San Marino

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 10, 2011
Flag of San Marino
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of San Marino
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Map of San Marino
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Introduction

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The third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of the European Union, although it is not a member; social and political trends in the republic track closely with those of its larger neighbor, Italy.
 
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Geography

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Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
 
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43 46 N, 12 25 E
 
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total: 61 sq km
country comparison to the world: 229
land: 61 sq km
water: 0 sq km
 
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about one third times the size of Washington, DC
 
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total: 39 km
border countries: Italy 39 km
 
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0 km (landlocked)
 
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none (landlocked)
 
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Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
 
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rugged mountains
 
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lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 755 m
 
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building stone
 
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arable land: 16.67%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 83.33% (2005)
 
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NA
 
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NA
 
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air pollution; urbanization decreasing rural farmlands
 
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution
 
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landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines
 
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People and Society

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noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese
 
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Sammarinese, Italian
 
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Italian
 
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Roman Catholic
 
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31,817 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214
 
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0-14 years: 16.6% (male 2,821/female 2,474)
15-64 years: 65.4% (male 10,076/female 10,734)
65 years and over: 18% (male 2,537/female 3,175) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 42.5 years
male: 41.7 years
female: 43.2 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.043% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
 
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9.02 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
 
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7.89 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
 
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9.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
 
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urban population: 94% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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at birth: 1.095 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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total: 4.72 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 187
male: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 83.01 years
country comparison to the world: 3
male: 80.5 years
female: 85.74 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.47 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
 
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7.1% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 75
 
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47.35 physicians/1,000 population (1990)
country comparison to the world: 1
 
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NA
 
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NA
 
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NA
 
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NA
 
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definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95%
 
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NA
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
local short form: San Marino
 
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republic
 
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name: San Marino
geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
 
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9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle
 
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3 September 301
 
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Founding of the Republic, 3 September (A.D. 301)
 
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8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution
 
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civil law system with Italian civil law influences
 
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has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: Co-chiefs of State Captain Regent Gabrielle GATTI and Captain Regent Matteo FIORINI (for the period 1 October 2011-1 April 2012)
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Antonella MULARONI (since 3 December 2008)
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held in September 2010 (next to be held in March 2011); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held on 9 November 2008 (next to be held by 2013)
election results: Giovanni Francesco UGOLINI and Andrea ZAFFERANI elected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA; Antonella MULARONI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - NA
note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (co-chiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 10 other members, all are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 10 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some prime ministerial roles
 
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unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 9 November 2008 (next to be held by June 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 54.2% (PDCS 31.9%, AP 11.5%, Freedom List 6.3%, San Marino Union of Moderates 4.2%), Reforms and Freedom coalition 45.8% (Party of Socialists and Democrats 32%, United Left 8.6%, Democrats of the Center 4.9%); seats by party - Pact for San Marino coalition 35 (PDCS 22, AP 7, the Freedom List 4, San Marino Union of Moderates 2), Reforms and Freedom coalition 25 (Party of Socialists and Democrats 18, United Left 5, Democrats of the Center 2)
 
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Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII
 
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Christian Democrats or PDCS [Marco GATTI]; Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Democrats of the Center or DdC [Giovanni LONFERNINI]; Freedom List (including NPS and We Sammarinesi) or NS [Gabriele GATTEI]; New Socialist Party or NPS [Augusto CASALI]; Party of Socialists and Democrats or PDS [Paride ANDREOLI]; Popular Alliance or AP [Carlo FRANCIOSI]; Union of Moderates (including National Alliance or ANS [Glauco SANSOVINI] and San Marino Populars or POP [Romeo MORRI and Angela VENTURINI]; United Left or SU [Alessandro ROSSI]
 
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NA
 
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CE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Paolo RONDELLI
chancery: 888 27th Street NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: 202-337-2260
 
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the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino
 
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two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino's highest feature Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively
 
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three peaks each displaying a tower
 
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name: "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica" (National Anthem of the Republic)
lyrics/music: none/Federico CONSOLO
note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece
 
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Economy

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San Marino's economy relies heavily on its tourism and banking industries, as well as on the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy, which supplies much of its food. The economy benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. San Marino has recently faced increased international pressure to improve cooperation with foreign tax authorities and transparency within its own banking sector, which generates about one-fifth of the country's tax revenues. Italy's implementation in October 2009 of a tax amnesty to repatriate untaxed funds held abroad has resulted in financial outflows from San Marino to Italy worth more than $4.5 billion. Such outflows, combined with a money-laundering scandal at San Marino's largest financial institution and the recent global economic downturn, have contributed to a deep recession and growing budget deficit. Industrial production declined sharply in 2010, especially in the textile sector. However, San Marino has little national debt, and an unemployment rate less than half the size of Italy's. The San Marino government has adopted measures to counter the downturn, including subsidized credit to businesses. San Marino also continues to work towards harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU members and international standards. In September 2009, the OECD removed San Marino from its list of tax havens that have yet to fully implement global tax standards, and in 2010 San Marino signed Tax Information Exchange Agreements with most major countries. The future of the country's economy will be heavily influenced by the signing of a financial information exchange agreement with Italy, which many Italian investors see as fundamental for their business operations with San Marino.
 
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$1.137 billion (2009)
country comparison to the world: 197
$850 million (2004 est.)
 
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$1.535 billion (2009)
 
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-13% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 215
4.3% (2007 est.)
 
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$36,200 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 31
$41,900 (2007)
 
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agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 39.2%
services: 60.7% (2009)
 
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22,950 (June 2010)
country comparison to the world: 208
 
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agriculture: 0.2%
industry: 36.3%
services: 63.5% (June 2010 est.)
 
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3.8% (November 2010)
country comparison to the world: 32
3.1% (2008)
 
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NA%
 
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lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
 
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revenues: $882.1 million
expenditures: $940.4 million (2009)
 
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57.5% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 10
 
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-3.8% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 119
 
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2.8% (June 2010)
country comparison to the world: 97
-3.5% (2008)
 
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5.39% (September 2010)
country comparison to the world: 153
5.74% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$NA (31 December 2008)
$1.326 billion (31 December 2007)
 
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$NA (31 December 2008)
$4.584 billion (31 December 2007)
 
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$8.822 billion (30 September 2010)
country comparison to the world: 97
$8.008 billion (31 December 2009)
 
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$NA
 
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wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides
 
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tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine
 
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-4.9% (2009)
country comparison to the world: 163
 
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$2.436 billion (2009)
country comparison to the world: 126
$4.628 billion (2007)
 
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building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics
 
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$2.165 billion (2009)
country comparison to the world: 151
$3.744 billion (2007)
 
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wide variety of consumer manufactures, food
 
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$NA
 
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euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.755 (2010)
0.7179 (2009)
0.6734 (2008)
0.7345 (2007)
0.7964 (2006)
 
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Communications

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21,700 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 190
 
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24,000 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 208
 
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general assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 150 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network
 
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state-owned public broadcaster operates 1 TV station and 2 radio stations; receives radio and TV broadcasts from Italy (2008)
 
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.sm
 
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8,895 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 130
 
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17,000 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 197
 
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Transportation

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total: 292 km
country comparison to the world: 205
paved: 292 km (2006)
 
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Military

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no regular military forces; voluntary Military Force (Corpi Militari) performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions (2010)
 
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16-55 for voluntary service in Voluntary Military Force (2006)
 
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males age 16-49: 6,892 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 5,565
females age 16-49: 6,067 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 186
female: 166 (2010 est.)
 
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NA
 
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defense is the responsibility of Italy
 
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Transnational Issues

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none
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