Chesapeake Bay Program

Last modified

Spotfire

For Internet Explorer Users and Those Wanting Full Screen Display Use: Web Player Get Spotfire for iPad App

Error: Embedded data could not be displayed. Use Google Chrome

Brief History

Monday, September 8, 2008: Created the chesapeakeactionplan.wik.is and populated it with the essential content for seeing if the Chesapeake Bay Program Office and its partners wants to use this further. Still have to input the template for the CAP Application Reporting System.

November 4, 2009: Fairfax County Times, Opinion, Commentary by David Schnare, A fresh approach to the Chesapeake Bay: What if the computer model is wrong, and what if enforceable limits are disconnected from reality?

 
May 1, 2010: Restart work on this wiki pilot with a focus on dashboards using Spotfire. See Dashboards and Previous Version

Report to Congress

Strengthening the Management, Coordination, and Accountability of the Chesapeake Bay Program
U.S. EPA Region 3, Chesapeake Bay Program Office (3C800), Annapolis, Maryland, In cooperation with the Chesapeake Bay Program Partners. CBP/TRS-292-08. 122 pages. July 2008.
 

Data and Metadata Sources

Definition: A Health and Restoration Assessment of the Chesapeake Bay and Watershed is the annual assessment of  the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership's progress toward meeting its health and restoration goals.

Indicator Data: http://www.chesapeakebay.net/indicat...uitem=15038See

Metadata: http://www.chesapeakebay.net/status_...menuitem=28514

Wiki Data: Bay Barometer and Bay Watershed Climate

 
 
The funding databases was queried for All Funding Sources, All Goals, All States, All Topics, and All Years, and those results were organized into a new spreadsheet for import into Spotfire. The goal was to produce a simple visualization of the funding database with multiple adjacent panes of graphics (pie and line charts) and data tables.

Indicator Matrix

Taxonomy

 

