Restaurant Association on food and drink sales (Table 1283), the American Hotel & Lodging Association on lodging (Table 1282), and Magna Global on advertising (Table 1279).
 
Data on these services also appear in several other sections. For instance, labor force employment and earnings data appear in Section 12, Labor Force, Employment, and Earnings; gross domestic product of the industry (Table 670) appears in Section 13, Income, Expenditures, Poverty, and Wealth; and financial data (several tables) from the quarterly Statistics of Income Bulletin, published by the Internal Revenue Service, appear in Section 15, Business Enterprise.

Censuses

Limited coverage of theservice industries started in 1933. Beginning with the 1967 census, legislation provides for a census of each area to be conducted every 5 years (for years ending in ‘‘2’’ and ‘‘7’’). For more information on the most current census, see the Economic Census, Guide to Economic Census, found at<http://www.census.gov/econ/census /guide/index.html>. The industries covered in the censuses and surveys of business are defined in the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). For information on NAICS, see the Census Web site at <http://www.census.gov/epcd/www/naics.html>.
 
In general, the 2007 Economic Census has two final series of publications for these sectors: 1) subject series with reports such as product lines, and establishment and firm sizes and 2) geographic reports with individual reports for each state. For information on these series, see the Census Bureau Web site at <http://www.census.gov/econ/census07>.

Current surveys

The Service Annual Survey provides annual estimates of nationwide receipts for selected personal, business, leasing and repair, amusement and entertainment, social and health, and other professional service industries in the United States. For selected social, health, and other professional service industries, separate estimates are developed for receipts of taxable firms and revenue and expenses for firms and organizations exempt from federal income taxes. Several service sectors from this survey are covered in other sections of this publication. The estimates for tax exempt firms in these industries are derived from a sample of employer firms only. Estimates obtained from annual and monthly surveys are based on sample data and are not expected to agree exactly with results that would be obtained from a complete census of all establishments. Data include estimates for sampling units not reporting.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau data, see Appendix III.

Section 28. Foreign Commerce and Aid

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...ab/foreign.pdf

Introduction

This section presents data on the flow of goods, services, and capital between the United States and other countries; changes in official reserve assets of the United States; international investments; and foreign assistance programs.
 
The Bureau of Economic Analysis publishes current figures on U.S. international transactions and the U.S. international investment position in its monthly Survey of Current Business. Statistics for the foreign aid programs are presented by the Agency for International Development (AID) in its annual U.S. Overseas Loans and Grants and Assistance from International Organizations.
 
The principal source of merchandise import and export data is the U.S. Census Bureau. Current data are presented monthly in U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services report Series FT 900. The Guide to Foreign TradeStatistics, found on the Census Bureau Web site at <http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/guide/index.html>, lists the Census Bureau’s monthly and annual products and services in this field. In addition, the International Trade Administration and the Bureau of Economic Analysis present summary as well as selected commodity and country data for U.S. foreign trade on their Web sites: <http://ita.doc.gov/td/industry/otea/> and <http://www.bea.gov/international/index>, respectively. The merchandise trade data published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis in the Survey of Current Business and on the Web include balance of payments adjustments to the Census Bureau data. The U.S. Treasury Department’s Monthly Treasury Statement of Receipts and Outlays of the United States Government contains information on import duties. The International Trade Commission, U.S. Department of Agriculture (agricultural products), U.S. Department of Energy (mineral fuels, like petroleum and coal), and the U.S. Geological Survey (minerals) release various reports and specialized products on U.S. trade.

International accounts

The international transactions tables (Tables 1286 to 1288) show, for given time periods, the transfer of goods, services, grants, and financial assets and liabilities between the United States and the rest of the world. The international investment position table (Table 1289) presents, for specific dates, the value of U.S. investments abroad and of foreign investments in the United States. The movement of foreign and U.S. capital as presented in the balance of payments is not the only factor affecting the total value of foreign investments. Among the other factors are changes in the valuation of assets or liabilities, including changes in prices of securities, defaults, expropriations, and write-offs.
 
Direct investment abroad means the ownership or control, directly or indirectly, by one person of 10 percent or more of the voting securities of an incorporated business enterprise or an equivalent interest in an unincorporated business enterprise. Direct investment position is the value of U.S. parents’ claims on the equity of and receivables due from foreign affiliates, less foreign affiliates’ receivables due from their U.S. parents. Income consists of parents’ shares in the earnings of their affiliates plus net interest received by parents on intercompany accounts, less withholding taxes on dividends and interest.

Foreign aid

Foreign assistance is divided into three major categories— grants (military supplies and services and other grants), credits, and other assistance (through net accumulation of foreign currency claims from the sale of agricultural commodities). Grants are transfers for which no payment is expected (other than a limited percentage of the foreign currency ‘‘counterpart’’ funds generated by the grant), or which at most involve an obligation on the part of the receiver to extend aid to the United States or other countries to achieve a common objective. Credits are loan disbursements or transfers under other agreements which give rise to specific obligations to repay, over a period of years, usually with interest. All known returns to the U.S. government stemming from grants and credits (reverse grants, returns of grants, and payments of principal) are taken into account in net grants and net credits, but no allowance is made for interest or commissions. Other assistance represents the transfer of U.S. farm products in exchange for foreign currencies (plus, since enactment of Public Law 87-128, currency claims from principal and interest collected on credits extended under the farm products program), less the government’s disbursements of the currencies as grants, credits, or for purchases. The net acquisition of currencies represents net transfers of resources to foreign countries under the agricultural programs, in addition to those classified as grants or credits.
 
In 1952, economic, technical, and military aid programs were combined under the Mutual Security Act, which in turn was followed by the Foreign Assistance Act passed in 1961. Appropriations to provide military assistance were also made in the Department of Defense Appropriation Act (rather than the Foreign Assistance Appropriation Act) beginning in 1966 for certain countries in Southeast Asia and in other legislation concerning programs for specific countries (such as Israel). Figures on activity under the Foreign Assistance Act as reported in the Foreign Grants and Credits series differ from data published by AID or its immediate predecessors, due largely to differences in reporting, timing, and treatment of particular items.

Exports

The Census Bureau compiles export data primarily from Shipper’s Export Declarations required to be filed with customs officials for shipments leaving the United States. They include U.S. exports under mutual security programs and exclude shipments to U.S. Armed Forces for their own use.
 
The value reported in the export statistics is generally equivalent to a free alongside ship (f.a.s.) value at the U.S. port of export, based on the transaction price, including inland freight, insurance, and other charges incurred in placing the merchandise alongside the carrier at the U.S. port of exportation. This value, as defined, excludes the cost of loading merchandise aboard the exporting carrier and also excludes freight, insurance, and any other charges or transportation and other costs beyond the U.S. port of exportation. The country of destination is defined as the country of ultimate destination or country where the merchandise is to be consumed, further processed, or manufactured, as known to the shipper at the time of exportation. When ultimate destination is not known, the shipment is statistically credited to the last country to which the shipper knows the merchandise will be shipped in the same form as exported.
 
Effective January 1990, the United States began substituting Canadian import statistics for U.S. exports to Canada. As a result of the data exchange between the United States and Canada, the United States has adopted the Canadian import exemption level for its export statistics based on shipments to Canada.
 
Data are estimated for shipments valued under $2,501 to all countries, except Canada, using factors based on the ratios of low-valued shipments to individual country totals.
 
Prior to 1989, exports were based on Schedule B, Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities Exported from the United States. Beginning in 1989, Schedule B classifications are based on the Harmonized System and coincide with the Standard International Trade Classification, Revision 3. This revision will affect the comparability of most export series beginning with the 1989 data for commodities.

Imports

The Census Bureau compiles import data from various customs forms required to be filed with customs officials. Data on import values are presented on two valuations bases in this section: The c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) and the customs import value (as appraised by the U.S. Customs Service in accordance with legal requirements of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended). This latter valuation, primarily used for collection of import duties, frequently does not reflect the actual transaction value. Country of origin is defined as country where the merchandise was grown, mined, or manufactured. If country of origin is unknown, country of shipment is reported.
 
Imports are classified either as ‘‘General imports’’ or ‘‘Imports for consumption.’’ General imports are a combination of entries for immediate consumption, entries into customs bonded warehouses, and entries into U.S. Foreign Trade Zones, thus generally reflecting total arrivals of merchandise. Imports for consumptionare a combination of entries for immediate consumption, withdrawals from warehouses for consumption, and entries of merchandise into U.S. customs territory from U.S. Foreign Trade Zones, thus generally reflecting the total of the commodities entered into U.S. consumption channels.
 
Beginning in 1989, import statistics are based on the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, which coincides with import Standard International Trade Classification, Revision 3. This revision will affect the comparability of most import series beginning with the 1989 data.

Area coverage

Except as noted, the geographic area covered by the export and import trade statistics is the United States Customs area (includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico), the U.S. Virgin Islands (effective January 1981), and U.S. Foreign Trade Zones (effective July 1982). Data for selected tables and total values for 1980 have been revised to reflect the U.S. Virgin Islands’ trade with foreign countries, where possible.

Statistical reliability

For a discussion of statistical collection and estimation, sampling procedures, and measures of statistical reliability applicable to Census Bureau data, see Appendix III.

Section 29. Puerto Rico and the Island Areas

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...b/outlying.pdf

MY NOTE: Has Maps

Introduction

This section presents summary economic and social statistics for Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands. Primary sources are the decennial censuses of population and housing, County Business Patterns, and the Puerto Rico Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau; the annual Vital Statistics of the United States, issued by the National Center for Health Statistics; and the annual Income and Product of the Puerto Rico Planning Board.

Jurisdiction

The United States gained jurisdiction over these areas as follows: the islands of Puerto Rico and Guam,surrendered by Spain to the United States in December 1898, were ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Paris, ratified in 1899. Puerto Rico became a commonwealth on July 25, 1952, thereby achieving a high degree of local autonomy under its own constitution. The U.S. Virgin Islands, comprising 50 islands and cays, was purchased by the United States from Denmark in 1917. American Samoa, a group of seven islands, was acquired by the United States in accordance with a convention among the United States, Great Britain, and Germany, ratified in 1900 (Swains Island was annexed in 1925). By an agreement approved by the Security Council and the United States, the Northern Mariana Islands, previously under Japanese mandate, was administered by the United States between 1947 and 1986 under the United Nations trusteeship system. The Northern Mariana Islands became a commonwealth in 1986.

Censuses

Because characteristicsof Puerto Rico and the Island Areas differ, the presentation of census data for them is not uniform. The 1960 Census of Population covered all of the places listed above except the Northern Mariana Islands (their census was conducted in April 1958 by the Office of the High Commissioner), while the 1960 Census of Housing excluded American Samoa. The 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010. Censuses of Population and Housing covered all five areas. Beginning in 1967, Congress authorized the economic censuses, to be taken at 5-year intervals, for years ending in ‘‘2’’ and ‘‘7.’’ Prior economic censuses were conducted in Puerto Rico for 1949, 1954, 1958, and 1963 and in Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands for 1958 and 1963. In 1967, the census of construction industries was added for the first time in Puerto Rico; in 1972, the U.S. Virgin Islands and Guam were covered; and in 1982, the economic census was taken for the first time for the Northern Mariana Islands.

Puerto Rico Community Survey

The Puerto Rico Community Survey (PRCS) began in 2005 and was a critical element in the Census Bureau’s reengineered 2010 census plan. The American Community Survey is the equivalent of the PRCS for the United States (50 states and District of Columbia). The PRCS collects and produces population and housing information every year instead of every 10 years. About 36,000 households are surveyed each year from across every municipio in Puerto Rico.

Information in other sections

In addition to the statistics presented in this section, other data are included as integral parts of many tables showing distribution by states in various sections of the Abstract. See ‘‘Puerto Rico and the Island Areas’’ in the Index. For definition and explanation of terms used, see Sections 1, 2, 4, 17, 20, 21, and 22.

Section 30. International Statistics

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...b/intlstat.pdf

MY NOTE: Has maps

Introduction

This section presents statistics for the world as a whole and for many countries on a comparative basis with the United States. Data are shown for population, births and deaths, social and industrial indicators, finances, agriculture,
communication, and military affairs.
 
Statistics of the individual nations may be found primarily in official national publications, generally in the form of yearbooks, issued by most of the nations at various intervals in their own national languages and expressed in their own or customary units of measure. (For a listing of selected publications, see Guide to Sources.) For handier reference, especially for international comparisons, the United Nations Statistics Division compiles data as submitted by member countries and issues a number of international summary publications, generally in English and French. Among these are the Statistical Yearbook; the Demographic Yearbook; International Trade Statistics Yearbook; National Accounts Statistics: Main Aggregates and Detailed Tables; Population and Vital Statistics Reports, semi-annually; the Monthly Bulletin of Statistics; and the Energy Statistics Yearbook. Specialized agencies of the United Nations also issue international summary publications on agricultural, labor, health, and education statistics. Among these are the Production Yearbook and Trade Yearbook issued by the Food and Agriculture Organization, the Yearbook of Labour Statistics issued by the International Labour Office and World Health Statistics issued by the World Health Organization, and the Statistical Yearbook issued by the Educational,Scientific, and Cultural Organization.
 
The U.S. Census Bureau publishes estimates and projections of key demographic measures for countries and regions of the world in its International Data Base at <http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/>.
 
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) also compile data on international statistics. The IMF publishes a series of reports relating to financial data. These include International Financial Statistics, Direction of Trade, and Balance ofPayments Yearbook, published in English, French, and Spanish. The OECD publishes a vast number of statistical publications in various fields such as economics, health, and education. Among these are OECD in Figures, Main Economic Indicators, Economic Outlook, National Accounts, Labour Force Statistics, OECD Health Data, and Education at a Glance.
 

Statistical coverage, country names, and classifications

Problems of space and availability of data limit the number of countries and the extent of statistical coverage shown. The list of countries included and the spelling of country names are based almost entirely on the list of independent nations, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty provided by the U.S. Department of State.
 
In the last quarter-century, several important changes took place in the status of the world’s nations. In 1991, the Soviet Union broke up into 15 independent countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. In the South Pacific, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, and Palau gained independence from the United States in 1991. Following the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992, the United States recognized Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia as independent countries.
 
The Treaty of Maastricht created the European Union (EU) in 1992 with 12 member countries. The EU is not a state intended to replace existing states, but it is more than just an international organization. Its member states have set up common institutions to which they delegate some of their sovereignty so that decisions on specific matters of joint interest can be made democratically at a European level. This pooling of sovereignty is also called “European integration.” The EU has grown in size with successive waves of accessions in 1995, 2004, and 2007. The 27 current members of the EU are: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom.
 
In 1992, the EU decided to establish an economic and monetary union (EMU), with the introduction of a single European currency managed by a European Central Bank. The single currency—the euro—became a reality on January 1, 2002, when euro notes and coins replaced national currencies in 12 of the then 15 countries of the European Union (Belgium, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, and Finland). Since then, 12 countries have become members of the EU, but Slovakia, Slovenia, Malta, Cyprus, and Estonia have been the only new members of the EU to adopt the euro as the national currency.
 
