Switzerland

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 15, 2011
Flag of Switzerland
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Switzerland
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Map of Switzerland
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Photos of Switzerland
 
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OF SWITZERLAND
 

Introduction

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The Swiss Confederation was founded in 1291 as a defensive alliance among three cantons. In succeeding years, other localities joined the original three. The Swiss Confederation secured its independence from the Holy Roman Empire in 1499. A constitution of 1848, subsequently modified in 1874, replaced the confederation with a centralized federal government. Switzerland's sovereignty and neutrality have long been honored by the major European powers, and the country was not involved in either of the two world wars. The political and economic integration of Europe over the past half century, as well as Switzerland's role in many UN and international organizations, has strengthened Switzerland's ties with its neighbors. However, the country did not officially become a UN member until 2002. Switzerland remains active in many UN and international organizations but retains a strong commitment to neutrality.
 
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Geography

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Central Europe, east of France, north of Italy
 
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47 00 N, 8 00 E
 
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total: 41,277 sq km
country comparison to the world: 136
land: 39,997 sq km
water: 1,280 sq km
 
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slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey
 
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total: 1,852 km
border countries: Austria 164 km, France 573 km, Italy 740 km, Liechtenstein 41 km, Germany 334 km
 
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0 km (landlocked)
 
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none (landlocked)
 
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temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers
 
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mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes
 
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lowest point: Lake Maggiore 195 m
highest point: Dufourspitze 4,634 m
 
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hydropower potential, timber, salt
 
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arable land: 9.91%
permanent crops: 0.58%
other: 89.51% (2005)
 
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250 sq km (2008)
 
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53.3 cu km (2005)
 
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total: 2.52 cu km/yr (24%/74%/2%)
per capita: 348 cu m/yr (2002)
 
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avalanches, landslides; flash floods
 
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air pollution from vehicle emissions and open-air burning; acid rain; water pollution from increased use of agricultural fertilizers; loss of biodiversity
 
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party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
 
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landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe; along with southeastern France, northern Italy, and southwestern Austria, has the highest elevations in the Alps
 
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People and Society

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noun: Swiss (singular and plural)
adjective: Swiss
 
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German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other 6%
 
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German (official) 63.7%, French (official) 20.4%, Italian (official) 6.5%, Serbo-Croatian 1.5%, Albanian 1.3%, Portuguese 1.2%, Spanish 1.1%, English 1%, Romansch (official) 0.5%, other 2.8% (2000 census)
note: German, French, Italian, and Romansch are all national and official languages
 
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Roman Catholic 41.8%, Protestant 35.3%, Muslim 4.3%, Orthodox 1.8%, other Christian 0.4%, other 1%, unspecified 4.3%, none 11.1% (2000 census)
 
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7,639,961 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
 
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0-14 years: 15.2% (male 602,894/female 560,175)
15-64 years: 67.8% (male 2,612,557/female 2,569,318)
65 years and over: 17% (male 543,074/female 751,943) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 41.7 years
male: 40.6 years
female: 42.8 years (2011 est.)
 
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0.21% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
 
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9.53 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
 
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8.72 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
 
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1.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
 
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urban population: 74% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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Zurich 1.143 million; BERN (capital) 346,000 (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.054 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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10 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 144
 
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total: 4.08 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 202
male: 4.53 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 81.07 years
country comparison to the world: 15
male: 78.24 years
female: 84.05 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.46 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
 
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11.3% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 15
 
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4.07 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
country comparison to the world: 11
 
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5.31 beds/1,000 population (2008)
country comparison to the world: 36
 
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improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2008)
 
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0.4% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
 
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18,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
 
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fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
 
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8.2% (2007)
country comparison to the world: 59
 
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5.2% of GDP (2007)
country comparison to the world: 53
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
 
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total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 15 years (2008)
 
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total: 8.2%
country comparison to the world: 113
male: 7.7%
female: 8.7% (2009)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Swiss Confederation
conventional short form: Switzerland
local long form: Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft (German); Confederation Suisse (French); Confederazione Svizzera (Italian); Confederaziun Svizra (Romansh)
local short form: Schweiz (German); Suisse (French); Svizzera (Italian); Svizra (Romansh)
 
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formally a confederation but similar in structure to a federal republic
 
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name: Bern
geographic coordinates: 46 57 N, 7 26 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
 