Concept and Definition Status  Metadata and Data Concept and Definition Status Metadata and Data Indicators and Definition  Status Metadata and Data 
Bay Health,  which provides information about the status of Bay water quality, habitats and lower food web, and fish and shellfish abundance.  Despite a 6 percent improvement in health since 2008, the Bay continues to have poor water quality, degraded habitats, and low populations of many fish and shellfish species. Based on these three areas, the overall health averaged 45 percent. The modest gain in the health score in 2009 was due to a large increase in the adult blue crab population, expansions of underwater grass beds growing in the Bay’s shallows, and improvements in water clarity and bottom habitat health.  Metadata and Data Water Quality Water quality was again very poor in 2009, meeting just 24 percent of health goals, a 2 percent increase from 2008.  Metadata and Data Dissolved Oxygen: the amount of oxygen that is present in the water. It is measured in units of milligrams per liter (mg/L), or the milligrams of oxygen dissolved in a liter of water.  When assessing water quality, regulators examine conditions from the past three years to adjust for annual weather-driven fluctuations. Data gathered from 2007 to 2009 indicate that about 12 percent of the combined volume of open-water, deep-water and deep-channel water of the Bay and its tidal tributaries met dissolved oxygen standards during the summer months. This is a decrease of 5 percent from the 2008 assessment.  Metadata and Data
            Mid-Channel Water Clarity: Water clarity is a measure of the amount of sunlight that can penetrate through the water. Clear water is indicative of a healthy Chesapeake Bay, though clarity will always fluctuate naturally depending on weather conditions.  In 2009, 26 percent of tidal waters met or exceeded thresholds for water clarity. This was an increase from 2008, when about 14 percent met guidelines.  Metadata and Data
            Chlorophyll a: The green pigment that allows plants (including algae) to convert sunlight into organic compounds during photosynthesis. Of the several kinds of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a is the predominant type found in algae. High amounts of chlorophyll a in the Bay's waters are an indicator of nutrient pollution because excess nutrients fuel the growth of algae.  In 2009, 29 percent of tidal waters had chlorophyll a concentrations below the threshold. This is an increase of 2 percent from 2008.  Metadata and Data
            Chemical Contaminants: chemicals or compounds that can potentially harm the heath of humans, wildlife and aquatic life. Toxic chemicals are constantly entering the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries via wastewater, agriculture, stormwater and air pollution. While chemicals such as DDT and PCBs have been banned from production for years, many chemical contaminants are still widely used or persist in the environment.  Based on the 2008 303(d) assessments, 25 of the 89 monitored tidal water segments (28 percent) were unimpaired by chemicals. This represents a 6 percent decrease from 2007. The other 64 segments contained impairments in at least part or all of the segment. The 2009 status is based on the 2008 assessments, since 303(d) lists are updated every other year and will not be updated again until 2010.  Metadata and Data
      Habitats and Lower Food Web The Bay’s critical habitats and lower food web showed signs of improvement in 2009, increasing by 7 percent from 2008. However, they remain far below what is needed to support thriving populations of underwater life. Metadata and Data Bay Grass Abundance: More than 16 species of underwater bay grasses — also called submerged aquatic vegetation or SAV — are found in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Bay grasses are an excellent measure of the Bay's overall condition because they are not under harvest pressure and their health is closely linked to the overall health of the Bay. In 2009, there were 85,899 acres of bay grasses throughout the Bay, which was 46 percent of the goal and an increase of 9,039 acres from 2008. Metadata and Data
            Phytoplankton: Plankton are free-floating, generally microscopic plants, animals and bacteria that are part of the lower food web. Plankton generally have limited or no swimming ability; instead, they are transported by tides and currents. The name plankton, like the word planet, is derived from a Greek word that means "wanderer." In 2009, 54 percent of the Bay’s surface waters met the phytoplankton goal, an increase of 1 percent from 2008. Metadata and Data
            Bottom Habitat: Benthos-The organisms that live on and in the Chesapeake Bay's bottom sediments are known as benthos, a name derived from the Greek word meaning “depths of the sea.” The benthic community is complex and comprises a wide range of plants, animals and bacteria from all levels of the food web. In 2009, 56 percent of the area of the Bay and its tidal tributaries met the bottom habitat restoration goals, which is a 15 precent increase from the previous year and a record high level. Metadata and Data
            Tidal Wetlands Abundance: Wetlands are transitional areas between land and water. While some wetlands are noticeably wet, others do not always have visible water. An area is defined as a wetland based on its soils and vegetation. Tidal, or estuarine, wetlands are flooded with salt or brackish water when tides rise. Tidal wetlands are found along the shores of the Bay and the tidal portions of streams, creeks and rivers. As of 2005, there were approximately 283,946 acres of tidal wetlands. Metadata and Data