On January 1, 1993, Czechoslovakia was succeeded by two independent countries: the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Eritrea announced its  independence from Ethiopia in April 1993 and was subsequently recognized as an independent nation by the United States. In May of 2002,  Timor-Leste won independence from Indonesia.
 
Serbia and Montenegro, both former republics of Yugoslavia, became independent of one another on May 31, 2006. This separation is seen in the population estimates tables (Tables 1332, 1358, and 1404), but some tables may still show both countries as combined. On February 17, 2008, Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia, making it the world’s newest independent state. The Netherlands Antilles dissolved on October 10, 2010. As a result, Cuaçao and Sint Moortan became autonomous territories of the Netherlands.
 
The population estimates and projections used in Tables 1329–1332, 1334, and 1339 were prepared by the Census Bureau. For each country, available data on population, by age and sex, fertility, mortality, and international migration were evaluated and, where necessary, adjusted for inconsistencies and errors in the data. In most instances, comprehensive projections were made by the cohort-component method, resulting in distributions of the population by age and sex and requiring an assessment of probable future trends of fertility, mortality, and international migration.

Economic associations

The Organization for European Economic Co–operation (OEEC), a regional grouping of Western European countries established in 1948 for the purpose of harmonizing national economic policies and conditions, was succeeded on September 30, 1961, by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The member nations of the OECD are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

Quality and comparability of the data

The quality and comparability of the data presented here are affected by a number of factors:
 
(1) The year for which data are presented may not be the same for all subjects for a particular country or for a given subject for different countries, though the data shown are the most recent available. All such variations have been noted. The data shown are for calendar years except as otherwise specified.
 
(2) The bases, methods of estimating, methods of data collection, extent of coverage, precision of definition, scope of territory, and margins of error may vary for different items within a particular country, and for like items for different countries. Footnotes and headnotes to the tables give a few of the major time periods and coverage qualifications attached to the figures; considerably more detail is presented in the source publications. Many of the measures shown are, at best, merely rough indicators of magnitude.
 
(3) Figures shown in this section for the United States may not always agree with figures shown in the preceding sections. Disagreements may be attributable to the use of differing original sources, a difference in the definition of geographic limits (the 50 states, conterminous United States only, or the United States including certain outlying areas and possessions), or to possible adjustments made in the United States’ figures by other sources to make them more comparable with figures from other countries.

International comparisons of national accounts data

To compare national accounts data for different countries, it is necessary to convert each country’s data into a common unit of currency, usually the U.S. dollar. The market exchange rates, which often are used in converting national currencies, do not necessarily reflect the relative purchasing power in the various countries. It is necessary that the goods and services produced in different countries be valued consistently if the differences observed are meant to reflect real differences in the volumes of goods and services produced. The use of purchasing power parities (see Tables 1347, 1348, and 1394) instead of exchange rates is intended to achieve this objective.
 
The method used to present the data shown in Table 1348 is to construct volume measures directly by revaluing the goods and services sold in different countries at a common set of international prices. By dividing the ratio of the gross domestic products of two countries expressed in their own national currencies by the corresponding ratio calculated at constant international prices, it is possible to derive the implied purchasing power parity (PPP) between the two currencies concerned. PPPs show how many units of currency are needed in one country to buy the same amount of goods and services that one unit of currency will buy in the other country. For further information, see National Accounts, Main Aggregates, Volume I, issued annually by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France.

International Standard Industrial Classification

The original version of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC) was adopted in 1948. A number of countries have utilized the ISIC as the basis for devising their industrial classification scheme. Substantial comparability has been attained between the industrial classifications of many other countries, including the United States and the ISIC by ensuring, as far as practicable, that the categories at detailed levels of classification in national schemes fit into only one category of the ISIC. The United Nations, the International Labour Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and other international bodies use the ISIC in publishing and analyzing statistical data. Revisions of the ISIC were issued in 1958, 1968, 1989, 2002, and 2008.

International maps

A series of regional world maps is provided on pages 826–834. References are included in Table 1331 for easy location of individual countries on the maps. The Robinson map projection is used for this series of maps. A map projection is used to portray all or part of the round Earth on a flat surface, but this cannot be done without some distortion. For the Robinson projection, distortion is very low along the Equator and within 45 degrees of the center but is greatest near the poles. For additional information on map projections and maps, please contact the Earth Science Information Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 507 National Center, Reston, VA 22092.

Federal Agency Statistical Reports

Source: http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/fed_reports.html

Executive Office of the President

Office of Management and Budget

Council of Economic Advisors

U.S. Department of Agriculture

National Agricultural Statistics Service

Central Intelligence Agency

U.S. Department of Commerce

Bureau of Economic Analysis

U.S. Department of Education

National Center of Education Statistics

U.S. Department of Energy

Energy Information Administration

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

National Center of Health Statistics

U.S. Department of Justice

Bureau of Justice Statistics

Federal Bureau of Investigation

U.S. Department of Labor

Bureau of Labor Statistics

U.S. Department of Transportation

Bureau of Transportation Statistics

U.S. Department of Treasury

Financial Management Service

Appendix I. Guide to Sources of Statistics

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...atab/app1a.pdf

and http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/guide_to_sources.html

 
Alphabetically arranged, this guide contains references to important primary sources of statistical information for the United States. Secondary sources have been included if the information contained in them is presented in a particularly convenient form or if primary sources are not readily available. Nonrecurrent publications presenting compilations or estimates for years later than 1990, or types of data not available in regular series, are also included. Data are also available in press releases.

Valuable information may also be found in state reports, foreign statistical abstract, which are included at the end of this appendix, and in reports for particular commodities, industries, or similar segments of our economic and social structures, many of which are not included here.

Publications listed under each subject are divided into two main groups: "U.S. Government" and Nongovernment. The location of the publisher of each report is given except for federal agencies located in Washington, DC. Most federal publications may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, tel. 202-512-1800, (Web site <http://www.access.gpo.gov>) or from the Government Printing Office bookstores in certain major cities. In some cases, federal publications may be obtained from the issuing agency.

 

Title Frequency Paper Internet
PDF Other Formats


U.S. GOVERNMENT

       

Administrative Office of the United States Courts

<http://www.uscourts.gov>

       
Calendar Year Reports on Authorized Wiretaps (state and federal) Annual X X X
Federal Court Management Statistics Annual X   X
Federal Judicial Caseload Statistics Annual X    
Judicial Business of the United States Courts Annual X X  
Statistical Tables for the Federal Judiciary Semiannual X   X
         

Agency for International Development

<http://www.usaid.gov>

       
U.S. Overseas Loans and Grants: Obligations and Loan Authorizations Annual   X X
         

Army, Corps of Engineers

<http://www.usace.army.mil>

       
Waterborne Commerce of the United States (in five parts) Annual X   X
         

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

<http://www.federalreserve.gov>

       
Assets and Liabilities of Commercial Banks in the United States H.8 Weekly X X X
Consumer Credit G.19 Monthly X X X
Federal Reserve Bulletin Annual X X X
Foreign Exchange Rates H.10 Weekly     X
Flow of Funds Accounts of the United States Z.1 Quarterly X X X
Industrial Production and Capacity Utilization G.17 Monthly X X X
Money Stock and Debt Measures H.6 Weekly X X X
Statistical Supplement to the Federal Reserve Bulletin Monthly X X X
         

Bureau of Economic Analysis

<http://www.bea.gov>

       
Survey of Current Business Monthly X X X
         

Bureau of Justice Statistics

<http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs>

       
American Indians and Crime: A BJS Statistical Profile, December 2004 Periodic X X X
Background Checks for Firearm Transfers Annual X X X
Capital Punishment, 2006, December 2007 Annual   X X
Carjacking, 1993 to 2002, July 2004 Periodic   X X
Census of Publicly Funded Forensic Crime Laboratories, February 2005 Periodic X X X
Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities, 2000, August 2003 Periodic X X X
Civil Rights Complaints in U.S. District Courts, July 2002 Periodic X X X
Civil Trial Cases and Verdicts in Large Counties, 2001, April 2004 Periodic X X X
Compendium of Federal Justice Statistics, 2004, December 2006 Annual X X X
Contacts Between Police and Public: Findings from the 2005 National Survey, April 2007 Periodic X X X
Contract Trials and Verdicts in Large Counties, 2001, February 2005 Periodic X X X
Crime and the Nation’s Households, 2005, April 2007 Annual X X X
Crimes Against Persons Age 65 or Older, 1993 to 2002, January 2005 Periodic X X X
Criminal Victimization in the United States, 2006, December 2007 Annual X X X
Cross-National Studies in Crime and Justice, September 2004 Periodic X X X
Defense Counsel in Criminal Cases, November 2000 Periodic X X X
Education and Correctional Populations, January 2003 Periodic X X X
Family Violence Statistics Periodic X X X
Federal Criminal Case Processing, 2002, January 2005 Periodic X X X
Federal Law Enforcement Officers, 2004, August 2006 Biennial X X X
Felony Defendants in Large Urban Counties, 2004, April 2008 Biennial   X X
Felony Sentences in State Courts, 2004, July 2007 Biennial X X X
Firearm Use by Offenders, November 2001 Periodic X X X
Hepatitis Testing and Treatment in State Prisons, April 2004 Periodic X X X
Hispanic Victims of Violent Crime, 1993 - 2000, April 2002 Periodic X X X
HIV in Prisons 2006 Annual   X X
Homicide Trends in the United States Annual X X X
Identity Theft, 2005, Novermber 2007 Periodic X X X
Immigration Offenders in the Federal Criminal Justice System, August 2002 Periodic X X X
Incarcerated Parents and Their Children, August 2000 Periodic X X X
Indicators of School Crime and Safety Annual X X X
Intimate Partner Violence, 1993 to 2001, February 2003 Periodic X X X
Jails in Indian Country, 2004, November 2006 Annual X X X
Justice Expenditure and Employment Extract Series, 2005, August 2007 Annual     X
Juvenile Offenders and Victims Periodic X X X
Juvenile Victimization and Offending, 1993 to 2003 Periodic X X X
Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics 2000: Data for Individual State and Local Agencies with 100 or More Officers Periodic X X X
Local Police Departments, 2003. May 2006 Periodic X X X
Medical Malpractice Trials and Verdicts in Large Counties, April 2004 Periodic X X X
Money Laundering Offenders, 1994 - 2001, July 2003 Periodic X X X
Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974 - 2001, August 2003 Periodic X X X
Prison and Jail Inmates at Midyear, 2006, June 2007 Annual X X X
Prisoners in 2006, December 2007 Annual X X X
Probation and Parole in the United States Annual X X X
Profile of Jail Inmates, 2002, July 2004 Periodic X X X
Prosecutors in State Courts, 2001, May 2002 Biennial X X X
Rape and Sexual Assault: Reporting to Police and Medical Attention, August 2002 Periodic X X X
Reentry Trends in the United States Current Data Electronic Periodic   X X
Sheriffs’ Offices, 2003, April 2006 Periodic X X X
Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics Annual X X X
State Court Prosecutors in Large Districts, December 2001 Periodic X X X
State Court Prosecutors in Small Districts, 2001, January 2003 Periodic X X X
State Court Sentencing of Convicted Felons, 2004, July 2007 Biennial   X X
State Prison Expenditures, 2001, June 2004 Periodic X X X
Summary of State Sex Offender Registries, 2001, March 2002 Periodic X X X
Survey of DNA Crime Laboratories, 2001, January 2002 Periodic X X X
Survey of State Criminal History Information Systems, September 2003 Biennial X X X
Survey of State Procedures Related to Firearm Sales, 2005, November 2006 Periodic X X X
Tort Trials and Verdicts in Large Counties, November 2004 Periodic X X X
Traffic Stop Data Collection Policies for State Police, 2004, June 2005 Periodic X X X
Violent Victimization of College Students, 1995 to 2002, January 2005 Periodic X X X
Weapon Use and Violent Crime, 1993 to 2001, September 2003 Periodic X X X
         

 

Bureau of Labor Statistics

<http://www.bls.gov>

       
100 Years of U.S. Consumer Spending: Data for the Nation, New York City and Boston, Report 991 Periodic X X  
College Enrollment and Work Activity of High School Graduates Annual X X  
Comparative Labor Force Statistics, Ten Countries Semiannual X X X
Compensation and Working Conditions Quarterly   X X
Consumer Expenditure Survey, Integrated Diary and Interview Survey data Annual X X X
Consumer Prices: Energy and Food Monthly X X X
CPI Detailed Report Monthly   X X
Employer Costs for Employee Compensation Annual X X X
Employment and Earnings Monthly   X X
Employment and Wages Annual X X X
Employment Characteristics of Families Annual X X X
Employment Cost Index Quarterly X X X
Employment Cost Indexes and Levels Annual X X X
The Employment Situation Monthly X X X
Geographic Profile of Employment and Unemployment Annual X X X
International Comparisons of Hourly Compensation Costs for Production Workers in Manufacturing Annual X X X
International Comparisons of Manufacturing Productivity and Unit Labor Cost Trends Annual X X X
Metropolitan Area Employment and Unemployment Monthly X X X
Monthly Labor Review Monthly   X X
National Compensation Survey Annual X X X
Occupational Injuries and Illnesses in the United States by Industry Annual X X X
Occupational Projections and Training Data Biennial X X X
Producer Price Indexes Detailed Report Monthly   X X
Productivity and costs by Industry Periodic X X X
Selected Service-Providing and Mining Industries, 2005 Annual X X X
Manufacturing, 2005 Annual X X X
Wholesale Trade, Retail Trade, and Food Services and Drinking Places, 2005 Annual X X X
Real Earnings Monthly X X X
Regional and State Employment and Unemployment Monthly X X X
Relative Importance of Components in the Consumer Price Indexes Annual X X X
Union Members Annual X X X
U.S. Import and Export Price Indexes Monthly X X X
Usual Weekly Earnings of Wage and Salary Workers Quarterly X X X
Work Experience of the Population Annual X X X
         

