Portugal

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 15, 2011
Flag of Portugal
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Portugal
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Map of Portugal
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Photos of Portugal
 
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OF PORTUGAL
 

Introduction

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Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of its wealthiest colony of Brazil in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986. In January 2011, Portugal assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2011-12 term.
 
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Geography

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Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
 
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39 30 N, 8 00 W
 
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total: 92,090 sq km
country comparison to the world: 111
land: 91,470 sq km
water: 620 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands
 
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slightly smaller than Indiana
 
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total: 1,214 km
border countries: Spain 1,214 km
 
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1,793 km
 
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territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
 
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maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
 
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mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south
 
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lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m
 
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fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower
 
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arable land: 17.29%
permanent crops: 7.84%
other: 74.87% (2005)
 
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5,840 sq km (2008)
 
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73.6 cu km (2005)
 
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total: 11.09 cu km/yr (10%/12%/78%)
per capita: 1,056 cu m/yr (1998)
 
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Azores subject to severe earthquakes
volcanism: Portugal experiences limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (elev. 1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira
 
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soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
 
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party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification
 
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Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
 
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People and Society

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noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese
 
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homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal
 
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Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)
 
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Roman Catholic 84.5%, other Christian 2.2%, other 0.3%, unknown 9%, none 3.9% (2001 census)
 
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10,760,305 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
 
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0-14 years: 16.2% (male 910,012/female 835,025)
15-64 years: 65.8% (male 3,539,457/female 3,541,989)
65 years and over: 18% (male 791,950/female 1,141,872) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 40 years
male: 38 years
female: 42.3 years (2011 est.)
 
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0.212% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
 
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9.94 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
 
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10.8 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
 
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2.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
 
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urban population: 61% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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LISBON (capital) 2.808 million; Porto 1.344 million (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.067 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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7 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 158
 
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total: 4.66 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 189
male: 5.11 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 78.54 years
country comparison to the world: 49
male: 75.28 years
female: 82.01 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.5 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
 
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11.3% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 17
 
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3.755 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
country comparison to the world: 17
 
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3.37 beds/1,000 population (2008)
country comparison to the world: 63
 
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improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 99% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 1% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2008)
 
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0.6% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
 
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42,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
 
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fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
 
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14.2% (2005)
country comparison to the world: 40
 
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4.4% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 88
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.3%
male: 95.5%
female: 91.3% (2003 est.)
 
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total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 16 years (2008)
 
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total: 20%
country comparison to the world: 57
male: 18.6%
female: 21.6% (2009)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal
 
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republic; parliamentary democracy
 
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name: Lisbon
geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
 
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18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
 
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1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)
 
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Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died
 
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adopted 2 April 1976; subsequently revised
note: the revisions placed the military under strict civilian control, trimmed the powers of the president, and laid the groundwork for a stable, pluralistic liberal democracy; they allowed for the privatization of nationalized firms and government-owned communications media
 
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civil law system; Constitutional Tribunal review of legislative acts
 
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accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: President Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 9 March 2006)
head of government: Prime Minister Pedro Manuel Mamede PASSOS COELHO (since 21 June 2011)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 January 2011 (next to be held in January 2016); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Anibal CAVACO SILVA reelected president; percent of vote - Anibal CAVACO SILVA 53%, Manuel ALEGRE 19.8%, Fernando NOBRE 14.1%, Francisco LOPES 7.1%, Manuel COELHO 4.5%, Defensor MOURA 1.6%
 
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unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 5 June 2011 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: percent of vote by party - PPD/PSD 38%, PS 28%, CDS/PP 11%, PCP/PEV 7%, BE 5%; seats by party - PPD/PSD 108, PS 74, CDS/PP 24, PCP/PEV 16, BE 8
 
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Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal de Justica); judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura
 
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Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Paulo PORTAS]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Pedro Manuel PASSOS COELHO]; Socialist Party or PS [Antonio de Almeida SANTOS]; The Left Bloc or BE; Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes Portuguese Communist Party or PCP and Ecologist Party ("The Greens") or PEV)
 
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the media; labor unions
 
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ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIT, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Nuno Filipe Alves Salvador e BRITO
chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), San Francisco
consulate(s): New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence (Rhode Island)
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Allan J. KATZ
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon
mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109
consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)
 
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two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation
 
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armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky)
 
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name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)
lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL
note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event
 
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Economy

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Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community - the EU's predecessor - in 1986. Over the past two decades, successive governments have privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU members. The economy had grown by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but fell back in 2001-08, and contracted 2.6% in 2009, before growing 1% in 2010. GDP per capita stands at roughly two-thirds of the EU-27 average. A poor educational system and a rigid labor market have been obstacles to greater productivity and growth. Portugal also has been increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and Asia as a destination for foreign direct investment. Portugal's low competitiveness, low growth prospects, and high levels of public debt have made it vulnerable to bond market turbulence. The government is implementing austerity measures, including a 5% public salary cut which went into effect on January 1, 2011 and a 2% increase in the value-added tax, to reduce the budget deficit from 9.3% of GDP in 2009 to 4.6% in 2011, but some investors have expressed concern about the government's ability to achieve these targets and cover its sovereign debt. Without the option for stimulus measures, the government is focusing instead on boosting exports and implementing labor market reforms to try to raise GDP growth and increase Portugal's competitiveness - which, over time, may help mitigate investor concerns.
 