      Bay Fish and Shellfish Abundance Most fish and shellfish populations in the Bay remain far below desired levels. Overall, 59 percent of the health goals for fish and shellfish abundance have been met, a 9 percent increase from 2008. Metadata and Data Blue Crab Abundance: There's nothing more “Chesapeake” than the Bay's signature crustacean, the blue crab. Callinectes (“beautiful swimmer”) sapidus (“savory”), a member of the swimming crab family, is an aggressive, bottom-dwelling predator and one of the most recognizable species in the Bay. In 2009, the population of spawning-age blue crabs in the Bay was 223 million, or 112 percent of the goal. This is a substantial increase from 2008, when the population was 131 million, or 66 percent of the goal. Metadata and Data
            Native Oyster Abundance: The eastern oyster is one of the most famous and recognizable aquatic species in the Chesapeake Bay. While not everyone enjoys eating this peculiar-looking bivalve, we can all appreciate the vital functions oysters serve in the Bay's ecosystem, as well as their cultural and economic importance to the region. Based on the most recent data from 2008, there are 3.24 billion grams of oyster biomass, or about 10 percent of the goal. Metadata and Data
            Striped Bass Abundance: Striped bass — also known as rockfish or stripers — has been one of the most sought-after commercial and recreational fish in the Chesapeake Bay since colonial times. After a steep population decline in the 1980s, Chesapeake Bay striped bass are now at their highest numbers in decades. Female striped bass spawning stock biomass has exceeded the target (goal) since 1995. In 2008, striped bass abundance measured 122 million pounds (148 percent of the goal). Metadata and Data
            Shad Abundance: American shad is the best-known of the six species of shad and herring that live in the Chesapeake Bay. Alosa sapidissima (meaning “most delicious” in Latin) is an important anadromous species that once supported the most valuable finfish fishery in the Bay. Based on the most recent data from the James, Potomac, Susquehanna and York rivers, the estimates of Bay-wide shad abundance is 27 percent of goal achieved in 2009. Metadata and Data
            Juvenile Menhaden Abundance: Atlantic menhaden is a keystone species that forms a critical link between the lower and upper levels of the Bay food web. In addition, menhaden make up one of the oldest and largest commercial fisheries on the Atlantic coast. Researchers in Maryland measure juvenile menhaden abundance by casting nets and recording the number of hauls where menhaden are present. In 2009, the proportion of positive hauls was 22 percent. Metadata and Data
Factors Impacting Bay and Watershed Health, which explains contributors to pollution in the Bay and its rivers. The impact of human activity is overwhelming nature and offsetting cleanup efforts in the Bay and its watershed. Metadata and Data (none) Pollutants The Chesapeake Bay and its rivers are unhealthy primarily because of pollution from excess nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment. The main sources of these pollutants are agriculture, urban and suburban runoff, wastewater, and air pollution. Metadata and Data (none) Nitrogen: Nitrogen is a type of nutrient contributing to the Bay's poor water quality. While nitrogen is needed for plant growth, human activities—from driving cars to applying fertilizers—contribute more nitrogen than the Bay's waters can handle. Elevated nitrogen levels cause more algae to grow, blocking out sunlight and reducing oxygen for fish, blue crabs and other Bay life. Provisional estimates indicate that 240 million pounds of nitrogen reached the Bay during the 2009 water year (October 2008-September 2009). This is 43 million pounds less than 2008 and 98 million pounds less than the 338 million pound average load from 1990-2009. Annual average river flow to the Bay during the 2009 water year was 30.8 billion gallons per day (BGD). This is 6.6 BGD less than 2008 and 16 BGD less than the 46.9 BGD average flow from 1990-2009. Metadata and Data
            Phosphorus: Phosphorus is a type of nutrient contributing to the Bay's poor water quality. While phosphorus is vital to plant life, human activities—from applying fertilizers to using household cleaners—contribute more phosphorus than the Bay's waters can handle. Elevated phosphorus levels cause more algae to grow, blocking out sunlight and reducing oxygen for fish, blue crabs and other Bay life. Provisional estimates indicate that 11.3 million pounds of phosphorus reached the Bay during the 2009 water year (October 2008-September 2009). This is 3.1 million pounds less than 2008 and 9.5 million pounds less than the 20.8 million pound average load from 1990-2009. Annual average river flow to the Bay during the 2009 water year was 30.8 billion gallons per day (BGD). This is 6.6 BGD less than 2008 and 16 BGD less than the 46.9 BGD average flow from 1990-2009. Metadata and Data
            Sediment: Sediment is made up of loose particles of clay, silt and sand. It is a natural part of the Chesapeake Bay, created by the weathering of rocks and soil. However, in excess, sediment clouds the waters of the Bay and its tributaries, which harms fish, oysters and underwater bay grasses. Provisional estimates indicate that 2 million tons of sediment from nontidal rivers reached the Bay during the 2009 water year (October 2008-September 2009). This is 1.6 million tons less than 2008 and 2 million tons less than the 4 million ton average load from 1990-2009. Annual average river flow to the Bay during the 2009 water year was 30.8 billion gallons per day (BGD). This is 6.6 BGD less than 2008 and 16 BGD less than the 46.9 BGD average flow from 1990-2009. Metadata and Data