Bureau of Land Management

<http://www.blm.gov>

       
Public Land Statistics Annual X X  
         

Census Bureau

<http://www.census.gov>

       
2007 Economic Census, Comparative Statistics Quinquennial X X X
2007 Economic Census, Bridge Between North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Quinquennial X X X
2007 Economic Census, Business Expenses Quinquennial X X X
2007 Economic Census, Industry/Geography Quinquennial   X X
2007 Economic Census, Company Statistics Series, Survey of Business Owners Quinquennial X X X
2007 Economic Census, Company Statistics Series, Survey of Business Owners: American Indian- and Alaska Native-Owned Firms Quinquennial X X X
2007 Economic Census, Company Statistics Series, Survey of Business Owners: Asian-Owned Firms Quinquennial X X X
2007 Economic Census, Company Statistics Series, Survey of Business Owners: Black-Owned Firms Quinquennial X X X
2007 Economic Census, Company Statistics Series, Survey of Business Owners: Hispanic-Owned Firms Quinquennial X X X
2007 Economic Census, Company Statistics Series, Survey of Business Owners: Native Hawaiian- and other Pacific Islander-Owned Firms Quinquennial X X X
American Community Survey Annual Earning and Poverty Report, 2006 Annual X X  
Annual Revision of Monthly Retail and Food Services: Sales and Inventories Annual   X  
Annual Revision of Monthly Wholesale Distributors: Sales and Inventories Annual   X X
Annual Survey of Manufactures Annual   X  
Census of Governments Quinquennial X X  
Census of Governments, Volume 3, No. 2, Compendium of Public Employment Quinquennial   X X
Census of Housing Decennial (2000, most recent) Decennial X X X
Census of Population Decennial (2000, most recent) Decennial X X X
Consolidated Federal Funds Report (CFFR) Annual X X X
CRRF: State and County Areas Annual X X X
County Business Patterns Annual   X X
Current Construction Reports: New Residential Construction and New Residential Sales Annual   X  
Current Construction Report,: Value of Construction Put in Place, C30 Monthly   X  
Current Construction Reports, Residential Improvements and Repairs, C50 Monthly   X  
Current Housing Reports, Housing Vacancies, H111 Quarterly   X X
Current Housing Reports, Who Can Afford to Buy a Home in 2002, H121 Occasional X X X
Current Housing Reports, Survey of Market Absorption of Apartments (SOMA) Quarterly   X X
Current Housing Reports, Characteristics of Apartments Completed, H131 Annual X X X
Current Housing Reports, American Housing Survey for the United States, H150 Biennial X X X
Current Housing Reports, American Housing Survey for Selected Metropolitan Areas, H170 Biennial X X X
Current Industrial Reports     X  
Current Population Reports (Series P20 and P23)   X X X
Consumer Income and Poverty, P60, and Household Economic Studies, P70   X X  
Consumer Income and Poverty, Alternative Poverty Estimates in the United States: 2003 Periodic X X  
Consumer Income and Poverty, Alternative Income Estimates in the United States: 2003 Periodic X X  
Consumer Income and Poverty, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States, 2007 Annual X X X
Economic Census of Outlying Areas Quinquennial X X  
Federal Aid to States for Fiscal Year Annual X X X
Global Population Profile: 2002 (Series WP)   X X X
International Briefs (Series IB)   X X  
International Data Base       X
International Population Reports (Series P95)   X X  
Manufacturer’s Shipments, Inventories, and Orders Monthly   X  
Manufacturer’s Shipments, Inventories, and Orders: 1992-2005 Annual   X  
New York City Housing and Vacancy Survey, 2005 Every 3 years   X X
Nonemployer Statistics Annual   X X
Population Estimates and Projections Annual     X
Quarterly Financial Report for Manufacturing, Mining, and Trade Corporations Quarterly   X  
Residential Finance Survey, 2001 Every 10 years X X X
Service Annual Survey Report Annual   X  
Survey of Plant Capacity Utilization (Current Industrial Reports, MQ-C1) Annual   X  
U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services: includes cumulative data     X X
U.S. Trade with Puerto Rico and U.S. Possessions (FT 895) Monthly   X  
Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (discontinued) Quinquennial X X X
         

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

<http://www.cdc.gov>

       
CDC Injury Fact Book   X X X
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Annual X X X
         

 

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)

<http://www.cms.hhs.gov>

       
CMS Statistics Annual X X  
Data Compendium Annual X X  
Health Care Financing Review. Medicare and Medicaid Statistical Supplement Annual X X  
Health Care Financing Review Quarterly X X  
Trustees Report Annual X X  
Wallet Card Annual X X  
         

Central Intelligence Agency

<http://www.cia.gov>

       
World Factbook Annual X X X
         

Coast Guard (See Department of Homeland Security)

       
         

Comptroller of the Currency

<http://www.occ.treas.gov>

       
Quarterly Journal Quarterly   X X
         

Office of the Clerk U.S. House of Representatives

<http://clerk.house.gov>

       
Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election Biennial   X X
         

Council of Economic Advisers

<http://www.whitehouse.gov>

       
Economic Indicators Monthly X X X
Economic Report of the President Annual X X  
         

Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

<http://www.ers.usda.gov>

       
Agricultural Income and Finance (Situation and Outlook Report) Annual X X X
Amber Waves Periodic X X X
America's Diverse Family Farms: Structure and Finances Annual X X  
Cotton and Wool Yearbook Annual     X
Dairy Yearbook Periodic     X
Feedgrains Yearbook Annual   X  
Food Spending in American Households (Statistical Bulletin No. 824) Periodic X X  
Food Marketing Review, (Agriculture Economic Report No. 743) Periodic X X  
Fruit and Tree Nut Yearbook Annual   X  
Oil Crops Yearbook Annual   X X
Poultry Yearbook Annual     X
Red Meat Yearbook Annual     X
Rice Yearbook Annual   X X
Sugar and Sweeteners Yearbook Periodic     X
Situation and Outlook Reports. Issued for agricultural exports; feed; fruit and tree nuts; livestock and poultry; oil crops; rice; sugar and sweeteners; vegetables, wheat, and world agriculture Periodic X X  
Structure and Finances of U.S. Farms: Family Farm Report Annual X X  
Vegetable and Melons Yearbook Annual     X
World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates Monthly X X X
         

Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service

<http://www.fns.usda.gov/fns/default.htm>

       
Characteristics of Food Stamp Households Annual X X  
Food and Consumer Service Programs       X
         

Department of Transportation

<http://www.dot.gov>

       
Air Travel Consumer Report Monthly X X X
Airport Activity Statistics of Certified Route Air Carriers Annual X   X
Transportation Safety Information Report Quarterly X   X
U.S. International Air Travel Statistics Quarterly X X X
Wage Statistics of Class I Railroads in the United States Annual X X  
         

Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics

<http://www.dhs.gov/ximgtn/statistics>

       
Yearbook of Immigration Statistics Annual X X  
         

Department of the Treasury, Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau

<http://www.atf.treas.gov>

       
Alcohol and Tobacco Summary Statistics Annual X    
Tobacco Products Monthly Statistical Releases   X    
         

Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service

<http://www.fas.usda.gov>

       
Livestock and Poultry World Markets and Trade Biannual X X  
         

Department of State

<http://www.state.gov>

       
United States Contribution to International Organizations Annual     X
         

Department of Defense

<http://www.defenselink.mil/pubs>

       
Foreign Military Sales and Military Assistance Facts Annual     X
Personnel Statistics Annual   X  
         

Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Conservation Service

<http://www.nrcs.usda.gov>

       
National Resources Inventory Periodic X   X
         

Department of Homeland Security, Coast Guard

<http://www.uscg.mil/default.asp>

       
Fact File Periodic X X X
         

Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

<http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm>

       
Budget in Brief Annual X X  
         

Department of Health and Human Services

<http://www.os.hhs.gov>

       
Annual Report Annual X    
         

Department of Labor

<http://www.dol.gov>

       
Annual Report of the Secretary Annual X X X
         

Department of Housing and Urban Development

<http://www.hud.gov>

       
Survey of Mortgage Lending Activity Monthly X   X
         

Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service

<http://www.nass.usda.gov>

       
Agricultural Chemical Usage Periodic     X
Agricultural Statistics Annual X X  
Catfish Production Annual X X X
Cattle Biennial X X X
Census of Agricultural Quinquennial X X X
Cherry Production Annual X X X
Chickens and Eggs Annual X X X
Citrus Fruits Annual X X X
Cranberries Annual X X X
Crop Production Reports Monthly X X X
Crop Values Report Annual X X X
Dairy Products Annual X X X
Farm Labor Quarterly X X X
Farms, Land in Farms, and Livestock Operations Annual X X X
Floriculture Crops Annual X X X
Land Value and Cash Rents Monthly X X X
Livestock Slaughter Annual X X X
Meat Animals: Production, Disposition, and Income Annual X X X
Milk Production Annual X X X
Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts Biennial X X X
Poultry: Production and Value Summary Annual X X X
Stock Reports. Stocks of grain, peanuts, potatoes, and rice Periodic X X X
Trout Production Annual X X X
Turkeys: Hatchery and Raised Annual X X X
Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates Periodic X X X
Vegetable Reports Periodic X X X
Weekly Weatherer and Crop Bulletin Report Weekly X X  
Winter Wheat Seedlings Monthly X X X
         

Department of Education

<http://www.ed.gov/index.jhtml>

       
         

Department of Education, Rehabilitation Services Administration

       
Caseload Statistics of State Vocational Rehabilitation Agencies in Fiscal Year Annual X X X
         

Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Public Debt

<http://www.publicdebt.treas.gov>

       
Monthly Statement of the Public Debt of the United States Monthly X X X
         

Employment and Training Administration

<http://www.doleta.gov>

       
Unemployment Insurance Claims Weekly     X
         

General Services Administration, Federal Real Property Council

<http://www.gsa.gov>

       
Federal Real Property Profile Annual   X X
         

Drug Enforcement Administration

<http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov>

       
Drug Abuse and Law Enforcement Statistics Irregular X X X
         

Geological Survey

<http://ask.usgs.gov>

       
A Statistical Summary of Data from the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Quality Networks. (Open-File Report 83-533)   X    
Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000 Quinquennial X X X
Mineral Commodity Summaries Annual X X  
Mineral Industry Surveys Quarterly   X X
Minerals Yearbook Annual X X X
         

Energy Information Administration

<http://www.eia.doe.gov>

       
Annual Energy Outlook Annual X X X
Annual Energy Review Annual X X X
Annual Coal Report Annual   X X
Electric Power Annual Annual   X X
Electric Power Monthly Monthly   X X
Electric Sales, Revenue and Retail Price Annual     X
Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S. Annual   X X
International Energy Statistics portal Ongoing   X X
International Energy Outlook Annual   X X
Monthly Energy Review Monthly   X X
Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers Annual   X X
Petroleum Marketing Annual Monthly   X X
Petroleum Marketing Monthly Monthly   X X
Petroleum Supply Annual Volume 1 Annual   X X
Petroleum Supply Annual Volume 2 Annual   X X
Petroleum Supply Monthly Monthly   X X
Quarterly Coal Report Quarterly   X X
Renewable Energy Annual Annual   X  
Residential Energy Consumption Survey Quadrennial   X X
State Electricity Profiles Annual   X X
State Energy Data Report Annual   X X
State Energy Price and Expenditure Report Annual   X X
U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves Annual   X X
Weekly Coal Production Weekly   X X
         

Federal Bureau of Investigation

<http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm>

       
Crime in the United States Annual   X X
Hate Crime Statistics Annual   X X
Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted Annual   X X
         

Internal Revenue Service

<http://www.irs.gov>

       
Corporation Income Tax Returns Annual X X X
Individual Income Tax Returns Annual X X X
IRS Data Book Annual X X X
Statistics of Income Bulletin Quarterly X X X
         

Farm Credit Administration

<http://www.fca.gov/FCA-HomePage.htm

       
Annual Report on the Farm Credit System Annual X X  
         

Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Services

<http://www.fms.treas.gov>

       
Active Foreign Credits of the United States Government Quarterly X    
Combined Statement of Receipts, Outlays, and Balances Annual X X X
Monthly Treasury Statement of Receipts and Outlays of the United States Government Monthly X X X
Treasury Bulletin Quarterly X X X
Financial Report of the United States Government Annual X X  
         

Export-Import Bank of the United States

<http://www.exim.gov>

       
Annual Report Annual X X  
Report to the U.S. Congress on Export Credit Competition and the Export-Import Bank of the United States Annual X X  
         

Fish and Wildlife Service

<http://www.fws.gov>

       
Federal Aid in Fish and Wildlife Restoration Annual X X  
National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife Associated Recreation Quinquennial X X  
         
       
Railroad Safety Statistics Annual X X X
         

Environmental Protection Agency

<http://www.epa.gov>

       
Air Quality Data Annual     X
Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey Periodic X X  
Needs Survey, Conveyance and Treatment of Municipal Wastewater Summaries of Technical Data Biennial   X  
Toxics Release Inventory Annual   X X
National Water Quality Inventory: 2000 Report (EPA-841-T-01-001) Biennial X X  
         

Federal Highway Administration

<http://www.fhwa.dot.gov>

       
Highway Statistics Annual X X  
         

Federal Communications Commission

<http://www.fcc.gov>

       
Annual Report Annual X X  
Statistics of Communications Common Carriers (discontinued) Annual X X  
Telecommunications Industry Revenue Annual X X  
Trends in Telephone Service Annual   X  
Trends in the International Telecommunications Industry Annual X X  
High-Speed Services for Internet Access Semi-Annual   X  
Annual Assessment of the Status of Competition in the Market for the Delivery of Video Programming Annual X X  
         

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

<http://www.fdic.gov>

       
Annual Report Annual X X X
FDIC Quarterly Quarterly X X X
Historical Statistics on Banking Annual     X
Quarterly Banking Profile Quarterly X X X
Statistics on Banking Quarterly     X
Summary of Deposits Annual     X
         

Forest Service

<http://www.fs.fed.us>

       
An Analysis of the Timber Situation in the United States 1996-2050 Periodic     X
Land Areas of the National Forest System Annual X   X
U.S. Timber Production, Trade, Consumption, and Price Statistics 1965-2001 Biennial X X  
RPA Assessment Tables Periodic     X
         

Department of Veterans Affairs

<http://www.va.gov>

       
Disability Compensation, Pension, and Death Pension Data Annual     X
Government Life Insurance Programs for Veterans and Members of the Service Annual     X
Selected Compensation and Pension Data by State of Residence Annual     X
Veterans Affairs Annual Accountability Report Annual X X X
         

International Trade Administration, Office of Travel and Tourism Industries

<http://www.tinet.ita.doc.gov>

       
Travel Data reports   X    
U.S. Travel and Tourism Statistics Annual X   X
         

Mine Safety and Health Administration

<http://www.msha.gov>

       
Informational Reports by Mining Industry: Coal; Metallic Minerals; Nonmetallic Minerals (except stone and coal); Stone, Sand, and Gravel Annual     X
Mine Injuries and Worktime (Some preliminary data) Quarterly X   X
         

National Transportation Safety Board

<http://www.ntsb.gov>

       
Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S. Air Carrier Operations Annual   X  
Annual Review of Aircraft Accident Data: U.S.General Aviation Annual   X  
         

Small Business Administration

<http://www.sba.gov>

       
Annual Report Annual X   X
Handbook of Small Business Data   X X  
Quarterly Indicators Annual X X X
Small Business and Micro Business Lending Annual X X X
State and Territory Small Business Profiles Annual X X X
The Small Business Economy Annual X X X
The State of Small Business Annual X X  
         

