Venezuela

Last modified

Resources

PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 29, 2011
Flag of Venezuela
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Venezuela
CLICK FLAG OR MAP TO ENLARGE Opens in New Window
 
Map of Venezuela
CLICK MAP TO ENLARGE Opens in New Window
Photos of Venezuela
 
Navigation Arrow VIEW 1 PHOTO Opens in New Window
OF VENEZUELA
 

Introduction

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Venezuela was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and New Granada, which became Colombia). For most of the first half of the 20th century, Venezuela was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen, who promoted the oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically elected governments have held sway since 1959. Hugo CHAVEZ, president since 1999, seeks to implement his "21st Century Socialism," which purports to alleviate social ills while at the same time attacking capitalist globalization and existing democratic institutions. Current concerns include: a weakening of democratic institutions, political polarization, a politicized military, drug-related violence along the Colombian border, overdependence on the petroleum industry with its price fluctuations, and irresponsible mining operations that are endangering the rain forest and indigenous peoples.
 
Back to Top

Geography

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
8 00 N, 66 00 W
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 912,050 sq km
country comparison to the world: 33
land: 882,050 sq km
water: 30,000 sq km
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
slightly more than twice the size of California
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 4,993 km
border countries: Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2,800 km
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 15 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Pico Bolivar 5,007 m
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
arable land: 2.85%
permanent crops: 0.88%
other: 96.27% (2005)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
5,800 sq km (2008)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1,233.2 cu km (2000)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 8.37 cu km/yr (6%/7%/47%)
per capita: 313 cu m/yr (2000)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic droughts
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban and industrial pollution, especially along the Caribbean coast; threat to the rainforest ecosystem from irresponsible mining operations
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed but not ratified:: none of the selected agreements
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
on major sea and air routes linking North and South America; Angel Falls in the Guiana Highlands is the world's highest waterfall
 
Back to Top

People and Society

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
noun: Venezuelan(s)
adjective: Venezuelan
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, indigenous people
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%, other 2%
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
27,635,743 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0-14 years: 29.5% (male 4,149,781/female 4,002,931)
15-64 years: 65.1% (male 8,846,945/female 9,130,561)
65 years and over: 5.4% (male 665,436/female 840,089) (2011 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 26.1 years
male: 25.4 years
female: 26.8 years (2011 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1.493% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
20.1 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
5.17 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
urban population: 93% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
CARACAS (capital) 3.051 million; Maracaibo 2.153 million; Valencia 1.738 million; Barquisimeto 1.159 million; Maracay 1.04 million (2009)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
68 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 86
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 20.62 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 95
male: 24.12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total population: 73.93 years
country comparison to the world: 111
male: 70.84 years
female: 77.17 years (2011 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2.42 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1.94 physicians/1,000 population (2001)
country comparison to the world: 65
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1.3 beds/1,000 population (2007)
country comparison to the world: 132
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
improved:
urban: 94% of population
rural: 74% of population
total: 92% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6% of population
rural: 26% of population
total: 8% of population (2000)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
improved:
urban: 93% of population
rural: 54% of population
total: 89% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7% of population
rural: 46% of population
total: 11% of population (2000)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA; NA note - no country specific models provided
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea
vectorborne disease: dengue fever and malaria (2009)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
3.7% (2007)
country comparison to the world: 96
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
3.7% of GDP (2007)
country comparison to the world: 112
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93%
male: 93.3%
female: 92.7% (2001 census)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 15 years (2008)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 13.6%
country comparison to the world: 83
male: 12.3%
female: 15.9% (2008)
 