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$247 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
$243.6 billion (2009 est.)
$249.8 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$229.3 billion (2010 est.)
 
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1.4% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
-2.5% (2009 est.)
0% (2008 est.)
 
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$23,000 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
$22,800 (2009 est.)
$23,400 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 2.5%
industry: 22.9%
services: 74.7% (2010 est.)
 
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5.581 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
 
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agriculture: 11.7%
industry: 28.5%
services: 59.8% (2009 est.)
 
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10.8% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
9.5% (2009 est.)
 
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18% (2006)
 
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lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)
 
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38.5 (2007)
country comparison to the world: 73
35.6 (1995)
 
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19% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
 
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revenues: $95.4 billion
expenditures: $116.5 billion (2010 est.)
 
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41.6% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
 
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-9.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 194
 
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93% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
83% of GDP (2009 est.)
 
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1.4% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
-0.8% (2009 est.)
 
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1.75% (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 125
1.75% (31 December 2009)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
 
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4.225% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
4.694% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$95.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
$103.8 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
 
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$319.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
$311 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$556.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
$490.8 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
 
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$82 billion (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 41
$98.65 billion (31 December 2009)
$68.71 billion (31 December 2008)
 
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grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish
 
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textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper, chemicals, auto-parts manufacturing, base metals, dairy products, wine and other foods, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism
 
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1.6% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
 
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46.53 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
 
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48.27 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
 
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2.822 billion kWh (2009 est.)
 
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4.776 billion kWh (2009 est.)
 
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4,721 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
 
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277,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
 
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49,650 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
 
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294,600 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
 
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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
 
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0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
 
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5.161 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
 
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0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
 
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5.122 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
 
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0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
 
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-$22.61 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
-$25.6 billion (2009 est.)
 
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$48.91 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
$44.67 billion (2009 est.)
 
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agricultural products, food products, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, hides, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools
 
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Spain 26.8%, Germany 13.1%, France 11.9%, UK 5.5%, Angola 5.2% (2010)
 
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$72.67 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
$69.5 billion (2009 est.)
 
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agricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, and optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semi-conductors and related devices
 
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Spain 31.3%, Germany 13.8%, France 7.3%, Italy 5.7%, Netherlands 5.2% (2010)
 
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$21 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
$16.03 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$548.3 billion (30 June 2011)
country comparison to the world: 21
$497.8 billion (30 June 2010)
 
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$110.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
$114.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$64.25 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
$68.47 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.755 (2010)
0.7198 (2009)
0.6827 (2008)
0.7345 (2007)
0.7964 (2006)
 
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Communications

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4.485 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 36
 
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15.195 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 50
 
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general assessment: Portugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities
domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations
international: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2008)
 
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the publicly-owned TV broadcaster operates 2 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly-owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately-owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations (2008)
 
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.pt
 
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3.267 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 28
 
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5.168 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 45
 
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Transportation

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65 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 77
 
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total: 43
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 10 (2010)
 
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total: 22
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 21 (2010)
 
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gas 1,307 km; oil 11 km; refined products 188 km (2010)
 
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total: 3,319 km
country comparison to the world: 53
broad gauge: 2,700 km 1.668-m gauge (1,436 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 192 km 1.000-m gauge; 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2010)
 
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total: 82,900 km
country comparison to the world: 56
paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways)
unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)
 
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210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 96
 
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total: 111
country comparison to the world: 47
by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 33, carrier 1, chemical tanker 17, container 8, liquefied gas 9, passenger 13, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 9
foreign-owned: 80 (Belgium 8, Denmark 4, Germany 13, Greece 5, Italy 10, Japan 9, Mexico 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, Spain 15, Sweden 6, Switzerland 3, US 4)
registered in other countries: 14 (Cyprus 2, Malta 3, Panama 9) (2010)
 
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Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines
 
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Military

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Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP) (2011)
 
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18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2010)
 
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males age 16-49: 2,566,264
females age 16-49: 2,458,297 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
males age 16-49: 2,103,080
females age 16-49: 2,018,004 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
male: 62,208
female: 54,786 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2.3% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
 
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Transnational Issues

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz
 
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seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin
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