            Chemical Contaminants (used elsewhere) chemicals or compounds that can potentially harm the heath of humans, wildlife and aquatic life. Toxic chemicals are constantly entering the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries via wastewater, agriculture, stormwater and air pollution. While chemicals such as DDT and PCBs have been banned from production for years, many chemical contaminants are still widely used or persist in the environment.  Based on the 2008 303(d) assessments, 25 of the 89 monitored tidal water segments (28 percent) were unimpaired by chemicals. This represents a 6 percent decrease from 2007. The other 64 segments contained impairments in at least part or all of the segment. The 2009 status is based on the 2008 assessments, since 303(d) lists are updated every other year and will not be updated again until 2010. Metadata and Data
      Land Use The Bay’s decline is directly linked to the rise in population and corresponding development in the watershed. Metadata and Data (none) Bay Watershed Population: The Chesapeake Bay watershed stretches across more than 64,000 square miles, encompassing parts of six states — Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia — and the entire District of Columbia. 16,883,751 people live in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Metadata and Data
            Chesapeake Bay Watershed Forests: When Europeans first arrived to the Chesapeake Bay region in the 17th century, they found vast, diverse forests covering 95 percent of the Bay's 64,000-square-mile watershed. Today, forests cover about 58 percent of the watershed, or 24 million acres. While forest conditions have changed over the past 400 years, forests still remain critical to the health of the Bay, its residents and its wildlife. In the 1600s, forests covered 95 percent of the watershed. Now only 58 percent of the watershed is forested, and development is reducing forests at the rate of 100 acres per day. Also because of development, forested areas are being split into smaller parcels, which reduce their ability to improve water quality and provide wildlife habitat. Metadata and Data
      Natural Factors Annual rain and snowfall influence the amount of water that flows in rivers. Pollution entering the Bay each year generally corresponds with the volume of water that flows from its tributaries and the concentration of pollutants in that water. Metadata and Data (none) Weather: Rainfall, temperature and winds have a great impact on water quality, habitats and fish and shellfish populations. Climate change and variability have caused water temperatures in the Bay to exhibit greater extremes during the 20th century than the previous 2,000 years. Sea-level rise related to climate change is contributing to the loss of vital coastal wetlands. None Metadata and Data (none) Note: This is a critical need! See Bay Watershed Climate
            River Flow: Each day, billions of gallons of fresh water flow through thousands of streams and rivers that eventually empty into the Bay. That fresh water also carries polluted runoff from the Bay's 64,000 square-mile watershed. The amount of pollution in the Bay each year is largely determined by a combination of the amount of pollution on the land and the amount of water flowing into the Bay from its many tributaries. Precipitation increases river flow because the water washes off the land and into streams and rivers. In addition, some water seeps into the soil and into groundwater. It can take years, even decades, for these waters — and the pollutants they may carry — to slowly travel through underground systems until they reach the streams that drain into the Bay. Annual average river flow to the Bay during the 2009 water year (October 2008-September 2009) was 30.8 billion gallons per day. This is 6.5 billion gallons per day less than 2008 and 17.6 billion gallons per day less than the 48.4 billion gallon per day average flow from 1938-2009. Metadata and Data
      Other Pressures Climate change, invasive species and fisheries harvest are additional factors that impact the health of the Bay ecosystem. Metadata and Data (none) Climate Change: Significant changes in the weather (temperature, precipitation, sea level, etc.) from the normal due to global warming. Like countless other parts of the world, the Chesapeake has begun to feel some of the effects of a changing climate, such as sea level rise and increased temperatures. Other possible impacts may include lower dissolved oxygen levels, more precipitation, and changes in some species’ abundance and migration patterns. Metadata and Data (none)
            Invasive Species: Animals and plants that are not native to their habitat and negatively affect the invaded ecosystem. Once an invasive species population is established it is unlikely to be completely eradicated. In the Bay region there are more than 200 invasive species thought to cause serious problems; the mute swan, nutria, phragmites, purple loosestrife, water chestnut and zebra mussel are the species that pose the greatest threats. Metadata and Data (none)
            Fisheries Harvest and Pressures: The cumulative impact of pollutants, habitat loss, over-harvesting, invasive species, climate change and disease has affected the health of fish populations in the Bay and its watershed. Historic over-harvest, compounded by the impacts of poor water quality, disease and blocked access to historic spawning grounds, has resulted in low abundances of oysters, crabs and shad. Metadata and Data (none)