Back to Top

Government

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
conventional long form: Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
conventional short form: Venezuela
local long form: Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela
local short form: Venezuela
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
federal republic
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
name: Caracas
geographic coordinates: 10 30 N, 66 56 W
time difference: UTC-4.5 (half an hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
23 states (estados, singular - estado), 1 capital district* (distrito capital), and 1 federal dependency** (dependencia federal); Amazonas, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Dependencias Federales (Federal Dependencies)**, Distrito Capital (Capital District)*, Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Vargas, Yaracuy, Zulia
note: the federal dependency consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
5 July 1811 (from Spain)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Independence Day, 5 July (1811)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
30 December 1999
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
civil law system based on the Spanish civil code
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
18 years of age; universal
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of state: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 2 February 1999); Executive Vice President Elias JAUA Milano (since 26 January 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Hugo CHAVEZ Frias (since 2 February 1999); Executive Vice President Elias JAUA Milano (since 26 January 2010)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for unlimited reelection); election last held on 3 December 2006 (next to be held in December 2012)
note: in 1999, a National Constituent Assembly drafted a new constitution that increased the presidential term to six years; an election was subsequently held on 30 July 2000 under the terms of this constitution; in 2009, a national referendum approved the elimination of term limits on all elected officials, including the presidency
election results: Hugo CHAVEZ Frias reelected president; percent of vote - Hugo CHAVEZ Frias 62.9%, Manuel ROSALES 36.9%, other 0.2%
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (165 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms; three seats reserved for the indigenous peoples of Venezuela)
elections: last held on 26 September 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: percent of vote by party - pro-government 48.9%, opposition coalition 47.9%, other 3.2%; seats by party - pro-government 98, opposition 65, other 2
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Tribunal Supremo de Justicia (32 magistrates are elected by the National Assembly for a single 12-year term)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
A New Time or UNT [Omar BARBOZA]; Brave People's Alliance or ABP [Oscar PEREZ, currently in exile]; Christian Democrats or COPEI [Roberto ENRIQUEZ]; Communist Party of Venezuela or PCV [Oscar FIGUERA]; Democratic Action or AD [Henry RAMOS Allup]; Fatherland for All or PPT [Jose ALBORNOZ]; For Social Democracy or PODEMOS [Ismael GARCIA]; Justice First [Julio BORGES]; Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Nicolas SOSA]; The Radical Cause [Daniel SANTOLO]; United Socialist Party of Venezuela or PSUV [Hugo CHAVEZ]; Venezuela Project or PV [Henrique SALAS Romer]
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
FEDECAMARAS, a conservative business group; VECINOS groups; Venezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV (labor organization dominated by the Democratic Action); various civil society groups and human rights organizations
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Caricom (observer), CDB, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, PetroCaribe, RG, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Angelo RIVERO Santos
chancery: 1099 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2214
FAX: [1] (202) 342-6820
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires John CAULFIELD
embassy: Calle F con Calle Suapure, Urbanizacion Colinas de Valle Arriba, Caracas 1080
mailing address: P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A; APO AA 34037
telephone: [58] (212) 975-6411, 907-8400 (after hours)
FAX: [58] (212) 907-8199
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of eight white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band; the flag retains the three equal horizontal bands and three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the South American republic that broke up in 1830; yellow is interpreted as standing for the riches of the land, blue for the courage of its people, and red for the blood shed in attaining independence; the seven stars on the original flag represented the seven provinces in Venezuela that united in the war of independence; in 2006, President Hugo CHAVEZ ordered an eighth star added to the star arc - a decision that sparked much controversy - to conform with the flag proclaimed by Simon Bolivar in 1827 and to represent the province of Guayana
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
troupial (bird)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
name: "Gloria al bravo pueblo" (Glory to the Brave Nation)
lyrics/music: Vicente SALIAS/Juan Jose LANDAETA
note: adopted 1881; the lyrics were written in 1810, the music some years later; both SALIAS and LANDAETA were executed in 1814 during Venezuela's struggle for independence
 
