Uganda

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 10, 2011
Flag of Uganda
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Location of Uganda
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Map of Uganda
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OF UGANDA
 

Introduction

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The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences prevented the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. During the 1990s, the government promulgated non-party presidential and legislative elections.
 
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Geography

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Eastern Africa, west of Kenya, east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
 
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1 00 N, 32 00 E
 
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total: 241,038 sq km
country comparison to the world: 81
land: 197,100 sq km
water: 43,938 sq km
 
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slightly smaller than Oregon
 
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total: 2,698 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, South Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km
 
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0 km (landlocked)
 
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none (landlocked)
 
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tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
 
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mostly plateau with rim of mountains
 
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lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
 
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copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land, gold
 
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arable land: 21.57%
permanent crops: 8.92%
other: 69.51% (2005)
 
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90 sq km (2008)
 
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66 cu km (1970)
 
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total: 0.3 cu km/yr (43%/17%/40%)
per capita: 10 cu m/yr (2002)
 
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NA
 
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draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching
 
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
 
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landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers
 
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People and Society

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noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
 
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Baganda 16.9%, Banyakole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bunyoro 2.7%, other 29.6% (2002 census)
 
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English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
 
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Roman Catholic 41.9%, Protestant 42% (Anglican 35.9%, Pentecostal 4.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.5%), Muslim 12.1%, other 3.1%, none 0.9% (2002 census)
 
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34,612,250 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
 
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0-14 years: 49.9% (male 8,692,239/female 8,564,571)
15-64 years: 48.1% (male 8,383,548/female 8,255,473)
65 years and over: 2.1% (male 291,602/female 424,817) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 15.1 years
male: 15 years
female: 15.1 years (2011 est.)
 
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3.576% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
 
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47.49 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
 
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11.71 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
 
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-0.02 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
 
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urban population: 13% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 4.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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KAMPALA (capital) 1.535 million (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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430 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 32
 
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total: 62.47 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 29
male: 66.05 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 58.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 53.24 years
country comparison to the world: 204
male: 52.17 years
female: 54.33 years (2011 est.)
 
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6.69 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
 
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8.2% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 51
 
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0.117 physicians/1,000 population (2005)
country comparison to the world: 161
 
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0.39 beds/1,000 population (2009)
country comparison to the world: 177
 
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improved:
urban: 91% of population
rural: 64% of population
total: 67% of population
unimproved:
urban: 9% of population
rural: 36% of population
total: 33% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 38% of population
rural: 49% of population
total: 48% of population
unimproved:
urban: 62% of population
rural: 51% of population
total: 52% of population (2008)
 
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6.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
 
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1.2 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
 
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64,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
 
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degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, plague, and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
 
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16.4% (2006)
country comparison to the world: 51
 
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3.2% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 123
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 66.8%
male: 76.8%
female: 57.7% (2002 census)
 
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total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2009)

Government

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conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
 
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republic
 
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name: Kampala
geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 25 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
 
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80 districts; Abim, Adjumani, Amolatar, Amuria, Amuru, Apac, Arua, Budaka, Bududa, Bugiri, Bukedea, Bukwa, Bulisa, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Butaleja, Dokolo, Gulu, Hoima, Ibanda, Iganga, Isingiro, Jinja, Kaabong, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kalangala, Kaliro, Kampala, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibale, Kiboga, Kiruhara, Kisoro, Kitgum, Koboko, Kotido, Kumi, Kyenjojo, Lira, Luwero, Lyantonde, Manafwa, Maracha, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Mityana, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakaseke, Nakasongola, Namutumba, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Oyam, Pader, Pallisa, Rakai, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe
 
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9 October 1962 (from the UK)
 
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Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
 
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8 October 1995; amended 2005
note: the amendments in 2005 removed presidential term limits and legalized a multiparty political system
 
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mixed legal system of English common law and customary law
 
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accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Vice President Edward SSEKANDI (since 24 May 2011) note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power on 26 January 1986); Prime Minister Amama MBABAZI (since 24 May 2011); note - the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held on 18 February 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 68.4%, Kizza BESIGYE 26.0%, other 5.6%
 
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unicameral National Assembly (372 seats; 215 members elected by popular vote, 104 nominated by legally established special interest groups [women 79, army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5], 13 ex-officio members; members to serve five-year terms); note - the composition of the National Assembly has changed but the the details are not yet available
elections: last held on 18 February 2011 (next to be held in 2016)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NRM 279, FDC 34, DP 11, UPC 9, CP 1, JEEMA 1, independents 37
 
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Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the president and approved by the legislature); High Court (judges are appointed by the president)
 
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Conservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]; Democratic Party or DP [Kizito SSEBAANA]; Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Kizza BESIGYE]; Inter-Party Co-operation or IPC (a coalition of opposition groups); Justice Forum or JEEMA [Muhammad Kibirige MAYANJA]; National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]; Peoples Progressive Party or PPP [Bidandi SSALI]; Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Miria OBOTE]
note: a national referendum in July 2005 opened the way for Uganda's transition to a multi-party political system
 
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Lord's Resistance Army or LRA [Joseph KONY]; Young Parliamentary Association [Henry BANYENZAKI]; Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or PAFO; National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU [Florence NEKYON]; The Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability to Women or COPAW
 
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ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Perezi Karukubiro KAMUNANWIRE
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Jerry P. LANIER
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (414) 259 791 through 93, 95
FAX: [256] (414) 258-794
 
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six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side; black symbolizes the African people, yellow sunshine and vitality, red African brotherhood; the crane was the military badge of Ugandan soldiers under the UK
 
