Senegal

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 10, 2011
Flag of Senegal
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Senegal
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Map of Senegal
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Introduction

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The French colonies of Senegal and the French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted their independence as the Mali Federation in 1960. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance (MFDC) has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s, and several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict. Nevertheless, Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until current President Abdoulaye WADE was elected in 2000. He was reelected in February 2007 and has amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and to weaken the opposition, part of the president's increasingly autocratic governing style. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation.
 
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Geography

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Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
 
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14 00 N, 14 00 W
 
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total: 196,722 sq km
country comparison to the world: 88
land: 192,530 sq km
water: 4,192 sq km
 
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slightly smaller than South Dakota
 
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total: 2,640 km
border countries: The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km
 
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531 km
 
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territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 
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tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
 
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generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
 
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lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation southwest of Kedougou 581 m
 
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fish, phosphates, iron ore
 
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arable land: 12.51%
permanent crops: 0.24%
other: 87.25% (2005)
 
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1,200 sq km (2008)
 
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39.4 cu km (1987)
 
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total: 2.22 cu km/yr (4%/3%/93%)
per capita: 190 cu m/yr (2002)
 
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lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
 
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wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing
 
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
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westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
 
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People and Society

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noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
adjective: Senegalese
 
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Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%
 
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French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka
 
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Muslim 94%, Christian 5% (mostly Roman Catholic), indigenous beliefs 1%
 
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12,643,799 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
 
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0-14 years: 43.3% (male 2,748,457/female 2,722,633)
15-64 years: 53.9% (male 3,200,056/female 3,611,173)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 166,577/female 194,903) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 18 years
male: 17.2 years
female: 18.9 years (2011 est.)
 
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2.557% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
 
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36.73 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
 
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9.26 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
 
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-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
 
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urban population: 42% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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DAKAR (capital) 2.777 million (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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410 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 34
 
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total: 56.42 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 37
male: 62.94 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 49.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 59.78 years
country comparison to the world: 188
male: 57.85 years
female: 61.77 years (2011 est.)
 
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4.78 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
 
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5.7% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 118
 
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0.059 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
country comparison to the world: 172
 
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0.34 beds/1,000 population (2008)
country comparison to the world: 178
 
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improved:
urban: 92% of population
rural: 52% of population
total: 69% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8% of population
rural: 48% of population
total: 31% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 69% of population
rural: 38% of population
total: 51% of population
unimproved:
urban: 31% of population
rural: 62% of population
total: 49% of population (2008)
 
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0.9% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
 
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59,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
 
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2,600 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
 
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degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, dengue fever, malaria, Rift Valley fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
 
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14.5% (2005)
country comparison to the world: 56
 
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5.8% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 34
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 39.3%
male: 51.1%
female: 29.2% (2002 est.)
 
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total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 7 years (2008)
 
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total: 14.8%
country comparison to the world: 77
male: 11.9%
female: 20.1% (2006)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form: Senegal
local long form: Republique du Senegal
local short form: Senegal
former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
 
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republic
 
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name: Dakar
geographic coordinates: 14 40 N, 17 26 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
 
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14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
 
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4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
 
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Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
 
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adopted 7 January 2001; amended many times
 
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civil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
 
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accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: President Abdoulaye WADE (since 1 April 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Soulayemane Ndene NDIAYE (since 1 May 2009)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
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elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) under new constitution; election last held on 25 February 2007 (next to be held in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abdoulaye WADE reelected president; percent of vote - Abdoulaye WADE 55.9%, Idrissa SECK 14.9%, Ousmane Tanor DIENG 13.6%, Moustapha NIASSE 5.9%, other 9.7%
 
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bicameral Parliament consisting of the Senate, reinstituted in 2007, (100 seats; 35 members indirectly elected and 65 members appointed by the president) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members elected by direct popular vote and 60 elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 19 August 2007 (next to be held - NA); National Assembly - last held on 3 June 2007 (next to be held in 2012); note - the National Assembly in December 2005 voted to postpone legislative elections originally scheduled for 2006; legislative elections were first rescheduled to coincide with the 25 February 2007 presidential elections and later for 3 June 2007; the election was boycotted by 12 opposition parties, including the former ruling Socialist Party, which resulted in a record-low 35% voter turnout
election results: Senate results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDS 34, AJ/PADS 1, 65 appointed by the president; National Assembly results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SOPI Coalition 131, other 19
 
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Constitutional Court; Council of State; Court of Final Appeals or Cour de Cassation; Court of Appeals
 
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African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP]; Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar [Macky SALL]; Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]; And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Landing SAVANE]; Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]; Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]; Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]; Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]; Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]; National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]; People's Labor Party or PTP [El Hadji DIOUF]; Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]; Rewmi Party [Idrissa Seck]; Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]; Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]; SOPI Coalition [Abdoulaye WADE] (a coalition led by the PDS); Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
 
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other: labor; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
 
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ACP, AfDB, AU, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Fatou Danielle DIAGNE
chancery: 2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6315
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Lewis LUKENS
embassy: Avenue Jean XXIII at the corner of Rue Kleber, Dakar
mailing address: B. P. 49, Dakar
telephone: [221] 33-829-2100
FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
 
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three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
 
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lion
 
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name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER
note: adopted 1960; the lyrics were written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem is sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title
 