Back to Top

Economy

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Venezuela remains highly dependent on oil revenues, which account for roughly 95% of export earnings, about 55% of the federal budget revenues, and around 30% of GDP. A nationwide strike between December 2002 and February 2003 had far-reaching economic consequences - real GDP declined by around 9% in 2002 and 8% in 2003 - but economic output recovered strongly through 2008. Fueled by high oil prices, record government spending helped to boost GDP by about 10% in 2006, 8% in 2007, and nearly 5% in 2008, before a sharp drop in oil prices caused a contraction in 2009-10. This spending, combined with recent minimum wage hikes and improved access to domestic credit, created a consumption boom which came at the cost of higher inflation - roughly 32% in 2008, and slowing only slightly to 30% in 2010, despite the lengthy downturn. Imports also jumped significantly before the recession of 2009. President Hugo CHAVEZ's continued efforts to increase the government's control of the economy by nationalizing firms in the agribusiness, financial, construction, oil, and steel sectors have hurt the private investment environment, reduced productive capacity, and slowed non-petroleum exports. In the first half of 2010 Venezuela faced the prospect of lengthy nationwide blackouts when its main hydroelectric power plant - which provides more than 35% of the country's electricity - nearly shut down. In May, 2010, CHAVEZ closed the unofficial foreign exchange market - the "parallel" market - in an effort to stem inflation and slow the currency's depreciation. In June 2010, the government created the "Transaction System for Foreign Currency Denominated Securities" (SITME) to replace the "parallel" market. In December 2010, CHAVEZ eliminated the dual exchange rate system and unified the exchange rate at 4.3 bolivars per dollar. In January 2011, CHAVEZ announced the second devaluation of the bolivar within twelve months. In December 2010, the National Assembly passed a package of five organic laws designed to complete the transformation of the Venezuelan economy in line with CHAVEZ's vision of 21st century socialism. These laws likely will be implemented in 2011. Venezuela began 2011 wrestling with macroeconomic imbalances resulting from the government's unorthodox economic policies, a housing crisis, and a continuing electricity crisis.
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$345.2 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
$351.9 billion (2009 est.)
$363.9 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$290.7 billion (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
-1.9% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
-3.3% (2009 est.)
4.8% (2008 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$12,700 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
$13,100 (2009 est.)
$13,800 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
agriculture: 3.9%
industry: 36.1%
services: 60% (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
13.11 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
agriculture: 13%
industry: 23%
services: 64% (1997 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
8.5% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
7.9% (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
37.9% (2005 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 32.7% (2006)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
41 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 57
49.5 (1998)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
17.6% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
revenues: $63.02 billion
expenditures: $79.59 billion (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
21.7% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
-5.7% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
24.9% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
18% of GDP (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
28.2% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 223
27.1% (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
29.5% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 3
33.5% (31 December 2008)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
18.348% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
19.893% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$70.57 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
$104.5 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$78.88 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
$118.1 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$48.78 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
$75.98 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$3.991 billion (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 70
$8.86 billion (31 December 2009)
$8.251 billion (31 December 2006)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee; beef, pork, milk, eggs; fish
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
petroleum, construction materials, food processing, textiles; iron ore mining, steel, aluminum; motor vehicle assembly
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
-3.3% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
123.4 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
84.72 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
633 million kWh (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
373 million kWh (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2.375 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
746,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1.871 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
211.2 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
22.9 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
25.08 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2.18 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
5.065 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$14.38 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
$8.561 billion (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$65.79 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
$57.6 billion (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
petroleum, bauxite and aluminum, minerals, chemicals, agricultural products, basic manufactures
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
US 38.7%, China 7.7%, India 4.8%, Cuba 4.1% (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$38.61 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
$38.44 billion (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
agricultural products, raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, construction materials
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
US 26.6%, Colombia 11.4%, Brazil 9.6%, China 9.1% (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$29.62 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
$35 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$61.42 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
$54.5 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$38.02 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
$41.21 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$19.89 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
$17.67 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
bolivars (VEB) per US dollar -
4.3039 (2010)
2.147 (2009)
2.147 (2008)
2,147 (2007)
2,147 (2006)
 
Back to Top

Communications

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
7.083 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 26
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
27.88 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 34
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
general assessment: modern and expanding
domestic: domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations; recent substantial improvement in telephone service in rural areas; substantial increase in digitalization of exchanges and trunk lines; installation of a national interurban fiber-optic network capable of digital multimedia services; combined fixed and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership 130 per 100 persons
international: country code - 58; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to the Caribbean, Central and South America, and US; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 PanAmSat; participating with Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia in the construction of an international fiber-optic network; constructing submarine cable to provide connectivity to Cuba with an estimated date of completion in late 2011 (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
government supervises a mixture of state-run and private broadcast media; 1 state-run television network, 4 privately-owned TV networks, a privately-owned news channel with limited national coverage, and a government-backed pan-American channel; state-run radio network includes 65 news stations and roughly another 30 stations targeted at specific audiences; state-sponsored community broadcasters include 244 radio stations and 36 television stations; the number of private broadcast radio stations has been declining, but a large number remain in operation (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
.ve
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
238,665 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 64
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
8.918 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 32
 