National Science Foundation

<http://www.nsf.gov/statitics>

       
Academic Institutional Profiles Annual   X X
Academic Research and Development Expenditures Annual   X X
Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States Biennial   X X
Characteristics of Recent Science/Engineering Graduates Biennial   X X
Federal Funds for Research and Development Annual   X X
Federal Research and Development Funding by Budget Function Annual   X X
Federal Science and Engineering Support to Universities, Colleges, and Nonprofit Institutions Annual   X X
Graduate Students and Postdoctorates in Science and Engineering Annual   X X
National Patterns of Research and Development Resources Annual   X X
Research and Development in Industry Annual   X X
Science and Engineering Degrees Annual   X X
Science and Engineering Degrees, by Race/Ethnicity of Recipients Annual   X X
Science and Engineering Doctorate Awards Annual   X X
Science and Engineering Indicators Biennial X X X
Science and Engineering State Profiles Annual   X X
Science Resources Satistics Info Briefs (various topics) Frequent X X X
Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities at Universities and Colleges Biennial   X X
Women, Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering Biennial   X X
         

Securities and Exchange Commission

<http://www.sec.gov/about.shtml>

       
Select SEC and Market Data Annual   X  
         

National Park Service

<http://www.nps.gov>

       
Federal Recreation Fee Report Annual X    
National Park Statistical Abstract Annual X X  
         

Social Security Administration

<http://www.ssa.gov>

       
Annual Statistical Report on the Social Security Disability Insurance Program Annual X X X
Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin Annual X X X
Children Receiving Social Security Income (SSI) Annual X X X
Congressional Statistics Annual X X X
Fast Facts & Figures about Social Security Annual X X X
Income of the Population 55 and over Biennially X X X
State Assistance Programs for Social Security Income (SSI) Recipients Annual X X X
SSI Annual Statistical Report Annual X X X
SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work Annual X X X
SSI Recipients by State and County Annual X X X
QASDI Beneficiaries by State and County Annual X X X
Social Security Bulletin Quarterly X X X
         

National Endowment for the Arts

<http://www.nea.gov>

       
National Endowment for the Arts, Annual Report Annual     X
The Performing Arts in the (GDP), 2002 Periodic X X  
Artist Labor Force by State, 2000 Periodic X X  
Artist Employment, 2000-2002 Periodic X X  
The Arts in the GDP Periodic X X  
Demographic Characteristics of Art Attendance, 2002 Periodic X X  
2002 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts Periodic X X  
         

Library of Congress

<http://www.loc.gov>

       
Annual Report Annual X X  
         
         

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

<http://ifmp.nasa.gov>

       
Annual Procurement Report Annual X X  
         

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

<http://www.samhsa.gov>

       
National Survey on Drug Use and Health Annual X X X
National Survey on Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) Annual X X X

Railroad Retirement Board, Chicago, Illinois

<http://www.rrb.gov/default.asp>

       
Annual Report Annual   X  
Quarterly Benefit Statistics Quarterly X   X
         

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

<http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov>

       
Traffic Safety Facts Annual X X  

National Center for Education Statistics

<http://nces.ed.gov>

       
Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States Annual X X X
Characteristics of Private Schools in the United States, 2005-2006 Annual X X X
College and University Library Survey Triennial     X
Computer and Internet Use by Students Biennial X X  
The Condition of Education Annual X X  
Digest of Education Statistics Annual X X  
Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Graduation Rates, and Financial Statistics Annual   X  
Indicators of School Crime and Safety Annual X X  
National Education Statistics Quarterly (last edition 4th quarter 2005) Quarterly     X
The Nation’s Report Card: Mathematics 2007 Periodic X X  
The Nation’s Report Card: Reading 2007 Periodic X X  
The Nation’s Report Card: Science 2005 Periodic X X  
The Nation’s Report Card: History 2006 Periodic X X  
The Nation’s Report Card: Writing 2007 Periodic X X  
Projections of Education Statistics Annual X X X
School and Staffing Survey Quadrennial     X
School and Staffing Survey: Characteristics of Schools, Districts, Teachers, Principals, and School Libraries in the United States Annual X X  
Status and Trends in the Education of racial and ethnic minorities Irregular X X  
         

International Trade Commission

<http://www.usitc.gov>

       
Recent Trends in U.S. Services Periodic X X  
Synthetic Organic Chemicals, U.S. Production and Sales Annual X X  
         

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

<http://ojjdp.ncjrs.org>

       
Highlights of the 2006 National Youth Gang Survey (FS-200805) Annual   X X
Juvenile Arrests, 2004 (Bulletin, NCJ 214563) Annual X X X
Victims of Violent Juvenile Crime (Bulletin, NCJ 201628) Periodic X X X
         

National Guard Bureau

<http://www.ngb.army.mil/>

       
Annual Review of the Chief Annual X X  
         

National Center for Health Statistics

<http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/>

       
Ambulatory Care Visits to Physician Offices, Hospital Outpatient Departments and Emergency Departments Annual X X  
Health: United States Annual X X  
Health Characteristics of Adults 55 Years of Age and Over Periodic X X  
Fertility, Family Planning, and Reproductive Health of US Women: Data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth Periodic   X X
National Hospital Discharge Survey: Annual Summary Annual   X  
National Vital Statistics Reports (NVRS) Monthly   X  
Vital and Health Statistics     X  
Series 10: Health Interview Survey Statistics Annual X X  
Series 11: Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Statistics Irregular X X  
Series 13: Data from National Health Care Survey Irregular X X  
Series 14: Data on Health Resources: Manpower and Facilities Irregular X X  
Series 20: Mortality Data Irregular X X  
Series 21: Natality, Marriage, and Divorce Data Irregular X X  
Series 23: Data from the National Survey of Family Growth Irregular X X  
         

Office of Personnel Management

<http://www.opm.gov>

       
Demographic Profile of the Federal Workforce Biennial   X X
Employment and Trends Bimonthly   X X
The Fact Book Annual   X X
Statistical Abstract for the Federal Employee Benefit Programs Annual     X
Work Years and Personnel Costs Annual   X X
         

National Endowment for the Humanities

<http://www.neh.gov>

       
Budget Request Annual X   X
         

National Credit Union Administration

<http://www.ncua.gov>

       
Annual Report Annual X X  
Yearend Statistics Annual X X  
         

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

<http://www.lib.noaa.gov>

       
Climates of the World, HCS 6-4 Monthly     X
Comparative Climatic Data Annual   X X
Daily Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, Heating Degree Days (HDD), and Cooling Degree Days (CDD), Clim 84 Periodic     X
Fisheries of the United States Annual X X  
General Summary of Tornadoes Annual     X
Hourly Precipitation Data. Monthly with annual summary; for each state Monthly     X
Local Climatological Data. Monthly with annual summary; for major cities Monthly     X
Monthly Climatic Data for the World Monthly     X
Monthly Normals of Temperature, Precipitation, Heating Degree Days (HDD), and Cooling Degree Days (CDD), Clim 84 Periodic   X X
Our Living Oceans Periodic X X  
Storm Data Monthly     X
U.S. Climate Normals Daily X X X
Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin National summary Weekly X X  
         

Office of Management and Budget

<http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb>

       
The Budget of the United States Government Annual X X  
         

Patent and Trademark Office

<http://www.uspto.gov>

       
Technology Assessment and Forecast Reports   X X X
All Technologies (Utility Patents) Annual X X X
Patent Counts by Country/State and Year, Utility Patents Report Annual X X X
Patenting Trends in the United States Annual X    
         

Maritime Administration

<http://www.marad.dot.gov>

       
Annual Report Annual X X  
Cargo-Carrying U.S. Flag Fleet by Area of Operation Semiannual X X X
Merchant Fleet Ocean-Going Vessels 1,000 Gross Tons and Over Quarterly     X
Seafaring Wage Rates Biennial X X  
         

 

NONGOVERNMENT

       

American Iron and Steel Institute, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.steel.org>

       
Annual Statistical Report Annual X    
         

Carl H. Pforzheimer and Company, New York, New York

 

       
Comparative Oil Company Statistics Annual Annual X    
         

American Gas Association, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.aga.org>

       
Gas Facts Annual X X  
         

Chronicle of Higher Education, Incorporated, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://chronicle.com>

       
Almanac Annual X   X
         

The Bureau of National Affairs, Incorporated, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.bna.com>

       
Basic Patterns in Union Contracts Annual X    
BNA’s Employment Outlook Quarterly X    
BNA’s Job Absence and Turnover Quarterly X    
Directory of U.S. Labor Organizations Annual X    
National Labor Relations Board Election Statistics Annual X    
Union Membership and Earnings Data Book Annual X    
Source Book on Collective Bargaining Annual X    
         

College Board, New York, New York

<http://www.collegeboard.com>

       
2007 College-Bound Seniors Total Group Profile Report Annual X X  
         

American Dental Association, Chicago, Illinois

<http://www.ada.org>

       
Dental Students’ Register Annual X    
Distribution of Dentists in the United States by Region and State Triennial X    
Survey of Dental Practice Annual X    
         

Commodity Research Bureau, Logical Systems, Incorporated, Chicago, Illinois

<http://www.crbtrader.com>

       
Commodity Year Book Update CD (discontinued) Quarterly      
CRB Commodity Index Report Weekly X    
CRB Commodity Year Book Annual X    
CRB Futures Perspective Weekly X X  
CRB Infotech CD Monthly      
Electronic Futures Trend Analyzer Daily     X
Final Markets-End-of-day Data Daily     X
Futures Market Service Weekly   X  
         

American Council of Life Insurers, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.acli.com>

       
Life Insurers Fact Book Annual X X  
         
       
Business Cycle Indicators Monthly X X  
Corporate Contributions Annual X X  
Productivity, Employment, and Income in the World’s Economies Annual X X  
         

Boy Scouts of America, Irving, Texas

<http://www.scouting.org>

       
Annual Report Annual X   X
         

American Bureau of Metal Statistics, Incorporated, Secaucus, New Jersey

<http://www.abms.com>

       
Non-Ferrous Metal Yearbook Annual X   X
         

Book Industry Study Group, Incorporated, New York, New York

<http://www.bisg.org>

       
Book Industry Trends Annual X    
Used-Book Sales Periodic X    
         

Congresstional Quarterly (CQ) Press, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.cqpress.com>

       
America Votes Biennial X    
         

Association of Racing Commissioners International, Incorporated, Lexington, Kentucky

<http://www.arci.com>

       
Statistical Reports on Greyhound Racing in the United States Annual X    
Statistical Reports on Horse Racing in the United States Annual X    
Statistical Reports on Jai Alai in the United States Annual X    
         

The Alan Guttmacher Institute, New York, New York

<http://www.guttmacher.org>

       
Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health Quarterly X X X
         

Association of American Railroads, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.aar.org>

       
Analysis of Class I Railroads Annual X X X
Cars of Revenue Freight Loaded Weekly   X X
Freight Commodity Statistics, Class I Railroads in the United States Annual X X X
Yearbook of Railroad Facts Annual X X  
         

Consumer Electronics Association (Electronic Industries Alliance), Arlington, Virginia

<http://www.ce.org>

       
Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) Sales and Forecasts Semiannual X X  
         

American Jewish Committee, New York, New York

<http://www.ajc.org>

       
American Jewish Year Book Annual X X  
         

Air Transport Association of America, Incorporated, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.airlines.org>

       
Air Transport Association, Annual Report Annual   X  
         

American Public Transportation Association, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.apta.com>

       
Public Transportation Fact Book Annual X X  
         

The Council of State Governments, Lexington, Kentucky

<http://www.csg.org>

       
The Book of the States Annual X X  
State Administrative Officials Classified by Function Annual X    
State Elective Officials and the Legislatures Annual X    
State Legislative Leadership, Committees, and Staff Annual X    
         

American Petroleum Institute, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.api.org>

       
The Basic Petroleum Data Book (online subscription) Annual X    
Joint Association Survey on Drilling Costs (JA5) Annual X    
Petroleum Industry Environmental Report Annual X   X
Quarterly Well Completion Report (online subscription) Quarterly X X  
         

Aerospace Industries Association, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.aia-aerospace.org>

       
Aerospace Facts and Figures Annual X X X
Aerospace Industry Year-End Review and Forecast Annual   X  
Commercial Helicopter Shipments Annual   X  
Employment in the Aerospace Industry Quarterly   X  
Exports of Aerospace Products Quarterly   X  
Imports of Aerospace Products Quarterly   X  
Manufacturing Production, Capacity, and Utilization in Aerospace and Aircraft and Parts Quarterly   X  
Orders, Shipments, Backlog and Inventories for Aircraft, Missiles, and Parts Quarterly   X  
         

American Osteopathic Association, Chicago, Illinois

<http://www.osteopathic.org/index.cfm>

       
American Osteopathic Association Fact Sheet Biennial X X  
         

American Medical Association, Chicago, Illinois

<http://www.ama-assn.org>

       
Physician Characteristics and Distribution in the U.S. Annual X    
State Medical Licensure Statistics, and License Requirements Annual X    
         

Association for Manufacturing Technology, McLean, Virginia

<http://www.amtonline.org>

       
Economic Handbook of the Machine Tool Industry, 2003-2004. (Online version by subscription only) Annual   X  
         

American Forest and Paper Association, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.afandpa.org>

       
Annual Statistical Summary of Recovered Paper Utilization Annual X X  
Statistics of Paper, Paperboard, and Wood Pulp Monthly X X  
         

 

Credit Union National Association, Incorporated, Madison, Wisconsin

<http://www.cuna.org>

       
The Credit Union Ranking Report Annual X    
Credit Union Services Profile Annual X    
Operating Ratios and Spreads Semiannual X    
         

Insurance Information Institute, New York, New York

<http://www.iii.org>

       
The I.I.I. Insurance Fact Book Annual X X X
The Financial Services Fact Book (published jointly with the Financial Services Roundtable) Annual X   X
         

Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.iadb.org>

       
Annual Report Annual X X  
Economic and Social Progress in Latin America Annual X    
         

International Air Transport Association

<http://www.iata.org>

       
World Air Transport Statistics Annual X X X
         

International City Management Association, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.icma.org>

       
Compensation: An Annual Report on Local Government Executive Salaries and Fringe Benefits Annual     X
Municipal Year Book Annual X    
         

Institute for Criminal Justice Ethics, New York, New York

<http://www.lib.jjay.cuny.edu/cje>

       
Criminal Justice Ethics Semiannual X    
         

International Monetary Fund, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.imf.org>

       
Annual Report Annual X X X
Balance of Payments Statistics Monthly X    
Direction of Trade Statistics Monthly X    
Government Finance Statistics Yearbook Annual X    
International Financial Statistics Monthly X    
         

International Telecommunication Union, Geneva Switzerland

<http://www.itu.int/home/index.html>

       
ITU Yearbook of Statistics Annual X    
World Telecommunication Indicators Annual X    
         

Investment Company Institute, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.ici.org>

       
Mutual Fund Fact Book Annual X X X
         

Jane’s Information Group, Coulsdon, United Kingdon and Alexandria, Virginia

<http://www.janes.com>

       
Jane’s Air-Launched Weapons Monthly X   X
Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft Annual X   X
Jane’s Armour and Artillery Annual X   X
Jane’s Avionics Annual X   X
Jane’s Fighting Ships Annual X   X
Jane’s Infantry Weapons Annual X   X
Jane’s Merchant Ships Annual X   X
Jane’s Military Communications Annual X   X
Jane’s Military Logistics Annual X   X
Jane’s Military Training Systems Annual X   X
Jane’s NATO Handbook Annual X   X
Jane’s Spaceflight Directory Annual X   X
         

Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, Cambridge, MA

<http://www.jchs.harvard.edu.org>

       
The State of the Nation's Housing Annual X X X
         

Information Today, Incorporated, Medford, New Jersey

<http://www.infotoday.com>

       
American Library Directory Annual X    
Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac Annual X    
         

Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.jointcenter.org>

       
Black Elected Officials: A Statistical Summary Ongoing X X  
         

Independent Petroleum Association of America, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.ipaa.org>

       
Domestic Oil and Gas Trends Monthly X    
Oil and Natural Gas Production in Your State Annual X X X
U.S. Petroleum Statistics Annual X X X
         

McGraw-Hill Construction Dodge, a Division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, New York

<http://www.construction.com>
<http://www.dodge.construction.com/Analytics/>

       
Dodge Construction Potential (online subscription) Monthly X X X
         

Health Forum, an American Hospital Association Company, Chicago, Illinois

<http://www.ahadata.com>

       
Annual Report Annual X    
Hospital Statistics Annual X   X
         

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.pnas.org>

       
Summary Report Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities Annual X    
         

Giving USA Foundation, Indianapolis, Indiana

<http://www.aafrc.org>

       
Giving USA Annual     X
         

National Academy of Social Insurance, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.nasi.org/>

       
Workers Compensation, Benefits, Coverage, and Costs Annual X X  
         

Girl Scouts of the USA, New York, New York

<http://www.girlscouts.org>

       
Annual Report Annual X X  
         

National Association of Home Builders, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.nahb.org>

       
Home Builders Forecast (online subscription) Monthly     X
Housing Economics (online subscription) Monthly     X
Housing Market Statistics (online subscription) Monthly     X
         

General Aviation Manufacturers Association, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.gama.aero/home.php>

       
Shipment Report Quarterly X   X
Statistical Databook Annual X X  
         

National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.naleo.org>

       
National Directory of Latino Elected Officials Annual   X X
         

The Foundation Center, New York, New York

<http://www.foundationcenter.org>

       
Foundation Yearbook Annual X    
FC Stats Annual     X
         

National Association of Realtors, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.realtor.org>

       
Real Estate Outlook: Market Trends and Insights (discontinued) Monthly X   X
Real Estate Insights Monthly   X X
Research Update Annual X    
Economist's Commentary Daily     X
Profile of Home Buyer and Sellers Annual X    
Investment and Vacation Home Buyers Survey Annual   X  
NAR Member Survey Annual X    
         

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy

<http://www.fao.org>

       
Fertilizer Yearbook Annual X    
Production Yearbook Annual X    
Trade Yearbook Annual X    
Yearbook of Fishery Statistics Annual X    
Yearbook of Forest Products Annual X    
         

National Association of State Budget Officers, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.nasbo.org>

       
State Expenditure Report Annual X X  
Fiscal Survey of the States Semi-Annual X X  
         

Federal National Mortgage Association, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.fanniemae.com>

       
Annual Report Annual X X  
         

National Association of State Park Directors, Raleigh, North Carolina

<http://www.naspd.org>

       
Annual Information Exchange Annual   X X
         

Euromonitor International, London, England

<http://www.euromonitor.com>

       
Consumer Asia Annual X    
Consumer China Annual X    
Consumer Eastern Europe Annual X    
Consumer Europe Annual X    
Consumer International Annual X    
Consumer Latin America Annual X    
European Marketing Data and Statistics Annual X    
International Marketing Data and Statistics Annual X    
Latin America Marketing Data and Statistics Annual X    
World Consumer Expenditure Patterns Annual X    
World Consumer Income Patterns Annual X    
World Economic Factbook Annual X    
World Retail Data and Statistics Annual X    
         

National Catholic Educational Association, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.ncea.org>

       
Catholic Schools in America Annual   X X
United States Catholic Elementary and Secondary Schools Staffing and Enrollment Annual X   X
U.S. Catholic Elementary Schools and Their Finances Biennial      
U.S. Catholic Secondary Schools and Their Finances Biennial X    
         

Editor and Publisher Company, New York, New York

<http://www.editorandpublisher.com>

       
Editor and Publisher Monthly X    
International Year Book Annual X   X
Market Guide Annual X    
         

National Council of Churches USA, New York, New York

<http://www.ncccusa.org>

       
Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches Annual X   X
         

Edison Electric Institute, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.eei.org>

       
Statistical Yearbook of the Electric Power Industry Annual X X X
         

National Education Association, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.nea.org>

       
Rankings of the States and Estimates of School Statistics Annual X X  
Status of the American Public School Teacher, 2000-2001 Quinquennial X X  
         

Dow Jones and Company, New York, New York

<http://www.dj.com>

       
Wall Street Journal Daily X   X
         

International Labour Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

<http://www.ilo.org>

       
Yearbook of Labour Statistics Annual X   X
         

 

National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, Massachusetts

<http://www.nfpa.org>

       
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Journal Bimonthly     X
         

PennWell Corporation, Tulsa, Oklahoma

<http://www.pennwell.com>

       
Offshore (online subscription) Monthly X X  
Oil and Gas Journal (online subscription) Weekly X X  
         

Puerto Rico Planning Board, San Juan, Puerto Rico

<http://www.jp.gobierno.pr>

       
Activity Index Monthly X   X
Balance of Payments Puerto Rico Annual X    
Economic Report to the Governor Annual X    
External Trade Statistics 2007 Annual X   X
Income and Product Annual X    
Projections Annual X    
Selected Statistics on Construction Industry Annual X    
Statistical Appendix - Economic Report to the Governor Annual X   X
         

Radio Advertising Bureau, New York, New York

<http://www.rab.com>

       
Media Facts Annual   X  
Radio Marketing Guide and Fact Book Quarterly   X  
         

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France

<http://www.sourceoecd.org>

       
OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook Annual X   X
Bank Profitability: Financial Statements of Banks, 1924-2003 Biannual X   X
Central Government Debt: Statistical Yearbook,1996-2005 Annual X   X
Coal Information Annual X   X
CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion, 1971-2004 Annual X   X
Communications Outlook Biannual X   X
DAC Journal Quarterly X X  
Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators Annual X   X
Electricity Information Annual X   X
Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries Annual X   X
Energy Balances of OECD Countries Annual X   X
Energy Prices and Taxes Quarterly X X  
Energy Statistics of NON-OECD Countries Annual X X X
Energy Statistics of OECD Countries Annual X X X
Environmental Data Compendium Annual X   X
Environmental Outlook Sporadic X X  
Financial Market Trends Triennial X X  
Geographical Distribution of Financial Flows to Aid Recipients Annual X    
Historical Statistics, 1970-2000. 2001 Edition (discontinued as of 2001)   X X X
Information Technology Outlook, 2002 Edition Biennial X X X
Insurance Statistics Yearbook Annual X X X
International Development Statistics Annual     X
Internal Migration Outlook Annual X X  
International Trade by Commodities Statistics Annual X X  
Iron and Steel Industry in 2002. 2004 Edition Annual      
Labor Force Statistics Annual X X  
Main Economic Indicators Monthly X X  
Main Science and Technology Indicators, Vol. 2003 Biennial X X  
Measuring Globalisation: The Role of Multinationals in OECD Countries One Time      
Monthly Statistics of International Trade Monthly X X  
National Accounts of Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Countries Annual X X X
Volume I: Main Aggregates   X X X
Volume II: Detailed Tables   X X X
Volume IIIa: Financial Accounts Annual   X X
Volume IIIb: Financial Balance Sheets Annual   X X
Volume II: Detailed Tables   X X X
Volume IV: Summary of General Aggregates and Balances     X X
Natural Gas Information Annual X X X
Nuclear Energy Data Annual X    
OECD Economic Outlook Biennial X   X
OECD Economic Studies Annual X   X
OECD Economic Surveys Annual X   X
OECD Employment Outlook Annual X   X
OECD Factbook Annual X X X
OECD Health Data Annual X X X
OECD Science, Technology, and Industry Outlook Biennual X X X
OECD Territorial Reviews Quarterly X X  
Nuclear Energy Data Annual X    
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in Figures Bimonthly X   X
Oil Information 2003 Edition Annual X X  
Oil, Gas, Coal, and Electricity Quarterly Statistics Quarterly X X  
Quarterly Labor Force Statistics (discontinued as of 4th quarter 2004) Quarterly X X  
Quarterly National Accounts Quarterly X X  
Research and Development Statistics Annual X X X
Revenue Statistics 1965-2005, 2006 Edition Annual X X  
Review of Fisheries in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Member Countries Annual X X  
Structural Statistics for Industry and Services Annual X X  
Taxing Wages Annual X X  
Trends in International Migration 2004 Edition Annual X X  
Trends in the Transport Sector Annual X X  
Uranium Resources Production and Demand, 2001 Biennial X X  
World Energy Outlook Annuall X X  
         

Regional Airline Association, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.raa.org>

       
Statistical Report Annual X X  
         

Securities Industry Association, New York, New York

<http://www.sia.com>

       
Foreign Activity Report Quarterly X    
Securities Industry Trends Periodic X    
Securities Industry Yearbook Annual X   X
         

Standard and Poor’s Corporation, New York, New York

<http://www.standardandpoors.com>

       
Analyst’s Handbook Monthly X    
Corporation Records Daily X    
Daily Stock Price Records Quarterly X    
Standard and Poor’s Global Stock Market Factbook Annual X    
         

United Nations Statistics Division, New York, New York

<http://unstats.un.org/unsd/>

       
Analysis of Main Aggregates Annual X    
Compendium of Human Settlements Statistics (Series N) Annual X    
Demographic Yearbook (Series R) Annual X X X
Energy Balances and Electricity Profiles (Series W) Annual X X  
Energy Statistics Yearbook (Series J) Annual X X  
Industrial Statistics Yearbook: (Series P)
Commodity Production Statistics
Annual X   X
International Trade Statistics Yearbook (Series G) Annual X    
Main Aggregates and Detailed Tables Annual X    
Monthly Bulletin of Statistics (Series Q) Monthly X    
National Accounts Statistics: (Series X) Annual X   X
Population and Vital Statistics Report (Series A) Quarterly X    
Social Statistics and Indicators (Series K) Occasional X   X
Statistical Yearbook (Series; also available in CD-ROM, Series S/CD) Annual X   X
The World’s Women: Progress in Statistics, 2005 Quinquennial X X X
World Statistics Pocketbook (Series V) Annual X    
         

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Geneva Switzerland

<http://www.unctad.org>

       
Development and Globalization: Facts and Figures Annual X X X
Handbook of Statistics Annual X X X
         

The New York Times Almanac, 2008

Annual X    
         

United States Telecom Association, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.usta.org>

       
Statistics of the Local Exchange Carriers Annual   X X
         

New York Stock Exchange, Incorporated, New York, New York

<http://www.nyse.com>

       
Fact Book (online subscription) Annual X X  
         

University of Michigan, Center for Political Studies, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Michigan

<http://www.umich.edu>

       
National Election Studies Cumulative Datafile Biennial X   X
         

National Sporting Goods Association, Mount Prospect, Illinois

<http://www.nsga.org>

       
The Sporting Goods Market in 2009 Annual X X  
Sports Participation in 2009 Annual X X  
         

Warren Communications News, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.warren-news.com>

       
Cable and Station Coverage Atlas Annual     X
Television and Cable Factbook Annual X   X
         

National Safety Council, Itasca, Illinois

<http://www.nsc.org>

       
Injury Facts Annual X   X
         

World Almanac, New York, New York

<http://www.worldalmanac.com>

       
The World Almanac and Book of Facts Annual X   X
         

National Restaurant Association, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.restaurant.org>

       
Quick-Service Restaurant Trends Annual X X  
Restaurant Economic Trends (online subscription) Monthly     X
Restaurant Industry Forecast Annual X X  
Restaurant Industry in Review Annual X X  
Restaurant Industry Operations Report Annual X X  
Restaurant Industry Pocket Factbook Annual     X
Restaurant Industry 2015, 2005 Annual X    
Restaurant Performance Index Monthly X   X
Restaurant Spending Annual X X  
State of the Restaurant Industry Work Force Annual X X  
Tableservice Restaurant Trends Annual X X  
The Economic Impact of the Nation’s Eating and Drinking Places Annual X    
Hourly Wages for Food Service Occupations Annual X X  
Research News and Numbers Monthy X    
         

The World Bank Group, Washington, District of Columbia

<http://www.worldbank.org>

       
Global Development Finance, 2008 Annual X X  
The Little Data Book, 2008 Annual X X  
Atlas of Global Development Annual X X  
World Development Indicators, 2008 Annual X   X
         

National Marine Manufacturers Association, Chicago, Illinois

<http://www.nmma.org>

       
Boating (A Statistical Report on America’s Top Family Sport) Annual X X X
U.S. Recreational Boat Registration Statistics Annual X X  
         

World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland

<http://www.who.int/en/>

       
Aid Epidemic Update Annual X X  
World Health Statistics Report Annual X X  
         

National Golf Foundation, Jupiter, Florida

<http://www.ngf.org>

       
Golf Consumer Profile Annual   X  
Golf Facilities in the U.S. Annual X X  
         

World Trade Organization

<http://www.wto.org>

       
International Trade Statistics Annual X X X

Reed Business Information, New York, New York

<http://www.reedbusiness.com>

       
Library Journal Semimonthly X   X
Publishers Weekly Weekly X   X
School Library Journal Monthly X   X
         

Appendix I. Guide to State Statistical Abstracts

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...atab/app1b.pdf

 
This bibliography includes the most recent statistical abstracts for states published since 2000, plus those that will be issued in late 2011. For some states, a near equivalent has been listed in substitution for, or in addition to, a statistical abstract. All sources contain statistical tables on a variety of subjects for the state as a whole, its component parts, or both. Internet sites also contain statistical data.

Alabama

University of Alabama, Center for Business and Economic Research, Box 870221,
Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0221.
205-348-6191. Fax: 205-348-2951.
Internet site <http://cber.cba.ua.edu/>.
Alabama Economic Outlook, 2011. Revised annually.

Alaska

Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, 550 West 7th Avenue, Suite 1770, Anchorage, AK 99501. 907-269-8100. Fax 907-269-8125.
The Alaska Economic Performance Report, 2006. Online.

Arizona

University of Arizona, Economic and Business Research Center, Eller College of
Management, 1130 East Helen Street, McClelland Hall, Rm. 103, P.O. Box 210108, Tucson, AZ 85721-0108. 520-621-2155.
Fax: 520-621-2150. Internet site
Arizona Statistical Abstract, 2003.
Arizona’s Economy. Quarterly Online, 2011. Online.
Arizona Economic Indicators Databook, 2009. Semiannual. Online.