Restoration and Protection Efforts, a summary of the Bay Program’s efforts to reduce pollution, restore habitats, manage fisheries, protect watersheds and foster stewardship. New restoration programs and projects were put in place in 2009, but resulted in only incremental gains toward goals. The measures for restoration and protection efforts averaged 64 percent, a three percent increase from 2008. Metadata and Data (used before) Reducing Pollution Bay Program partners have implemented 62 percent of needed efforts to reduce nitrogen, phosphorus and sediment pollution, which is a 3 percent increase from 2008. Metadata and Data (used before) and Metadata and Data Agriculture Nitrogen: Chemical fertilizers applied to agricultural lands and manure from agricultural lands. As of 2009, Bay Program partners have achieved: 52 percent of the goal for agricultural nitrogen control efforts, a 1 percent increase from 2008; 50 percent of the goal for agricultural phosphorus, the same as the previous year; and 50 percent of the goal for agricultural sediment pollution control efforts, a 2 percent increase from 2008. Metadata and Data
            Agriculture Phosphorus: Same as above. Same as above. Metadata and Data (same as above)
            Agriculture Sediment: Loose particles of clay, silt and sand from agricultural lands. Same as above. Metadata and Data (same as above)
            Wastewater Nitrogen: Treated wastewater discharged from industrial facilities and municipal wastewater treatment plants and septic systems that treat household wastewater and discharge nutrients into groundwater. As of 2009, the Bay Program partnership has achieved: 78 percent of the wastewater nitrogen reduction goal, which is an 8 percent increase from 2008. 99 percent of the wastewater phosphorus goal, which is a 3 percent increase from the previous year. Decreases in the amount of nutrients discharged from wastewater treatment plants account for a large portion of the estimated nutrient reductions in the watershed to date. Metadata and Data
            Wastewater Phosphorus: Treated wastewater released from municipal and industrial wastewater facilities. Same as above. Metadata and Data (same as above)
            Urban/Suburban Nitrogen: Nitrogen from developed lands that range from major cities to small, single subdivisions. Population growth and development are offsetting the Bay Program’s efforts to reduce pollution from urban and suburban land and septic systems. The increases in population and construction have also surpassed the gains achieved from improved landscape design and stormwater practices. Additionally, it is still challenging to comprehensively account for on-the-ground control practices. Metadata and Data
            Urban/Suburban Phosphorus: Phosphorus from developed lands that range from major cities to small, single subdivisions Same as above. Metadata and Data (same as above)
            Urban/Suburban Sediment: Sediment from developed lands that range from major cities to small, single subdivisions. Same as above. Metadata and Data (same as above)
            Air Nitrogen: Emissions from vehicles, industries, agriculture, electric utilities and other sources. As of 2009, the Bay Program partners have met 9 percent of the goal for air pollution controls necessary to reduce nitrogen, which reflects no significant improvement from the previous year. While progress in this area is limited, it is expected to accelerate over the next several years as recently approved air pollution control measures take effect. Metadata and Data
            Related Indicators: Nitrogen in Rivers Entering Chesapeake Bay: Flow Adjusted Concentration Trends through 2008: Changes in nitrogen concentrations for the period 1985-2008 at 34 stream sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The majority of the flow-adjusted trends are downward, with 25 sites showing decreasing trends. Two sites show increasing trends. Seven sites show trends that are not statistically significant. Downward trends in flow-adjusted concentrations indicate improvements in water quality conditions, while upward trends may be used to identify watersheds that may require an increased level of pollution control. Metadata and Data
            Related Indicators: Phosphorus in Rivers Entering Chesapeake Bay: Flow Adjusted Concentration Trends through 2008: Changes in phosphorus concentrations have been determined for the period 1985-2008 at 34 stream sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The majority of the flow-adjusted trends are downward, with 22 sites showing decreasing trends. Four sites show increasing trends. Eight sites show trends that are not statistically significant. Downward trends in flow-adjusted concentrations indicate improvements in water quality conditions, while upward trends may be used to identify watersheds that may require an increased level of pollution control. Metadata and Data
            Related Indicators: Sediment in Rivers Entering Chesapeake Bay: Flow Adjusted Concentration Trends through 2008: Changes in suspended sediment concentrations have been determined for the period 1985-2008 at 34 stream sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Thirteen sites show decreasing trends. Two sites show increasing trends. Nineteen sites show trends that are not statistically significant. Downward trends in flow-adjusted concentrations indicate improvements in water quality conditions, while upward trends may be used to identify watersheds that may require an increased level of sediment and erosion control. Metadata and Data
      Restoring Habitats Efforts to restore habitats throughout the watershed achieved modest gains in 2009, with progress toward the overall goal at 63 percent, an 8 percent increase from 2008. Metadata and Data (used before) Planting Bay Grasses: More than 16 species of underwater bay grasses — also called submerged aquatic vegetation or SAV — are found in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Bay grasses are an excellent measure of the Bay's overall condition because they are not under harvest pressure and their health is closely linked to the overall health of the Bay. In 2009, 9.6 acres of bay grasses were planted, bringing the total to 158 acres. This represents 16 percent of the goal and a 1 percent increase from 2008. Future plantings are dependent on available funding. Metadata and Data