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grey crowned crane
 
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name: "Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty!"
lyrics/music: George Wilberforce KAKOMOA
note: adopted 1962
 
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Economy

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Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Uganda has never conducted a national minerals survey. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. Since 1990 economic reforms ushered in an era of solid economic growth based on continued investment in infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, lower inflation, better domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. Uganda has received about $2 billion in multilateral and bilateral debt relief. In 2007 Uganda received $10 million for a Millennium Challenge Account Threshold Program. The global economic downturn has hurt Uganda's exports; however, Uganda's GDP growth is still relatively strong due to past reforms and sound management of the downturn. Oil revenues and taxes will become a larger source of government funding as oil comes on line in the next few years. Instability in southern Sudan is the biggest risk for the Ugandan economy in 2011 because Uganda's main export partner is Sudan, and Uganda is a key destination for Sudanese refugees.
 
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$42.15 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
$40.08 billion (2009 est.)
$37.37 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$17.01 billion (2010 est.)
 
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5.2% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
7.2% (2009 est.)
8.7% (2008 est.)
 
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$1,300 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
$1,200 (2009 est.)
$1,200 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 22.5%
industry: 26.5%
services: 50.9% (2010 est.)
 
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15.51 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
 
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agriculture: 82%
industry: 5%
services: 13% (1999 est.)
 
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NA%
 
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35% (2001 est.)
 
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lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 36.1% (2009)
 
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44.3 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 44
45.7 (2002)
 
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23.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
 
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revenues: $2.544 billion
expenditures: $3.137 billion (2010 est.)
 
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15% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
 
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-3.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
 
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21.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
20.9% of GDP (2009 est.)
 
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4% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
13.4% (2009 est.)
 
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14% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
9.65% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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20.17% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
20.96% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$2.041 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
$1.881 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$4.199 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
$3.718 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$2.496 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
$1.801 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$NA (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 117
$116.3 million (#REF!)
 
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coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry
 
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sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
 
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8.9% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
 
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2.176 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
 
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1.958 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
 
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82.04 million kWh (2009)
 
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82.04 million kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
 
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14,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
 
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0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
 
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13,770 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
 
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1 billion bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
 
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14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
 
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-$729.1 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
-$1.064 billion (2009 est.)
 
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$2.164 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
$2.327 billion (2009 est.)
 
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coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold
 
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Sudan 15.3%, Kenya 10.2%, Rwanda 8.5%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 7.8%, UAE 7.7%, Netherlands 6.4%, Germany 5.4%, Belgium 4.1% (2010)
 
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$4.264 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
$3.787 billion (2009 est.)
 
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capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
 
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Kenya 17.1%, UAE 14.1%, China 8.5%, India 8.2%, South Africa 6.2%, Japan 5.9%, Germany 4.3% (2010)
 
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$2.96 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
$2.995 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
note: excludes gold
 
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$2.938 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
$2.49 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$NA
 
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$NA
 
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Ugandan shillings (UGX) per US dollar -
2,166 (2010)
2,030 (2009)
1,658.1 (2008)
1,685.8 (2007)
1,834.9 (2006)
 
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Communications

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327,100 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 114
 
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12.828 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 56
 
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general assessment: mobile cellular service is increasing rapidly, but the number of main lines is still deficient; work underway on a national backbone information and communications technology infrastructure; international phone networks and Internet connectivity provided through satellite and VSAT applications
domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile-cellular systems for short-range traffic; mobile-cellular teledensity about 30 per 100 persons in 2009
international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania
 
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public broadcaster, Uganda Broadcasting Corporation (UBC), operates radio and television networks; Uganda first began licensing privately-owned stations in the 1990s; by 2007 there were nearly 150 radio and 35 TV stations, mostly based in and around Kampala; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available in Kampala (2007)
 
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.ug
 
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19,927 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 111
 
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3.2 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 66
 
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Transportation

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46 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 95
 
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total: 5
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)
 
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total: 41
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 8 (2010)
 
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total: 1,244 km
country comparison to the world: 82
narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)
 
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total: 70,746 km
country comparison to the world: 67
paved: 16,272 km
unpaved: 54,474 km (2003)
 
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(there are no long navigable stretches of river in Uganda; parts of the Albert Nile that flow out of Lake Albert in the northwestern part of the country are navigable; several lakes including Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga have substantial traffic; Lake Albert is navigable along a 200-km stretch from its northern tip to its southern shores) (2009)
 
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Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell
 
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Military

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Uganda Peoples Defense Force (UPDF): Army (includes Marine Unit), Uganda Air Force (2010)
 
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18-26 years of age for voluntary military duty; 18-30 years of age for professionals; no conscription; 9-year service obligation; the government has stated that recruitment under 18 years of age could occur with proper consent and that "no person under the apparent age of 13 years shall be enrolled in the armed forces"; Ugandan citizenship and secondary education required (2010)
 
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males age 16-49: 7,249,271
females age 16-49: 7,025,439 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 4,313,068
females age 16-49: 4,200,901 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 423,923
female: 420,236 (2010 est.)
 
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2.2% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 67
 
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Transnational Issues

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Uganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Uganda hosts 209,860 Sudanese, 27,560 Congolese, and 19,710 Rwandan refugees, while Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border
 
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refugees (country of origin): 215,700 (Sudan); 28,880 (Democratic Republic of Congo); 24,900 (Rwanda)
IDPs: 1.27 million (350,000 IDPs returned in 2006 following ongoing peace talks between the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) and the Government of Uganda) (2007)
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