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26 cantons (cantons, singular - canton in French; cantoni, singular - cantone in Italian; Kantone, singular - Kanton in German); Aargau, Appenzell Ausser-Rhoden, Appenzell Inner-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve, Glarus, Graubunden, Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Sankt Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zurich
note: 6 of the cantons - Appenzell Ausser-Rhoden, Appenzell-Inner-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Nidwalden, Obwalden - are refered to as half cantons because they elect only one member to the Council of States and, in popular referendums where a majority of popular votes and a majority of cantonal votes are required, these six cantons only have a half vote
 
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1 August 1291 (founding of the Swiss Confederation)
 
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Founding of the Swiss Confederation, 1 August (1291)
 
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revision of Constitution of 1874 approved by the Federal Parliament 18 December 1998, adopted by referendum 18 April 1999, officially entered into force 1 January 2000
 
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civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts, except for federal decrees of a general obligatory character
 
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accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: President of the Swiss Confederation Micheline CALMY-REY (since 1 January 2011); Vice President Eveline WIDMER-SCHLUMPF (since 1 January 2011); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government representing the Federal Council; the Federal Council is the formal chief of state and head of government whose council members, rotating in one-year terms as federal president, represent the Council
head of government: President of the Swiss Confederation Micheline CALMY-REY (since 1 January 2011); Vice President Eveline WIDMER-SCHLUMPF (since 1 January 2011)
cabinet: Federal Council or Bundesrat (in German), Conseil Federal (in French), Consiglio Federale (in Italian) is elected by the Federal Assembly usually from among its members for a four-year term
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president and vice president elected by the Federal Assembly from among the members of the Federal Council for a one-year term (they may not serve consecutive terms); election last held on 8 December 2010 (next to be held in early December 2011)
election results: Micheline CALMY-REY elected president; number of Federal Assembly votes - 106 of 189; Eveline WIDMER-SCHLUMPF elected vice president; current Vice President Eveline WIDMER-SCHLUMPF is slated to become president on 1 January 2012
 
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bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung (in German), Assemblee Federale (in French), Assemblea Federale (in Italian) consists of the Council of States or Staenderat (in German), Conseil des Etats (in French), Consiglio degli Stati (in Italian) (46 seats; membership consists of 2 representatives from each canton and 1 from each half canton; members serve four-year terms) and the National Council or Nationalrat (in German), Conseil National (in French), Consiglio Nazionale (in Italian) (200 seats; members elected by popular vote on the basis of proportional representation serve four-year terms)
elections: Council of States - last held in most cantons in October 2007 (each canton determines when the next election will be held); National Council - last held on 23 October 2011 (next to be held in October 2015)
election results: Council of States - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CVP 15, FDP 12, SVP 7, SPS 9, other 3; National Council - percent of vote by party - SVP 26.6%, SPS 18.7%, FDP 15.1%, CVP 12.3%, Greens 8.4%, GLP 5.4%, BDP 5.4%, other 8.1%; seats by party - SVP 54, SPS 46, FDP 30, CVP 28, Green Party 15, GLP 12, BDP 9, other small parties 6
 
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Federal Supreme Court (judges elected for six-year terms by the Federal Assembly)
 
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Christian Democratic People's Party (Christlichdemokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz or CVP, Parti Democrate-Chretien Suisse or PDC, Partito Popolare Democratico Svizzero or PPD, Partida Cristiandemocratica dalla Svizra or PCD) [Christophe DARBELLAY]; Conservative Democratic Party (Buergerlich-Demokratische Partei Schweiz or BDP, Parti Bourgeois Democratique Suisse or PBD, Partito Borghese Democratico Svizzero or PBD, Partido burgais democratica Svizera or (PBD)) [Hans GRUNDER]; Free Democratic Party or FDP.The Liberals (FDP.Die Liberalen, PLR.Les Liberaux-Radicaux, PLR.I Liberali, Ils Liberals) [Fulvio PELLI]; Green Liberal Party (Grunliberale or GLP, Parti vert liberale or PVL, Partito Verde-Liberale or PVL, Partida Verde Liberale or PVL) [Martin BAUMLE]; Green Party (Gruene Partei der Schweiz or Gruene, Parti Ecologiste Suisse or Les Verts, Partito Ecologista Svizzero or I Verdi, Partida Ecologica Svizra or La Verda) [Ueli LEUENBERGER]; Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz or SPS, Parti Socialiste Suisse or PSS, Partito Socialista Svizzero or PSS, Partida Socialdemocratica de la Svizra or PSS) [Christian LEVRAT]; Swiss People's Party (Schweizerische Volkspartei or SVP, Union Democratique du Centre or UDC, Unione Democratica di Centro or UDC, Uniun Democratica dal Center or UDC) [Toni BRUNNER]; and other minor parties
 