Back to Top

Transportation

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
409 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 20
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 129
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 34
914 to 1,523 m: 63
under 914 m: 17 (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 280
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 91
under 914 m: 172 (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
4 (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
extra heavy crude 980 km; gas 5,347 km; oil 6,694 km; refined products 1,620 km (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 806 km
country comparison to the world: 98
standard gauge: 806 km 1.435-m gauge (41 km electrified) (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 96,155 km
country comparison to the world: 45
paved: 32,308 km
unpaved: 63,847 km (2002)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
7,100 km (the Orinoco River (400 km) and Lake de Maracaibo are navigable by oceangoing vessels) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 21
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 59
country comparison to the world: 66
by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 15, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas 5, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 12, petroleum tanker 16
foreign-owned: 10 (Denmark 1, Estonia 1, Germany 1, Greece 4, Mexico 1, Norway 1, Spain 1)
registered in other countries: 9 (Panama 8, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1) (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
La Guaira, Maracaibo, Puerto Cabello, Punta Cardon
oil terminals: Jose terminal
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the Caribbean Sea as a significant risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous vessels, including commercial shipping and pleasure craft, have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; crews have been robbed and stores or cargoes stolen
 
Back to Top

Military

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Bolivarian National Armed Forces (Fuerza Armada Nacional Bolivariana, FANB): Bolivarian National Army (Ejercito Nacional Bolivariano, ENB), Bolivarian Navy (Armada Bolivariana, AB; includes Naval Infantry, Coast Guard, Naval Aviation), Bolivarian Military Aviation (Aviacion Militar Bolivariana, AMB), Bolivarian National Guard (Guardia Nacional Bolivaria, GNB), Bolivarian Militia (Milicia Bolivariana, MB) (2011)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
18-30 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 30-month conscript service obligation; Navy requires 6th-grade education for enlisted personnel; all citizens of military service age (18-60 years old) are obligated to register for military service (2011)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
males age 16-49: 7,013,854
females age 16-49: 7,165,661 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
males age 16-49: 5,614,743
females age 16-49: 6,074,834 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
male: 277,210
female: 273,353 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1.2% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
 
Back to Top

Transnational Issues

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
claims all of the area west of the Essequibo River in Guyana, preventing any discussion of a maritime boundary; Guyana has expressed its intention to join Barbados in asserting claims before the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) that Trinidad and Tobago's maritime boundary with Venezuela extends into their waters; dispute with Colombia over maritime boundary and Venezuelan-administered Los Monjes islands near the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Venezuela's shared border region; in 2006, an estimated 139,000 Colombians sought protection in 150 communities along the border in Venezuela; US, France, and the Netherlands recognize Venezuela's granting full effect to Aves Island, thereby claiming a Venezuelan EEZ/continental shelf extending over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea; Dominica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines protest Venezuela's full effect claim
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
current situation: Venezuela is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor; Venezuelan women and girls are trafficked within the country for sexual exploitation, lured from the nation's interior to urban and tourist areas; to a lesser extent, Brazilian women and Colombian women are subjected to forced prostitution; some Venezuelan women are transported to Caribbean islands, particularly Aruba, Curacao, and Trinidad & Tobago, where they are subjected to forced prostitution
tier rating: Tier 3 - the government investigated potential cases of suspected human trafficking and arrested at least 12 people for trafficking crimes during the reporting period; however, there was no further publicly available information regarding those cases; Venezuela is not making significant efforts to comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking (2011)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
small-scale illicit producer of opium and coca for the processing of opiates and coca derivatives; however, large quantities of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana transit the country from Colombia bound for US and Europe; significant narcotics-related money-laundering activity, especially along the border with Colombia and on Margarita Island; active eradication program primarily targeting opium; increasing signs of drug-related activities by Colombian insurgents on border (2011)
Page statistics
582 view(s) and 2 edit(s)
Social share
Share this page?

Tags

This page has no custom tags.
This page has no classifications.

Comments

You must to post a comment.

Attachments