Arkansas

University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Institute for Economic Advancement, Economic Research, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, AR 72204-1099.
501-569-8519. Fax: 501-569-8538.
Internet site <http://www.iea.ualr.edu>.
Arkansas State and County Economic Data, 2010.
Arkansas Personal Income Handbook, 2010.
Arkansas Statistical Abstract, 2008. Revised biennially.

California

Department of Finance, 915 L Street, Sacramento, CA 95814. 916-445-3878. Internet site <http://www.dof.ca.gov/>.
California Statistical Abstract, 2009. Annual. Online only.

Colorado

University of Colorado at Boulder, Government Publications Library, University Libraries, 184 UCB, 1720 Pleasant Street, Boulder, CO 80309-0184. 303-492-8705. Internet site <http:/ucblibraries.colorado.edu/>.
Colorado by the Numbers. Online only.
Colorado Office of Economic Development and International Trade, 1625 Broadway, Suite 2700, Denver, CO 80202. 303-892-3840. Fax: 303-892-3848. Internet site <http://www.colorado.gov/cs/Satellite
/OEDIT/1162927366334>.
Colorado Data Book, 2010–11. Online only.

Connecticut

Connecticut Department of Economic and Community Development, 505 Hudson Street, Hartford, CT 06106-7106. 860-270-8000. Internet site <http://www.ct.gov/ecd/site/default.asp>.
Connecticut Town Profiles, 2011.

Delaware

Delaware Economic Development Office, 99 Kings Highway, Dover, DE 19901-7305. 302-739-4271. Fax: 302-739-5749. Internet site <http://dedo.delaware.gov>.
Delaware Statistical Overview, 2008. Online only.
Delaware Data Book, 2011.

District of Columbia

Business Resource Center, John A. Wilson Building, 1350 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20004. 202-727-1000. Internet site. <http://brc.dc.gov/resources/facts.asp>.
Market Facts and Statistics. Online only.

Florida

University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, P.O. Box 117145, 221 Matherly Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611-7145. 352-392-0171, ext. 219. Fax: 352-392-4739. Internet site <http://www.bebr.ufl.edu>.
Florida Statistical Abstract, 2010. Annual. Also available on CD-ROM.
Florida County Perspective, 2010. One profile for each county. Annual. Also available on CD-ROM.
Florida County Rankings, 2010. Annual. Also available on CD-ROM.

Georgia

University of Georgia, Terry College of Business, Selig Center for Economic Growth, Athens, GA 30602-6254. 706-542-8100. Fax: 706-542-3835 Internet site
Georgia Statistical Abstract, 2008-09.
University of Georgia, Center for Agribusiness and Economic Development, 301 Lumpkin House, Athens, GA 30602-7509. 706-542-2434. Fax: 706-542-0770. Internet site <http://www.georgiastats.uga.edu/>.
The Georgia County Guide, 2010. Annual.

Hawaii

Hawaii State Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism, Research and Economic Analysis Division, Statistics and Data Support Branch, P.O. Box 2359, Honolulu, HI 96804. 808-586-2423. Fax: 808-587-2790. Internet site
The State of Hawaii Data Book 2009. Annual. Periodically updated.

Idaho

State of Idaho Department of Labor, 317 West Main St., Boise, ID 83735. 208-332-3570. Fax: 208-334-6430. Internet site
County Profiles Idaho. Online.
Idaho Community Profiles. Online.

Illinois

The Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois, 1007 W. Nevada Street, Urbana, IL 61801, MC-037. 217-333-3340. Fax: 217-244-4817.
Internet site <http://www.igpa.uiuc.edu/>.

Indiana

Indiana University, Kelley School of Business, Indiana Business Research Center, 100 South Avenue, Suite 240, Bloomington, IN 47404. 812-855-5507. Internet site <http://www.ibrc.indiana.edu/>.
STATS Indiana. Online only.

Iowa

Iowa State University, Office of Social and Economic Trend Analysis, 303 East Hall, Ames, IA 50010-1070. 515-294-9903.
Fax: 515-294-0592. Internet site
State Library of Iowa, State Data Center, Ola Babcock Miller Building, 1112 East Grand, Des Moines, IA 50319-0233. 800-248-4483. Fax: 515-242-6543. Internet site <http://www.iowadatacenter.org>.

Kansas

University of Kansas, Policy Research Institute, 1541 Lilac Lane, 607 Blake Hall, Lawrence, KS 66045-3129. 785-864-3701. Fax: 785-864-3683. Internet site
Kansas Statistical Abstract, 2009. 44th ed. Online only.

Kentucky

Kentucky Cabinet for Economic Development, Old Capitol Annex, 300 West Broadway, Frankfort, KY 40601. 800-626-2930. Fax: 502-564-3256. Internet site

Louisiana

Louisiana State Census Data Center, Office of Electronic Services, 1201 N. Third Street, Suite. 7-210, Baton Rouge, LA, 70802.
Fax: 225-219-4027. Internet site

Maine

Maine State Planning Office, 38 State House Station, 19 Union Street, Augusta, ME 04333-0038. 800-662-4545.
Fax: 207-287-6077. Internet site

Maryland

RESI, Towson University, 7400 York Road, Suite 200, Towson, MD 21252-0001. 410-704-7374. Fax: 410-704-4115. Internet site
Maryland Statistical Abstract, 2006.

Massachusetts

MassCHIP, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 250 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02108-4619. 617-624-6000. Internet site <http://masschip.state.ma.us/>.
Instant Topics. Online only.

Michigan

Michigan Economic Development Corporation, 300 North Washington Square,
Lansing, MI 48913. 1-888-522-0103.

Minnesota

Minnesota Department of Employment and Economic Development, 1st National Bank Building, 332 Minnesota Street Suite E200, Saint Paul, MN 55101-1351. 800-657-3858. Internet site <http://www.deed.state
.mn.us/facts/index.htm>.
Compare Minnesota: Profiles of Minnesota’s Economy & Population. Online only.
Minnesota State Demographic Center, 658 Cedar Street Room 300, Saint Paul, MN 55155, 651-296-2557. Internet site

Mississippi

Mississippi State University, College of Business and Industry, Office of Business Research and Services, P.O. Box 5288,
Mississippi State, MS 39762. 662-325-2850. Fax: 662-325-2410. Internet site
Mississippi Statistical Abstract, 2007.40th ed. Also available on CD-ROM.

Missouri

University of Missouri-Columbia, Economic and Policy Analysis Research Center, 10 Professional Building, Columbia, MO 65211. 573-882-4805. Fax: 573-882-5563. Internet site <http://eparc.mirrouri.edu/>.
Missouri Statistical Data Archive. Online only.

Montana

Montana Department of Commerce, Census and Economic Information Center, 301 S. Park Ave., P.O. Box 200505, Helena, MT 59620-0505, 406-841-2740.
Fax: 406-841-2731. Internet site

Nebraska

Nebraska Department of Economic Development, P. O. Box 94666, 301 Centenial Mall South, Lincoln, NE 68509-4666. 800-426-6505. Fax: 402-471-3778. Internet site <http://info.neded.org/>.

Nevada

Nevada Department of Administration, Budget and Planning Division, 209 East Musser Street, Room 200, Carson City, NV 89701-4298. 775-684-0222. Fax: 775-684-0260. Internet site <http://www.budget.state.nv.us/>.
Nevada Statistical Abstract. Online only.

New Hampshire

New Hampshire Office of Energy and Planning, 4 Chenell Drive, Concord, NH 03301-8501. 603-271-2155. Fax: 603-271-2615. Internet site <http://www.nh.gov/oep/index.htm>.

New Jersey

New Jersey State Data Center, NJ Department of Labor and Workforce Development, 1 John Fitch Plaza, P.O. Box 110 Trenton, NJ 08625-0110. 609-984-2595. Fax: 609-984-6833. Internet site
Labor Market Information, 2008. Online only.

New Mexico

University of New Mexico, Bureau of Business and Economic Research, MSC06 3510, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001. 505-277-6626.
Fax: 505-277-2773. Internet site
New Mexico Business, Current Economic Report Monthly.
FOR-UNM Bulletin. Quarterly.

New York

Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, 411 State Street, Albany, NY 12203-1003. 518-443-5522. Fax: 518-443-5788. Internet site <http://www.rockinst.org/>.
New York State Statistical Yearbook, 2009 34th ed.

North Carolina

Office of State Budget and Management, 116 West Jones Street, Raleigh, NC 27603-8005. 919-807-4700. Fax: 919-733-0640.
How North Carolina Ranks, 2010. Online only.

North Dakota

University of North Dakota, Bureau of
Business and Economic Research, P.O. Box 8098, Grand Forks, ND 58202-8098. 800-225-5863. Fax: 701-777-2019. Internet site <http://business.und.edu/>.
North Dakota Statistical Abstract. Online only.

Ohio

Office of Strategic Research, Ohio Department of Development, 77 South High Street, P.O. Box 1001, Columbus, OH 43216-1001. 614-466-2116. Fax: 614-466-9697. Internet site <http://www.odod.state.oh.us/research>.
Research products and services. Updated continuously.
Ohio County Profiles, 2009.
Ohio County Indicators. Updated periodically.

Oklahoma

University of Oklahoma, Center for Economic and Management Research, Michael F. Price College of Business, 307 West Brooks, Suite 4, Norman OK 73019-4004. 405-325-2931.
Fax: 405-325-7688. Internet site
Statistical Abstract of Oklahoma, 2010.

Oregon

Secretary of State, Archives Division, Archives Bldg., 800 Summer Street, NE, Salem, OR 97310. 503-373-0701 ext.1.
Fax: 503-378-4118. Internet site
Oregon Blue Book. 2011 Centennial. Biennial.

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania State Data Center, Institute of State and Regional Affairs, Penn State
Harrisburg, 777 West Harrisburg Pike,
Middletown, PA 17057-4898. 717-948-6336. Fax: 717-948-6754. Internet site
Pennsylvania Statistical Abstract, 2010. Also Available on CD-Rom.

Rhode Island

Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation, 315 Iron Horse Way, Suite 101,
Providence, RI 02908. 401-278-9100.
Fax: 401-273-8270. Internet site
RI Databank. Online only.

South Carolina

Budget and Control Board, Office of Research and Statistics, 1919 Blanding Street, Columbia 29201. 803-898-9960. Internet site <http://www.ors2.state.sc.us/abstract/index.asp>.
South Carolina Statistical Abstract, 2009. Also available on CD-Rom.

South Dakota

University of South Dakota, State Data Center, Business Research Bureau, The University of South Dakota, 414 E. Clark Street, Vermillion, SD 57069. 605-677-5708.
Fax: 605-677-5427. Internet site
2006 South Dakota Community Abstracts.

Tennessee

College of Business Administration, The University of Tennessee, 916 Volunteer Blvd., 716 Stokely Management Center, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-0570. 865-974-5441. Fax: 865-974-3100. Internet site
Tennessee Statistical Abstract, 2003.Last printed edition. Biennial.

Texas

Dallas Morning News, Communications Center, P.O. Box 655237, Dallas, TX 75265-5237. 214-977-8262. Internet site
Texas Almanac, 2010-2011. 64th ed.
Texas State Data Center and Office of the State Demographer, Institute for Demographic and Socioeconomic Research (IDSER), 501 West Durango Blvd.,
San Antonio, TX 78207-4415. 210-458-6543. Fax: 210-458-6541. Internet site

Utah

Governor’s Office of Planning and Budget, Demographic & Economic Analysis, Suite 150, P.O. Box 132210, Salt Lake City, UT 84114-2210. 801-538-1027. Fax: 801-538-1547. Internet site <http://www.governor.utah.gov/dea>.
2011 Economic Report to the Governor. Annual.
Utah Data Guide Newsletter, 2010.Quarterly. Also available online.

Vermont

Department of Labor, Labor Market Information, 3 Green Mountain Drive, P.O. Box 488, Montpelier, VT 05601-0488. 802-828-4202. Fax: 802-828-4050. Internet site <http://www.vtlmi.info/>.
Vermont Economic-Demographic Profile, 2010. Annual.

Virginia

University of Virginia, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service, 2400 Old ivy Road
P.O. Box 400206, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4206. 434-982-5522.
Fax: 434-982-5524. Internet site
Stat Chat. Online only.

Washington

Washington State Office of Financial Management, Forecasting Division, P.O. Box 43113, Olympia, WA 98504-3113. 360-902-0555. Internet site <http://www.ofm.wa.gov/>.
Washington State Data Book, 2009.Online only.

West Virginia

West Virginia University, College of Business and Economics, Bureau of Business and Economic Research, 1601 University Ave, P.O. Box 6025, Morgantown, WV 26506-6025. 304-293-4092. Fax: 304-293-5652. Internet site <http://www.be.wvu.edu/bber/index.htm>.
2009 West Virginia County Data Profiles. Also available on CD-Rom.
West Virginia Economic Outlook, 2011. Annual. Also available on CD-Rom.

Wisconsin

Wisconsin Legislative Reference Bureau, One East Main Street, Suite 200, Madison, WI 53701-2037. 608-266-0341. Internet site <http://www.legis.state.wi.us/lrb/pubs/bluebook.htm/>.
2009–2010 Wisconsin Blue Book. Biennial.

Wyoming

Department of Administration and Information, Economic Analysis Division, 2800 Central Avenue, Suite 206, Cheyenne, WY 82002-0060. 307-777-7504.
Fax: 307-632-1819. Internet site
The Equality State Almanac, 2009.

Appendix I. Guide to Foreign Statistical Abstracts

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/...atab/app1c.pdf

 
This bibliography presents recent statistical abstracts for member nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and Russia. All sources contain statistical tables on a variety of subjects for the individual countries. Many of the following publications provide text in English as well as in the national language(s).
 
For further information on these publications, contact the named statistical agency which is responsible for editing the publication.

Australia

Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra. <http://www.abs.gov.au>.
Year Book Australia. Annual. 2008.(In English.)

Austria

Statistik Austria, 1110 Wien.
Statistisches Jahrbuch Osterreichs. Annual. 2010. With CD-ROM. (In German.) With English translations of table headings.

Belgium

L’Institut National de Statistique, Rue de Louvain; 44-1000 Bruxelles.
Annuaire statistique de la Belgique. Annual. 1995. (In French.)

Canada

Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, KIA OT6. <http://www.statcan.ca/start.html>.
Canada Year book. 2001. (In English.)

Czech Republic

Czech Statistical Office, Na padesatem 81, Praha 10. <http://www.czso.cz/>.
Statisticka Rocenka Ceske Republiky 2010. With CD-ROM. (In English and Czech.)

Denmark

Danmarks Statistik, Sejrogade 11, 2100 Kobenhavn O. <http://www.dst.dk>.
Statistisk ARBOG. 2010. Annual. English version available only on internet and is free of charge at:
(Printed version— In Danish only.)

Finland

Statistics Finland, Helsinki.
Statistical Yearbook of Finland, Annual. 2010. With CD-ROM. (In English, Finnish, and Swedish.)