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NA
 
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ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, ESA, FAO, FATF, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Manuel SAGER
chancery: 2900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 745-7900
FAX: [1] (202) 387-2564
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
consulate(s): Boston
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Donald S. BEYER, Jr.
embassy: Sulgeneckstrasse 19, CH-3007 Bern
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [41] (031) 357 70 11
FAX: [41] (031) 357 73 44
 
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red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in the center that does not extend to the edges of the flag; various medieval legends purport to describe the origin of the flag; a white cross used as identification for troops of the Swiss Confederation is first attested at the Battle of Laupen (1339)
 
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Swiss cross (white cross on red field; arms equal length)
 
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name: "Schweizerpsalm" [German] "Cantique Suisse" [French] "Salmo svizzero," [Italian] "Psalm svizzer" [Romansch] (Swiss Psalm)
lyrics/music: Leonhard WIDMER [German], Charles CHATELANAT [French], Camillo VALSANGIACOMO [Italian], and Flurin CAMATHIAS [Romansch]/Alberik ZWYSSIG
note: unofficially adopted 1961, official adoption 1981; the anthem has been popular in a number of Swiss cantons since its composition (in German) in 1841; translated into the other three official languages of the country (French, Italian, and Romansch), it is official in each of those languages
 
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Economy

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Switzerland is a peaceful, prosperous, and modern market economy with low unemployment, a highly skilled labor force, and a per capita GDP among the highest in the world. Switzerland's economy benefits from a highly developed service sector, led by financial services, and a manufacturing industry that specializes in high-technology, knowledge-based production. The Swiss have brought their economic practices largely into conformity with the EU's, in order to enhance their international competitiveness, but some trade protectionism remains, particularly for its small agricultural sector. The global financial crisis and resulting economic downturn put Switzerland in a recession in 2009 as global export demand stalled. The Swiss National Bank during this period effectively implemented a zero-interest rate policy in a bid to boost the economy and prevent appreciation of the franc. Switzerland's economy grew by 2.7% in 2010, when Bern implemented a third fiscal stimulus program, but its prized banking sector has recently faced significant challenges. The country's largest banks suffered sizable losses in 2008-09, leading its largest bank to accept a government rescue deal in late 2008. Switzerland has also come under increasing pressure from individual neighboring countries, the EU, the US, and international institutions to reform its banking secrecy laws. Consequently, the government agreed to conform to OECD regulations on administrative assistance in tax matters, including tax evasion. The government has renegotiated its double taxation agreements with numerous countries, including the US, to incorporate the OECD standard, and it is working with Germany and the UK to resolve outstanding issues, particularly the possibility of imposing taxes on bank deposits held by foreigners. Parliament passed the first five double-taxation agreements, including that with the US, in March 2010. The agreement with the US awaits US Senate approval. In 2009, Swiss financial regulators ordered the country's largest bank to reveal at Washington's behest the names of US account-holders suspected of using the bank to commit tax fraud. These steps will have a lasting impact on Switzerland's long history of bank secrecy.
 
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$324.5 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
$316.4 billion (2009 est.)
$322.6 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$523.8 billion (2010 est.)
 
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2.6% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
-1.9% (2009 est.)
1.9% (2008 est.)
 
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$42,600 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
$41,600 (2009 est.)
$42,600 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 1.3%
industry: 27.2%
services: 71.5% (2010 est.)
 
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4.218 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
 
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agriculture: 3.4%
industry: 23.4%
services: 73.2% (2010)
 
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3.9% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
3.7% (2009 est.)
 
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6.9% (2010)
 
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lowest 10%: 7.5%
highest 10%: 19% (2007)
 
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33.7 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 98
33.1 (1992)
 
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20.9% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
 
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revenues: $185.7 billion
expenditures: $182.3 billion
note: includes federal, cantonal, and municipal accounts (2010 est.)
 
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35.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
 
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0.7% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
 
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38.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
39% of GDP (2009 est.)
 
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0.7% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
-0.5% (2009 est.)
 
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0.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
0.75% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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2.733% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
2.751% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$452.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
$394.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$982.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
$857.9 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.119 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
$1.003 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.229 trillion (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 14
$1.071 trillion (31 December 2009)
$862.7 billion (31 December 2008)
 
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grains, fruits, vegetables; meat, eggs
 
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machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments, tourism, banking, and insurance
 
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6.3% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
 
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64.08 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
 
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57.5 billion kWh (2009)
country comparison to the world: 41
 
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33.53 billion kWh (2009 est.)
 