            Restoring Wetlands: Increasing both the quality and number of wetland acres in the Bay watershed.  In 2009, 609 acres of wetlands were established or reestablished in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia and the District of Columbia. The restored total stands at 13,614 acres, or 54 percent of the goal. Metadata and Data
            Reopening Fish Passage: Removing dams, culverts and other man-made obstructions or installing fish lifts, ladders and other passageways that block or impede fish migrations to historic upstream spawning habitats. The Bay Program’s fish passage efforts are long-standing and generally successful. From 1988 through 2005, Bay Program partners opened 1,838 miles of fish passage, surpassing their original 1,357-mile restoration goal. In early 2005, the partners committed to increasing the restoration goal to 2,807 miles by 2014. In 2009, 16 miles of fish passage were restored. This brings the total to 2,339 miles, or 83 percent of the goal. Metadata and Data
            Restoring Oyster Reefs: An aquatic reef, or oyster reef, is a solid, three-dimensional ecological community made up of densely packed oysters. Healthy reefs form when oyster larvae attach to larger oysters at the bottom of the Bay. Layers of oysters grow upward and outward, creating hard surfaces over the bottom that provide habitat for numerous aquatic species. In 2009, habitat restoration efforts took place on 1,148 acres of oyster reefs. This brings the total acreage treated since 2007 to 2,867, or 116 percent of the 2010 target (goal). Although the target has been achieved, oyster restoration must continue in order to increase ecological benefits and sustain a commercial fishery. Metadata and Data
      Managing Fisheries Overall work to develop ecosystem-based fisheries management plans for blue crabs, oysters, striped bass, Atlantic menhaden and American shad stands at 51 percent. Metadata and Data (used before) Blue Crab Fishery Management: Fisheries Management Effort Index (Blue Crab, Oyster, Striped Bass, Shad, Menhaden): While significant effort went toward improving Chesapeake Bay fisheries management in 2009, very few ecosystem-based actions were completed. Progress toward this goal has not changed from last year’s value of 51 percent and ranges from 38-63 percent for the five key Bay fisheries: blue crabs, oysters, striped bass, American shad and Atlantic menhaden. The current fisheries management index does not fully capture the work being done to develop ecosystem-based fisheries management plans. In 2010, the Bay Program will create a new index for monitoring progress toward ecosystem-based fisheries management. Metadata and Data
            Oyster Fishery Management. Same as above. Same as above. Metadata and Data. Same as Above.
            Striped Bass Fishery Management. Same as above. Same as above. Metadata and Data. Same as Above.
            Shad Fishery Management. Same as above. Same as above. Metadata and Data. Same as Above.
            Menhaden Fishery Management. Same as above. Same as above. Metadata and Data. Same as Above.
      Protecting Watersheds Progress was made toward protection of the thousands of smaller watersheds in the region during 2009, with a 2 percent gain toward the overall goal. Overall, the partnership is 77 percent of the way toward its goals for protecting watersheds. Metadata and Data (used before) Planting Forest Buffers: Riparian, or streamside, forest buffers provide habitat for wildlife, stabilize stream banks from erosion and keep river waters cool, an important factor for many fish. Well-maintained forest buffers also naturally absorb nutrients and sediments, helping to improve the health of neighboring streams and rivers. From September 2008 to August 2009, about 722 miles of forest buffers were planted, for a total of 6,858 miles since 1996. This is 69 percent of the goal, a 7 percent increase from the previous year. Metadata and Data
            Developing Watershed Management Plans: Bay Program partners are working with local governments, community groups and watershed organizations to develop and implement locally supported watershed management plans. These plans are a method for maintaining, protecting and restoring the natural resources within a watershed, while also enhancing the quality of life in our communities. In 2009, watershed plans were developed for 20,661 acres, bringing the total to 13.9 million acres. This represents 61 percent of the goal. Metadata and Data.
            Preserving Lands: Land in the Chesapeake Bay watershed is a finite resource. Once a natural area such as a forest or a wetland is developed into a housing subdivision or shopping center, it is lost forever. Preserving land for use as parks, wildlife refuges and historic sites provides wildlife with the habitat they need to survive, filters pollution before it can flow to the Bay and its tributaries, and gives people a place to visit and enjoy the natural beauty of our region. In 2009, 132,873 acres of land were preserved. This brings the total amount of land protected to 7.14 million acres, which surpasses the 2010 goal. Preservation efforts will continue, because in December 2007 the Bay states committed to permanently conserve an additional 695,000 acres of forested land throughout the watershed by 2020. Metadata and Data.