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Economy

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Senegal relies heavily on donor assistance. The country's key export industries are phosphate mining, fertilizer production, and commercial fishing. The country is also working on iron ore and oil exploration projects. In January 1994, Senegal undertook a bold and ambitious economic reform program with the support of the international donor community. Government price controls and subsidies have been steadily dismantled. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to the reform program, with real growth in GDP averaging over 5% annually during 1995-2007. Annual inflation had been pushed down to the single digits. The country was adversely affected by the global economic downturn in 2009 and GDP growth fell below 2%. As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff and a more stable monetary policy. High unemployment, however, continues to prompt illegal migrants to flee Senegal in search of better job opportunities in Europe. Under the IMF's Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief program, Senegal benefited from eradication of two-thirds of its bilateral, multilateral, and private-sector debt. In 2007, Senegal and the IMF agreed to a new, non-disbursing, Policy Support Initiative program which was completed in 2010. Senegal received its first disbursement from the $540 million Millennium Challenge Account compact it signed in September 2009 for infrastructure and agriculture development. In 2010, the Senegalese people protested against frequent power cuts. The government pledged to expand capacity by 2012 and to promote renewable energy but until Senegal has more capacity, more protests are likely and economic activity will be hindered. During the year, bakers protested government price controls on bread. Foreign investment in Senegal is constrained by Senegal's business environment, which has slipped in recent years, and by perceptions of corruption.
 
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$23.88 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
$22.91 billion (2009 est.)
$22.42 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$12.88 billion (2010 est.)
 
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4.2% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
2.2% (2009 est.)
3.2% (2008 est.)
 
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$1,900 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
$1,900 (2009 est.)
$1,900 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 15.9%
industry: 21.7%
services: 62.4% (2010 est.)
 
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5.532 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
 
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agriculture: 77.5%
industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
 
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48% (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
 
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54% (2001 est.)
 
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lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 30.1% (2005)
 
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41.3 (2001)
country comparison to the world: 55
41.3 (1995)
 
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25.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
 
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revenues: $2.829 billion
expenditures: $3.5 billion (2010 est.)
 
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22% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
 
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-5.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
 
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33.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
31.7% of GDP (2009 est.)
 
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1.2% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
-1.1% (2009 est.)
 
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0.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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14.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
14.5% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$3.163 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
$2.987 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$5.186 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
$4.882 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$3.771 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
$3.511 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$NA
 
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peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
 
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agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining; iron ore, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
 
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3.2% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
 
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2.232 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
 
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1.763 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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65 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
 
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41,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
 
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4,550 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
 
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36,290 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
 
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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
 
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50 million cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
 
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50 million cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
 
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0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
 
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-$1.209 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
-$1.261 billion (2009 est.)
 
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$2.053 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
$1.892 billion (2009 est.)
 
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fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
 
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Mali 21.6%, India 9.6%, France 4.5%, Gambia, The 4.2% (2010)
 
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$4.45 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
$4.543 billion (2009 est.)
 
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food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
 
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France 15.9%, UK 13.6%, China 8.6%, Nigeria 8.6%, Netherlands 5.2% (2010)
 
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$2.048 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
$2.123 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$3.858 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
$3.503 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
495.28 (2010)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)
481.83 (2007)
522.89 (2006)
 
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Communications

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341,900 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 110
 
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8.344 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 79
 
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general assessment: good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
domestic: above-average urban system with a fiber-optic network; nearly two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar where a call-center industry is emerging; expansion of fixed-line services in rural areas needed; mobile-cellular service is expanding rapidly
international: country code - 221; the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic cable provides connectivity to Europe and Asia while Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007)
 
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state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) operates 2 TV stations; a few private TV subscription channels rebroadcast foreign channels without providing any local news or programs; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; a large number of community and private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2007)
 
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.sn
 
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241 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 190
 
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1.818 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 76
 
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Transportation

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20 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 136
 
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total: 10
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)
 
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total: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2010)
 
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gas 43 km; refined products 8 km (2010)
 
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total: 906 km
country comparison to the world: 92
narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)
 
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total: 14,008 km
country comparison to the world: 125
paved: 4,099 km (includes 7 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,909 km (2006)
 
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1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance rivers) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 64
 
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total: 1
country comparison to the world: 159
by type: passenger/cargo 1 (2010)
 
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Dakar
 
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Military

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Senegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese Navy (Marine Senegalaise), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2009)
 
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18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; service obligation - 2 years; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2011)
 
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males age 16-49: 2,699,196
females age 16-49: 3,018,565 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 1,788,493
females age 16-49: 2,133,370 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 145,509
female: 145,064 (2010 est.)
 
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1.4% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
 
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Transnational Issues

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The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau attempt to stem separatist violence, cross border raids, and arms smuggling into their countries from Senegal's Casamance region, and in 2006, respectively accepted 6,000 and 10,000 Casamance residents fleeing the conflict; 2,500 Guinea-Bissau residents fled into Senegal in 2006 to escape armed confrontations along the border
 
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refugees (country of origin): 19,630 (Mauritania)
IDPs: 22,400 (approximately 65% of the IDP population returned in 2005, but new displacement is occurring due to clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2007)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis
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