France

Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, Paris 18, Bld. Adolphe Pinard, 75675 Paris (Cedex 14). <http://www.insee.fr/fr/home/home_page.asp>.
Annuaire Statistique de la France. Annual. 2003. (In French.) 2005 CD-ROM only.

Germany

Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden. <http://www.destatis.de/contact>.
Statistisches Jahrbuch fur die Bundesrepublic Deutschland. Annual. 2010.(In German.) Statistisches Jahrbuch fur das Ausland. 2006.
Statistisches Jahrbuch 2005 Fur die Bundesreublik Deutschland und fur das ausland CD-ROM.

Greece

Hellenic Statistica Authority.
<http:// www.statistics.gr/>.
Concise Statistical Yearbook 2009. (In English and Greek.)
Statistical Yearbook of Greece. Annual. 2008. (In English and Greek.)

Hungary

Hungarian Central Statistical Office, 1024 Budapest. <http://www.ksh.hu>.
Statistical Yearbook of Hungary, 2009. With CD-ROM. (In English and Hungarian.)

Iceland

Hagstofa Islands/Statistics Iceland.
Statistical Yearbook of Iceland. 2010.(In English and Icelandic.)

Ireland

Central Statistics Office, Skehard Road, Cork. <http://www.cso.ie>.
Statistical Yearbook of Ireland. Annual. 2008. (In English.)

Italy

Istituto Nazionale Statistica.
Via Cesare Balbo 16 Roma.
Annuario Statistico Italiano. Annual. 2008. With CD-ROM. (In Italian.)

Appendix II. Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: Concepts, Components, and Population

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/12statab/app2.pdf

Introduction

The United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas according to published standards that are applied to U.S. Census Bureau data. The general concept of a metropolitan or micropolitan statistical area is that of a core area containing a substantial population nucleus, together with adjacent communities having a high degree of economic and social integration with that core. Currently defined metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas are based on application of 2000 standards (which appeared in the Federal Register on December 27, 2000) to 2000 decennial census data. Current metropolitan and micropolitan statistical area definitions were announced by OMB effective June 6, 2003, and subsequently updated as of December 2003, November 2004, December 2005, December 2006, November 2007, November 2008, and December 2009.
 
Standard definitions of metropolitan areas were first issued in 1949 by the then Bureau of the Budget (predecessor of OMB), under the designation ‘‘standard metropolitan area’’ (SMA). The term was changed to ‘‘standard metropolitan statistical area’’ (SMSA) in 1959 and to ‘‘metropolitan statistical area’’ (MSA) in 1983. The term ‘‘metropolitan area’’ (MA) was adopted in 1990 and referred collectively to metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), consolidated metropolitan statistical areas (CMSAs), and primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs). The term ‘‘core-based statistical area’’ (CBSA) became effective in 2000 and refers collectively to metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas.
 
OMB has been responsible for the official metropolitan areas since they were first defined, except for the period 1977 to 1981, when they were the responsibility of the Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce. The standards for defining metropolitan areas were modified in 1958, 1971, 1975, 1980, 1990, and 2000.

Defining Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas

The 2000 standards provide that each CBSA must contain at least one urban area of 10,000 or more population. Each metropolitan statistical area must have at least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more inhabitants. Each micropolitan
statistical area must have at least one urban cluster of at least 10,000 but less than 50,000 population.
 
Under the standards, the county (or counties) in which at least 50 percent of the population resides within urban areas of 10,000 or more population, or that contain at least 5,000 people residing within a single urban area of 10,000 or more population, is identified as a ‘‘central county’’ (counties). Additional ‘‘outlying counties’’ are included in the CBSA if they meet specified requirements of commuting to or from the central counties. Counties or equivalent entities form the geographic ‘‘building blocks’’ for metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas throughout the United States and Puerto Rico.
 
If specified criteria are met, a metropolitan statistical area containing a single core with a population of 2.5 million or more may be subdivided to form smaller groupings of counties referred to as ‘‘metropolitan divisions.’’
 
As of December 2009, there are 366 metropolitan statistical areas and 576 micropolitan statistical areas in the United States. In addition, there are eight metropolitan statistical areas and five micropolitan statistical areas in Puerto Rico.

Principal Cities and Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Area Titles

The largest city in each metropolitan or micropolitan statistical area is designated a ‘‘principal city.’’ Additional cities qualify if specified requirements are met concerning population size and employment. The title of each metropolitan or micropolitan statistical area consists of the names of up to three of its principal cities and the name of each state into which the metropolitan or micropolitan statistical area extends. Titles of metropolitan divisions also typically are based on principal city names, but in certain cases consist of county names.

Defining New England City and Town Areas

In view of the importance of cities and towns in New England, the 2000 standards also provide for a set of geographic areas that are defined using cities and towns in the six New England states. The New England city and town areas (NECTAs) are defined using the same criteria as metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas and are identified as either metropolitan or micropolitan, based, respectively, on the presence of either an urbanized area of 50,000 or more population or an urban cluster of at least 10,000 but less than 50,000 population. If the specified criteria are met, a NECTA containing a single core with a population of at least 2.5 million may be subdivided to form smaller groupings of cities and towns referred to as New England city and town area divisions.

Changes in Definitions Over Time

Changes in the definitions of these statistical areas since the 1950 census have consisted chiefly of (1) the recognition of new areas as they reached the minimum required city or urbanized area population and (2) the addition of counties (or cities and towns in New England) to existing areas as new decennial census data showed them to qualify.
 
In some instances, formerly separate areas have been merged, components of an area have been transferred from one area to another, or components have been dropped from an area. The large majority of changes have taken place on the basis of decennial census data. However, Census Bureau data serve as the basis for intercensal updates in specified circumstances.
 
Because of these historical changes in geographic definitions, users must be cautious in comparing data for these statistical areas from different dates. For some purposes, comparisons of data for areas as defined at given dates may be appropriate; for other purposes, it may be preferable to maintain consistent area definitions. Historical metropolitan area definitions are available for 1999, 1993, 1990, 1983, 1981, 1973, 1970, 1963, 1960, and 1950.
 
Excluding Tables 20 through 24 in the Population section; Table 595 in the Labor Force section; Table 683 in the Income section, and the tables that follow in this appendix, the tables presenting data for metropolitan areas in this edition of the Statistical Abstract are based on the 1999 or earlier metropolitan area definitions. For a list of component counties according to the 1999 definition, see Appendix II in the 2002 edition of the Statistical Abstract or <http://www.census.gov/population/www...pastmetro.html>.
 

Figure A1 Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas of the United States

Figure A1 Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas of the United States.png

Figure A2 Metropolitan and Micropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs)

Figure A2 Metropolitan and Micropolitan New England City and Town Areas (NECTAs).png

Appendix III. Limitations of the Data

Source: http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/12statab/app3.pdf

http://www.census.gov/prod/2009pubs/10statab/app3.pdf PDF

Introduction

The data presented in this Statistical Abstract came from many sources. The sources include not only federal statistical bureaus and other organizations that collect and issue statistics as their principal activity, but also governmental administrative and regulatory agencies, private research bodies, trade associations, insurance companies, health associations, and private organizations such as the National Education Association and philanthropic foundations. Consequently, the data vary considerably as to reference periods, definitions of terms and, for ongoing series, the number and frequency of time periods for which data are available.


The statistics presented were obtained and tabulated by various means. Some statistics are based on complete numerations or censuses while others are based on samples. Some information is extracted from records kept for administrative or regulatory purposes (school enrollment, hospital records, securities registration, financial accounts, social security records, income tax returns, etc.), while other information is obtained explicitly for statistical purposes through interviews or by mail. The estimation procedures used vary from highly sophisticated scientific techniques, to crude ‘‘informed guesses.’’

Each set of data relates to a group of individuals or units of interest referred to as the target universe or target population, or simply as the universe or population. Prior to data collection the target universe should be clearly defined. For example, if data are to be collected for the universe of households in the United States, it is necessary to define a ‘‘household.’’ The target universe may not be completely tractable. Cost and other considerations may restrict data collection to a survey universe based on some available list, such list may be inaccurate or out of date. This list is called a survey frame or sampling frame.

The data in many tables are based on data obtained for all population units, a census, or on data obtained for only a portion, or sample, of the population units. When the data presented are based on a sample, the sample is usually a scientifically selected probability sample. This is a sample selected from a list or sampling frame in such a way that every possible sample has a known chance of selection and usually each unit selected can be assigned a number, greater than zero and less than or equal to one, representing its likelihood or probability of selection.

For large-scale sample surveys, the probability sample of units is often selected as a multistage sample. The first stage of a multistage sample is the selection of a probability sample of large groups of population members, referred to as primary sampling units (PSUs). For example, in a national multistage household sample, PSUs are often counties or groups of counties. The second stage of a multistage sample is the selection, within each PSU selected at the first stage, of smaller groups of population units, referred to as secondary sampling units. In subsequent stages of selection, smaller and smaller nested groups are chosen until the ultimate sample of population units is obtained. To qualify a multistage sample as a probability sample, all stages of sampling must be carried out using probability sampling methods.

Prior to selection at each stage of a multistage (or a single stage) sample, a list of the sampling units or sampling frame for that stage must be obtained. For example, for the first stage of selection of a national household sample, a list of the counties and county groups that form the PSUs must be obtained. For the final stage of selection, lists of households, and sometimes persons within the households, have to be compiled in the field. For surveys of economic entities and for the economic censuses the Bureau generally uses a frame constructed from the Bureau’s Business Register. The Business Register contains all establishments with payroll in the United States including small single establishment firms as well as large multi-establishment firms.

Wherever the quantities in a table refer to an entire universe, but are constructed from data collected in a sample survey, the table quantities are referred to as sample estimates. In constructing a sample estimate, an attempt is made to come as close as is feasible to the corresponding universe quantity that would be obtained from a complete census of the universe. Estimates based on a sample will, however, generally differ from the hypothetical census figures. Two classifications of errors are associated with estimates based on sample surveys: (1) sampling error-the error arising from the use of a sample, rather than a census, to estimate population quantities and (2) nonsampling error-those errors arising from nonsampling sources. As discussed below, the magnitude of the sampling error for an estimate can usually be estimated from the sample data. However, the magnitude of the nonsampling error for an estimate can rarely be estimated. Consequently, actual error in an estimate exceeds the error that can be estimated.

The particular sample used in a survey is only one of a large number of possible samples of the same size which could have been selected using the same sampling procedure. Estimates derived from the different samples would, in general, differ from each other. The standard error (SE) is a measure of the variation among the estimates derived from all possible samples. The standard error is the most commonly used measure of the sampling error of an estimate. Valid estimates of the standard errors of survey estimates can usually be calculated from the data collected in a probability sample. For convenience, the standard error is sometimes expressed as a percent of the estimate and is called the relative standard error or coefficient of variation (CV). For example, an estimate of 200 units with an estimated
standard error of 10 units has an estimated CV of 5 percent.

A sample estimate and an estimate of its standard error or CV can be used to construct interval estimates that have a prescribed confidence that the interval includes the average of the estimates derived from all possible samples with a known probability. To illustrate, if all possible samples were selected under essentially the same general conditions, and using the same sample design, and if an estimate and its estimated standard error were calculated from each sample, then: 1) approximately 68 percent of the intervals from one standard error below the estimate to one standard error above the estimate would include the average estimate derived from all possible samples; 2) approximately 90 percent of the intervals from 1.6 standard errors below the estimate to 1.6 standard errors above the estimate would include the average estimate derived from all possible samples; and 3) approximately 95 percent of the intervals from two standard errors below the estimate to two standard errors above the estimate would include the average estimate derived from all possible samples.

Thus, for a particular sample, one can say with the appropriate level of confidence (e.g., 90 percent or 95 percent) that the average of all possible samples is included in the constructed interval. Example of a confidence interval: An estimate is 200 units with a standard error of 10 units. An approximately 90 percent confidence interval (plus or minus 1.6 standard errors) is from 184 to 216.

All surveys and censuses are subject to nonsampling errors. Nonsampling errors are of two kinds–random and nonrandom. Random nonsampling errors arise because of the varying interpretation of questions (by respondents or interviewers) and varying actions of coders, keyers, and other processors. Some randomness is also introduced when respondents must estimate. Nonrandom nonsampling errors result from total nonresponse (no usable data obtained for a sampled unit), partial or item nonresponse (only a portion of a response may be usable), inability or unwillingness on the part of respondents to provide correct information, difficulty interpreting questions, mistakes in recording or keying data, errors of collection or processing, and coverage problems (overcoverage and undercoverage of the target universe). Random nonresponse errors usually, but not always, result in an understatement of sampling errors and thus an overstatement of the precision of survey estimates. Estimating the magnitude of nonsampling errors would require special experiments or access to independent data and, consequently, the magnitudes are seldom available.

Nearly all types of nonsampling errors that affect surveys also occur in complete censuses. Since surveys can be conducted on a smaller scale than censuses, nonsampling errors can presumably be controlled more tightly. Relatively more funds and effort can perhaps be expended toward eliciting responses, detecting and correcting response error, and reducing processing errors. As a result, survey results can sometimes be more accurate than census results.

To compensate for suspected nonrandom errors, adjustments of the sample estimates are often made. For example, adjustments are frequently made for nonresponse, both total and partial. Adjustments made for either type of nonresponse are often referred to as imputations. Imputation for total nonresponse is usually made by substituting for the questionnaire responses of the nonrespondents the ‘‘average’’ questionnaire responses of the respondents. These imputations usually are made separately within various groups of sample members, formed by attempting to place respondents and nonrespondents together that have ‘‘similar’’ design or ancillary characteristics. Imputation for item nonresponse is usually made by substituting for a missing item the response to that item of a respondent having characteristics that are ‘‘similar’’ to those of the nonrespondent.

For an estimate calculated from a sample survey, the total error in the estimate is composed of the sampling error, which can usually be estimated from the sample, and the nonsampling error, which usually cannot be estimated from the sample. The total error present in a population quantity obtained from a complete census is composed of only nonsampling errors. Ideally, estimates of the total error associated with data given in the Statistical Abstract tables should be given. However, due to the unavailability of estimates of nonsampling errors, only estimates of the levels of sampling errors, in terms of estimated standard errors or coefficients of variation, are available. To obtain estimates of the estimated standard errors from the sample of interest, obtain a copy of the referenced report which appears at the end of each table.

Source of Additional Material: The Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology (FCSM) is an interagency committee dedicated to improving the quality of federal statistics <http://fcsm.ssd.census.gov>.

Principal data bases

Beginning below are brief descriptions of 35 of the sample surveys and censuses that provide a substantial portion of the data contained in this Abstract.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, National Agriculture Statistics Service

Census of Agriculture 
Universes, Frequency, and Types of Data

Complete count of U.S. farms and ranches conducted once every 5 years
with data at the national, state, and county level. Data published on farm numbers and related items/characteristics.

Type of Data Collection Operation

Complete census for number of farms; land in farms; farm income; agriculture products sold; farms by type of organization; total cropland; irrigated land; farm operator characteristics; livestock and poultry inventory and sales; and selected crops harvested. Market value of land, buildings, and products sold, total farm production expenses, machinery and equipment, and fertilizer and chemicals.

Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 

Data collection is by mailing questionnaires to all farmers and ranchers. Producers can return their forms by mail or online. Nonrespondents are contacted by telephone and correspondence follow-ups. Imputations were made for all nonresponse item/characteristics and coverage adjustments were made to account for missed farms and ranches. The response rate for the 2007 Census was 85.2 percent.

Estimates of Sampling Error

Weight adjustments were made to account for the undercoverage and whole-unit nonresponse of farms on the Census Mail List (CML). These were treated as sampling errors.

Other (nonsampling) Errors

Nonsampling errors are due to incompleteness of the census mailing list, duplications on the list, respondent reporting errors, errors in editing reported data, and in imputation for missing data. Evaluation studies are conducted to measure certain nonsampling errors such as list coverage and classification error. It is a reasonable assumption that the net effect of non measurable errors is zero (the positive errors cancel the negative errors).

Sources of Additional Material

U.S. Department of Agriculture (NASS), 2007 Census of Agriculture, Appendix A-1 Census of Agriculture Methodology, Appendix B-1 General Explanation and Census of Agriculture Report Form.

Basic Area Frame Sample
Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data

June agricultural survey collects data on planted acreage and livestock inventories on all land in the 48 contiguous states and Hawaii. The survey also serves to measure list incompleteness and is subsampled for multiple frame surveys.

Type of Data Collection Operation 

Stratified probability sample of about 11,000 land area units of about 1 sq. mile (range from 0.1 sq. mile in cities to several sq. miles in open grazing areas). Sample includes 42,000 parcels of agricultural land. About 20 percent of the sample replaced annually.

Data Collection and Imputation Procedures

Data collection is by personal enumeration. Imputation is based on enumerator observation or data reported by respondents having similar agricultural characteristics.

Estimates of Sampling Error

Estimated CVs range from 1 percent to 2 percent for regional estimates to 3 percent to 6 percent for state estimates of major crop acres and livestock inventories.

Other (nonsampling) Errors Minimized through rigid quality controls on the collection process and careful review of all reported data.
Sources of Additional Material

U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service: The Fact Finders of Agriculture, March 2007.

Multiple Frame Surveys
Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data

Surveys of U.S. farm operators to obtain data on major livestock inventories, selected crop acreage and production, grain stocks, and farm labor characteristics, farm economic data, and chemical use data. Estimates are made quarterly, semi-annually, or annually depending on the data series.

Type of Data Collection Operation

Primary frame is obtained from general or special purpose lists, supplemented by a probability sample of land areas used to estimate for list incompleteness.

Data Collection and Imputation Procedures

Mail, telephone, or personal interviews used for initial data collection. Mail nonrespondent follow-up by phone and personal interviews. Imputation based on average of respondents.

Estimates of Sampling Error

Estimated CVs range from 1 percent to 2 percent at the U.S. level for crop and livestock data series and 3 to 5 percent for economic data. Regional CVs range from 3 to 6 percent, while state estimate CVs run 5 to 10 percent.

Other (nonsampling) Errors 

In addition to above, replicated sampling procedures used to monitor effects of changes in survey procedures.

Sources of Additional Material

U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service: The Fact Finders of Agriculture, March 2007.

Objective Yield Surveys
Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data

Monthly surveys during the growing season of corn, cotton, potatoes, soybeans, and winter wheat fields in top producing states for forecasting and estimating yield per acre.

Type of Data Collection Operation 

Random location of plots in probability sample. Corn, cotton, and soybeans, are selected in June from Basic Area Frame Sample (see above). Winter wheat and potatoes are selected from March and June multiple frame surveys, respectively.

Data Collection and Imputation Procedures

Enumerators count and measure plant characteristics in sample fields. Production is measured from plots at harvest. Harvest loss is measured from post harvest gleanings.

Estimates of Sampling Error

CVs for national estimates of production are about 2 to 3 percent.

Other (nonsampling) Errors

In addition to above, replicated sampling procedures are used to monitor effects of changes in survey procedures.

Sources of Additional Material

U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service), USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service: The Fact Finders of Agriculture, March 2007.

U.S. BUREAU OF JUSTICE STATISTICS (BJS)

National Crime Victimization Survey
Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data

Monthly survey of individuals and households in the United States to obtain data on criminal victimization of those units for compilation of annual estimates.

Type of Data Collection Operation

National probability sample survey of about 40,000 interviewed households in 203 PSUs selected from a list of addresses from the 2000 census, supplemented by new construction permits and an area sample where permits are not required.

Data Collection and Imputation Procedures

Interviews are conducted every 6 months for 3 years for each household in the sample; 6,600 households are interviewed monthly. Personal interviews are used in the first interview; the intervening interviews are conducted by telephone whenever possible.

Estimates of Sampling Error

CVs for 2007 estimates are: 3.9 percent for personal crimes (includes all crimes of violence plus purse snatching crimes), 4.0 percent for crimes of violence; 13.2 percent for estimate of rape/sexual assault counts; 9.2 percent for robbery counts; 4.3 percent for assault counts; 14.5 percent for purse snatching/pocket picking; 2.0 percent for property crimes; 4.0 percent for burglary counts; 2.0 percent for theft (of property); and 6.5 percent for motor vehicle theft counts.

Other (nonsampling) Errors 

Respondent recall errors which may include reporting incidents for other than the reference period; interviewer coding and processing errors; and possible mistaken reporting or classifying of events. Adjustment is made for a household noninterview rate of about 8 percent and for a within-household noninterview rate of 14 percent.

Sources of Additional Material 

U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Criminal Victimization in the United States, annual.

U.S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Consumer Expenditure Survey (CE) 
Universe, Frequency and Types of Data 

Consists of two continuous components: a quarterly interview survey and a weekly diary or recordkeeping survey. They are nationwide surveys that collect data on consumer expenditures, income, characteristics, and assets and liabilities. Samples are national probability samples of households that are representative of the civilian noninstitutional population. The surveys have been ongoing since 1980.

Type of Data Collection Operation 

The Interview Survey is a panel rotation survey. Each panel is interviewed for five quarters and then dropped from the survey. About 7,000 consumer units are interviewed each quarter. The Diary Survey sample is new each year and consists of about 7,000 consumer units. Data are collected on an ongoing basis in 91 areas of the country.

Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 

For the Interview Survey, data are collected by personal interview with each consumer unit interviewed once per quarter for five consecutive quarters. Designed to collect information that respondents can recall for 3 months or longer, such as large or recurring expenditures. For the Diary Survey, respondents record all their expenditures in a self-reporting diary for two consecutive one-week periods. Designed to pick up items difficult to recall over a long period, such as detailed food expenditures. Missing or invalid attributes, expenditures, or incomes are imputed. Assets and liabilities are not imputed. The U.S. Census Bureau collects the data for the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Estimates of Sampling Error

Standard error tables are available since 2000.

Other (nonsampling) Errors

Includes incorrect information given by respondents, data processing errors, interviewer errors, and so on. They occur regardless of whether data are collected from a sample or from the entire population.

Sources of Additional Material

Bureau of Labor Statistics, see Internet site <http://www.bls.gov/cex>.

Consumer Price Index (CPI)
Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data

A monthly survey of price changes of all types of consumer goods and services purchased by urban wage earners and clerical workers prior to 1978, and urban consumers thereafter. Both indexes continue to be published.

Type of Data Collection Operation 

Prior to 1978, and since 1998, sample of various consumer items in 87 urban areas; from 1978 - 1997, in 85 PSUs, except from January 1987 through March 1988, when 91 areas were sampled.

Data Collection and Imputation Procedures

Prices of consumer items are obtained each month from about 25,500 retail outlets and from about 4,000 housing units in 87 areas. Prices of food, fuel, and a few other items are obtained monthly; prices of most other commodities and services are collected every month in the three largest geographic areas and every other month in others.

Estimates of Sampling Error 

Estimates of standard errors are available.

Other (nonsampling) Errors

Errors result from inaccurate reporting, difficulties in defining concepts and their operational implementation, and introduction of product quality changes and new products.

Sources of Additional Material

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Internet site <http://www.bls.gov/cpi/home.htm> and BLS Handbook of Methods, Chapter 17, see Internet site <http://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch17.pdf>.

Current Employment Statistics (CES) Program
Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 

Monthly survey drawn from a sampling frame of over 8 million unemployment insurance tax accounts in order to obtain data by industry on employment, hours, and earnings.

Type of Data Collection Operation

In 2006, the CES sample included about 150,000 businesses and government agencies, which represent approximately 390,000 individual worksites.

Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 

Each month, the state agencies cooperating with BLS, as well as BLS Data Collection Centers, collect data through various automated collection modes and mail. BLS Washington staff prepares national estimates of employment, hours, and earnings while states use the data to develop state and area estimates.

Estimates of Sampling Errors 

The relative standard error for total nonfarm employment is 0.1 percent. From April 2002 to March 2003, the cumulative net birth/death model added 469,000.

Other (nonsampling) Errors 

Estimates of employment adjusted annually to reflect complete universe. Average adjustment is 0.2 percent over the last decade, with an absolute range from less than 0.1 percent to 0.6 percent.

Sources of Additional Material

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment and Earnings, monthly, Explanatory Notes and Estimates of Errors, Tables 2-A through 2-F. See <http://www.bls.gov/web/cestntab.htm>.

National Compensation Survey (NCS) 
Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data

NCS collects data from establishments of all employment-size classes in private industries as well as state and local governments. The survey stratifies its data by geographic area and industry. NCS collects data on work schedules, wages, salaries, and employer costs for employee benefits. For approximately 80 metropolitan areas and the nation, NCS produces information on workers’ earnings and benefits in a variety of occupations at different work levels. NCS is also responsible for two quarterly releases: the Employment Cost Index (ECI), which measures percent changes in the cost of employment, and the Employer Costs for Employee Compensation (ECEC), which measures costs per hour worked for individual benefits. The survey provides data by industry sector, industry division, occupational group, bargaining status, metropolitan area status, census region, and census division. ECEC also provides data by establishment-size class.

Type of Data Collection Operation

Establishments are selected for the survey based on a probability-proportionate-toemployment technique. NCS replaces its sample on a continual basis. Private industry establishments are in the survey for approximately 5 years.

Data Collection and Imputation Procedures

A personal visit to the establishment is the initial source for collecting data. Communication via mail, fax, and telephone provide quarterly updates. Imputation is done for individual benefits.

Estimates of Sampling Error

NCS uses standard errors to evaluate published series. These standard errors are available at <http://www.bls.gov/ncs/ect/home.htm>.

Other (nonsampling) Errors

Nonsampling errors have a number of potential sources. The primary sources are (1) survey nonresponse and (2) data collection and processing errors. Nonsampling errors are not measured. The use of quality assurance programs reduces the potential for nonsampling errors. These programs include the use of reinterviews, interview observations, and the systematic professional review of reports. The programs also serve as a training device that provides feedback on errors for field economists (or data collectors). Quality assurance programs also provide information on sources of error. This information is used to improve procedures that result in fewer errors. NCS also conducts extensive training of field economists to maintain high standards in data collection.

Sources of Additional Material

Bureau of Labor Statistics, BLS Handbook of Methods, Chapter 8 <http://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/pdf/homch8.pdf>.

Producer Price Index (PPI) 
Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 

Monthly survey of producing companies to determine price changes of all commodities and services produced in the United States for sale in commercial transactions. Data on agriculture, forestry, fishing, manufacturing, mining, gas, electricity, construction, public utilities, wholesale trade, retail trade, transportation, healthcare, and other services.

Type of Data Collection Operation 

Probability sample of approximately 30,000 establishments that result in about 120,000 price quotations per month.

Data Collection and Imputation Procedures

Data are collected by mail and facsimile. Missing prices are estimated by those received for similar products or services. Some prices are obtained from trade publications, organized exchanges, and government agencies. To calculate index, price changes are multiplied by their relative weights taken from the Census Bureau’s 2002 shipment values from their Census of Industries.

Estimates of Sampling Error 

Not applicable.

Other (nonsampling) Errors 

Not available at present.

Sources of Additional Material 

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, BLS Handbook of Methods, Chapter 14, Bulletin 2490. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Internet site <http://stats.bls.gov/ppi>.

BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM

Survey of Consumer Finances 
Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data

Periodic sample survey of families. In this survey a given household is divided into a primary economic unit and other economic units. The primary economic unit, which may be a single individual, is generally chosen as the person or couple who either holds the title to the home or is listed on the lease, along with all other people in the household who are financially interdependent with that person or couple. The primary economic unit is used as the reference family. The survey collects detailed data on the composition of family balance sheets, the terms of loans, and relationships with financial institutions. It also gathers information on the employment history and pension rights of the survey respondent and the spouse or partner of the respondent.

Type of Data Collection Operation

The survey employs a two-part strategy for sampling families. Some families are selected by standard multistage area probability sampling methods applied to all 50 states. The remaining families in the survey are selected using statistical records derived from tax returns, under the strict rules governing confidentiality and the rights of potential respondents to refuse participation.

Data Collection and Imputation Procedures

National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago has collected data for the survey since 1992. Since 1995, the survey has used computer-assisted personal interviewing. Adjustments for nonresponse are made through multiple imputation of unanswered questions and through weighting adjustments based on data used in the sample design for families that refused participation.

Estimates of Sampling Error

Because of the complex design of the survey, the estimation of potential sampling errors is not straightforward. A replicate-based procedure is available.

Other (nonsampling) Errors

The survey aims to complete 4,500 interviews, with about two thirds of that number deriving from the area-probability sample. The response rate is typically about 70 percent for the area-probability sample and about 35 percent over all strata in the tax-data sample. Proper training and monitoring of interviewers, careful design of questionnaires, and systematic editing of the resulting data were used to control inaccurate survey responses.

Sources of Additional Material

Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, ‘‘Recent Changes in U.S. Family Finances: Evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances,’’ Federal Reserve Bulletin, 2009, <http://www.federalreserve.gov/Pubs/Bulletin>.

U.S. CENSUS BUREAU 

2007 Economic Census (Industry Series, Geographic Area Series and Subject Series Reports) (for NAICS sectors 21 to 81).
Universe, Frequency, and Types of Data 

Conducted every 5 years to obtain data on number of establishments, number of employees, payroll, total sales/receipts/revenue, and other industry-specific statistics. The universe is all establishments with paid employees excluding agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting, and government. (Nonemployer Statistics, discussed separately, covers those establishments without paid employees.)

Type of Data Collection Operation

All large employer firms were surveyed (i.e., all employer firms above payroll-size cutoffs established to separate large from small employers) plus, in most sectors, a sample of the small employer firms.

Data Collection and Imputation Procedures 

Mail questionnaires were used with both mail and telephone follow-ups for nonrespondents. Businesses also had the option to respond electronically. Data for nonrespondents and for small employer firms not mailed a questionnaire were obtained from administrative records of other federal agencies or imputed.