      Fostering Stewardship Programs to foster the public’s stewardship of the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed resulted in a score of 67 percent, which reflects an increase of 2 percent from 2008. Metadata and Data (used before) Public Access: Public access points are places anyone can visit to swim, hike, paddle or simply enjoy the history and natural beauty of the Chesapeake. Access to natural areas helps the public connect with the rivers, forests and wildlife of the Bay watershed. In 2009: Four public access sites were acquired, developed or enhanced, bringing the total to 761. Five new Gateways sites were added, raising the total to 166. Updates for water trails were not available, so the total remains at 2,184 miles. The Bay Program partnership has reached 98 percent of its public access goal. Metadata and Data
            Education and Interpretation (Meaningful Watershed Educational Experiences): Bay Program partners are coordinating the effort to support, provide and improve curriculum-based environmental education programming (both class and field experiences) in elementary, middle and high schools throughout the Bay watershed. Also, since 2002, the NOAA Bay Watershed Education and Training (B-WET) grant program has funded Meaningful Watershed Educational Experiences (MWEEs) for more than 180,000 students and training opportunities for more than 19,000 teachers. Metadata and Data.
            Citizen and Community Action (Bay Partner Communities): The Chesapeake Bay Program is involved with multiple partners that provide leadership education and technical assistance to businesses, developers, local governments, private land owners and other stakeholder groups in the Bay watershed. Training these stakeholder groups promotes Bay Program restoration commitments such as watershed planning, community engagement and sound land use. To date, 77 local governments have been awarded Bay Partner Community status, which is 23 percent of the goal. However, the program is no longer funded. Based on data collected from 76 Chesapeake Bay watershed organizations, 13,038 volunteers participated in restoration activities in 2009. Metadata and Data.
Watershed Health, a summary of the health of freshwater streams throughout the Bay watershed and pollution trends in those streams. Healthy freshwater streams are intrinsically linked to a healthy Chesapeake Bay. The watershed’s streams, creeks and rivers eventually flow into the Bay, so their water quality has a direct effect on the entire Bay. Metadata and Data (none) Health of Freshwater Streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Between 2000 and 2008, the average stream health scores in 10,452 sampling locations indicated that 5,459 were in very poor or poor condition and 4,656 were in fair, good or excellent condition. Metadata and Data   Between 2000-2008, the average stream health scores in 10,452 sampling locations indicated that: 5,459 were in very poor or poor condition and 4,656 were in fair, good or excellent condition.  
      Nitrogen in Rivers Entering Chesapeake Bay Flow-Adjusted Concentration Trends: Between 1985 and 2008, 25 out of 34 sampling sites showed downward flow-adjusted trends for nitrogen concentrations, while two sites showed upward trends.  Trends were not statistically significant at the remaining sites. Metadata and Data (used before)   Changes in nitrogen concentrations have been determined for the period 1985-2008 at 34 stream sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The majority of the flow-adjusted trends are downward, with 25 sites showing decreasing trends. Two sites show increasing trends. Seven sites show trends that are not statistically significant. Downward trends in flow-adjusted concentrations indicate improvements in water quality conditions, while upward trends may be used to identify watersheds that may require an increased level of pollution control.  
      Phosphorus in Rivers Entering Chesapeake Bay Flow-Adjusted Concentration Trends: Between 1985 and 2008, 22 out of 34 sampling sites showed downward flow-adjusted trends for phosphorus concentrations, while four sites showed upward trends.  Trends were not statistically significant at the remaining sites. Metadata and Data (used before)   Changes in phosphorus concentrations have been determined for the period 1985-2008 at 34 stream sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. The majority of the flow-adjusted trends are downward, with 22 sites showing decreasing trends. Four sites show increasing trends. Eight sites show trends that are not statistically significant. Downward trends in flow-adjusted concentrations indicate improvements in water quality conditions, while upward trends may be used to identify watersheds that may require an increased level of pollution control.  
      Sediment in Rivers Entering Chesapeake Bay: Flow-Adjusted Concentration Trends: Between 1985 and 2008, 13 out of 34 sampling sites showed downward flow-adjusted trends for sediment concentrations, while two sites showed upward trends.  Trends were not statistically significant at the remaining sites. Metadata and Data (used before)   Changes in suspended sediment concentrations have been determined for the period 1985-2008 at 34 stream sites in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Thirteen sites show decreasing trends. Two sites show increasing trends. Nineteen sites show trends that are not statistically significant. Downward trends in flow-adjusted concentrations indicate improvements in water quality conditions, while upward trends may be used to identify watersheds that may require an increased level of sediment and erosion control.  
Page statistics
5069 view(s) and 24 edit(s)
Social share
Share this page?

Tags

This page has no custom tags.
This page has no classifications.

Comments

You must to post a comment.

Attachments