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2.157 billion kWh (2009 est.)
 
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3,488 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
 
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242,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
 
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9,851 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
 
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272,700 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
 
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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
 
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0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
 
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3.625 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
 
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0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
 
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3.625 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
 
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0 cu m (1 January 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
 
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$70.36 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
$38.7 billion (2009 est.)
 
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$258.5 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
$206.1 billion (2009 est.)
 
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machinery, chemicals, metals, watches, agricultural products
 
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Germany 19.2%, US 10.2%, Italy 7.9%, France 7.7%, UK 5.9% (2010)
 
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$246.2 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
$204.7 billion (2009 est.)
 
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machinery, chemicals, vehicles, metals; agricultural products, textiles
 
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Germany 32%, Italy 10.2%, France 8.5%, US 5.3%, Netherlands 4.5%, Austria 4.3% (2010)
 
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$270.3 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
$135.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.346 trillion (30 June 2011)
country comparison to the world: 12
$1.2 trillion (30 September 2010)
 
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$576.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
$530.6 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$911.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
$841.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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Swiss francs (CHF) per US dollar -
1.0429 (2010)
1.0881 (2009)
1.0774 (2008)
1.1973 (2007)
1.2539 (2006)
 
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Communications

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4.488 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 35
 
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9.475 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 73
 
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general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure with excellent domestic and international services
domestic: ranked among leading countries for fixed-line teledensity and infrastructure; mobile-cellular subscribership roughly 120 per 100 persons; extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks
international: country code - 41; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean)
 
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the publicly-owned radio and television broadcaster, Swiss Broadcasting Corporation (SRG/SSR), operates 7 national television networks, 3 broadcasting in German, 2 in Italian, and 2 in French; private commercial television stations broadcast regionally and locally; television broadcasts from stations in Germany, Italy, and France are widely accessed using multi-channel cable and satellite TV services; SRG/SSR operates 18 radio stations that, along with private broadcasters, provide national to local coverage (2009)
 
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.ch
 
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4.816 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 17
 
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6.152 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 42
 
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Transportation

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65 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 75
 
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total: 42
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 17 (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 23
under 914 m: 23 (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1 (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
gas 1,681 km; oil 94 km; refined products 7 km (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 4,876 km
country comparison to the world: 37
standard gauge: 3,846 km 1.435-m gauge (3,591 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,081 km 1.000-m gauge (1,013 km electrified); 10 km 0.800-m gauge (10 km electrified) (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 71,454 km
country comparison to the world: 65
paved: 71,454 km (includes 1,790 of expressways) (2010)
 
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1,299 km (there are 1,227 km of waterways on lakes and rivers for public transport and another 65 km on the Rhine River between Basel-Rheinfelden and Schaffhausen-Bodensee used for the transport of commercial goods) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 57
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 35
country comparison to the world: 80
by type: bulk carrier 15, cargo 9, chemical tanker 6, container 4, petroleum tanker 1
registered in other countries: 109 (Antigua and Barbuda 7, Bahamas 2, Cayman Islands 1, France 5, Germany 1, Italy 6, Liberia 17, Luxembourg 1, Malta 14, Marshall Islands 12, NZ 2, Panama 22, Portugal 3, Russia 4, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Singapore 4, Spain 1, Tonga 1, Tuvalu 1) (2010)
 
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Basel
 
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Military

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Swiss Armed Forces: Land Forces, Swiss Air Force (Schweizer Luftwaffe) (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
19-26 years of age for male compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary male and female military service; every Swiss male has to serve at least 260 days in the armed forces; conscripts receive 18 weeks of mandatory training, followed by seven 3-week intermittent recalls for training during the next 10 years (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
males age 16-49: 1,828,043
females age 16-49: 1,786,552 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
males age 16-49: 1,493,509
females age 16-49: 1,459,450 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
male: 46,562
female: 42,585 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
 
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Transnational Issues

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none
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
a major international financial center vulnerable to the layering and integration stages of money laundering; despite significant legislation and reporting requirements, secrecy rules persist and nonresidents are permitted to conduct business through offshore entities and various intermediaries; transit country for and consumer of South American cocaine, Southwest Asian heroin, and Western European synthetics; domestic cannabis cultivation and limited ecstasy production
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