Philippines

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 15, 2011
Flag of Philippines
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Location of Philippines
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Map of Philippines
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OF PHILIPPINES
 

Introduction

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The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. A 20-year rule by Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a "people power" movement in Manila ("EDSA 1") forced him into exile and installed Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts that prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992. His administration was marked by increased stability and by progress on economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998. He was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January 2001 after ESTRADA's stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another "people power" movement ("EDSA 2") demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. Her presidency was marred by several corruption allegations but the Philippine economy was one of the few to avoid contraction following the 2008 global financial crisis, expanding each year of her administration. Benigno AQUINO III was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2010. The Philippine Government faces threats from several groups on the US Government's Foreign Terrorist Organization list. Manila has waged a decades-long struggle against ethnic Moro insurgencies in the southern Philippines, which has led to a peace accord with the Moro National Liberation Front and on-again/off-again peace talks with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The decades-long Maoist-inspired New People's Army insurgency also operates through much of the country.
 
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Geography

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Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam
 
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13 00 N, 122 00 E
 
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total: 300,000 sq km
country comparison to the world: 73
land: 298,170 sq km
water: 1,830 sq km
 
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slightly larger than Arizona
 
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0 km
 
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36,289 km
 
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territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
 
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tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)
 
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mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
 
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lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m
 
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timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
 
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arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 16.67%
other: 64.33% (2005)
 
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152,500 sq km (2008)
 
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479 cu km (1999)
 
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total: 28.52 cu km/yr (17%/9%/74%)
per capita: 343 cu m/yr (2000)
 
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astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis
volcanism: the Philippines experience significant volcanic activity; Taal (elev. 311 m), which has shown recent unrest and may erupt in the near future, has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Mayon (elev. 2,462 m), the country's most active volcano, erupted in 2009 forcing over 33,000 to be evacuated; other historically active volcanoes include Biliran, Babuyan Claro, Bulusan, Camiguin, Camiguin de Babuyanes, Didicas, Iraya, Jolo, Kanlaon, Makaturing, Musuan, Parker, Pinatubo and Ragang
 
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uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds
 
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
 
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the Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait
 
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People and Society

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noun: Filipino(s)
adjective: Philippine
 
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Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%, Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000 census)
 
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Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan
 
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Catholic 82.9% (Roman Catholic 80.9%, Aglipayan 2%), Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo 2.3%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)
 
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101,833,938 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
 
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0-14 years: 34.6% (male 17,999,279/female 17,285,040)
15-64 years: 61.1% (male 31,103,967/female 31,097,203)
65 years and over: 4.3% (male 1,876,805/female 2,471,644) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 22.9 years
male: 22.4 years
female: 23.4 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.903% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
 
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25.34 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
 
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5.02 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
 
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-1.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
 
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urban population: 49% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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MANILA (capital) 11.449 million; Davao 1.48 million; Cebu City 845,000; Zamboanga 827,000 (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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94 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 76
 
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total: 19.34 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 100
male: 21.84 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 16.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 71.66 years
country comparison to the world: 134
male: 68.72 years
female: 74.74 years (2011 est.)
 
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3.19 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
 
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3.8% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 169
 
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1.153 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
country comparison to the world: 96
 
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0.5 beds/1,000 population (2006)
country comparison to the world: 169
 
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improved:
urban: 93% of population
rural: 87% of population
total: 91% of population
unimproved:
urban: 7% of population
rural: 13% of population
total: 9% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 80% of population
rural: 69% of population
total: 76% of population
unimproved:
urban: 20% of population
rural: 31% of population
total: 24% of population (2008)
 
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less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
 
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8,700 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
 
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fewer than 200 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
 
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degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)
 
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4.3% (2003)
country comparison to the world: 62
 
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20.7% (2003)
country comparison to the world: 32
 
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2.8% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 138
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.5%
female: 92.7% (2000 census)
 
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total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2008)
 
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total: 17.4%
country comparison to the world: 67
male: 16.2%
female: 19.3% (2009)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form: Philippines
local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form: Pilipinas
 
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republic
 
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name: Manila
geographic coordinates: 14 35 N, 121 00 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
 
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80 provinces and 120 chartered cities
provinces: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Basilan, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Biliran, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cebu, Compostela, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dinagat Islands, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, La Union, Leyte, Maguindanao, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain Province, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sarangani, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Zambales, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay
chartered cities: Alaminos, Angeles, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bago, Baguio, Bais, Balanga, Batac, Batangas, Bayawan, Bislig, Butuan, Cabadbaran, Cabanatuan, Cadiz, Cagayan de Oro, Calamba, Calapan, Calbayog, Candon, Canlaon, Cauayan, Cavite, Cebu, Cotabato, Dagupan, Danao, Dapitan, Davao, Digos, Dipolog, Dumaguete, Escalante, Gapan, General Santos, Gingoog, Himamaylan, Iligan, Iloilo, Isabela, Iriga, Kabankalan, Kalookan, Kidapawan, Koronadal, La Carlota, Laoag, Lapu-Lapu, Las Pinas, Legazpi, Ligao, Lipa, Lucena, Maasin, Makati, Malabon, Malaybalay, Malolos, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Manila, Marawi, Marikina, Masbate, Mati, Meycauayan, Muntinlupa, Munoz, Naga, Navotas, Olongapo, Ormoc, Oroquieta, Ozamis, Pagadian, Palayan, Panabo, Paranaque, Pasay, Pasig, Passi, Puerto Princesa, Quezon, Roxas, Sagay, Samal, San Carlos (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos (in Pangasinan), San Fernando (in La Union), San Fernando (in Pampanga), San Jose, San Jose del Monte, San Juan, San Pablo, Santa Rosa, Santiago, Silay, Sipalay, Sorsogon, Surigao, Tabaco, Tacloban, Tacurong, Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Tagum, Talisay (in Cebu), Talisay (in Negros Occidental), Tanauan, Tangub, Tanjay, Tarlac, Toledo, Tuguegarao, Trece Martires, Urdaneta, Valencia, Valenzuela, Victorias, Vigan, Zamboanga (2009)
 
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12 June 1898 (independence proclaimed from Spain); 4 July 1946 (from the US)
 
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Independence Day, 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 was date of declaration of independence from Spain; 4 July 1946 was date of independence from US
 
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2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
 
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mixed legal system of civil, common, Islamic, and customary law
 
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accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: President Benigno AQUINO (since 30 June 2010); Vice President Jejomar BINAY (since 30 June 2010); note - president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Benigno AQUINO (since 30 June 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with consent of Commission of Appointments
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elections: president and vice president elected on separate tickets by popular vote for a single six-year term; election held on 10 May 2010; Benigno AQUINO declared winner and took office on 30 June 2010; next election to be held in May 2016
election results: Benigno AQUINO elected president; percent of vote - Benigno AQUINO 42.1%, Joseph ESTRADA 26.3%, seven others 31.6%; Jejomar BINAY elected vice president; percent of vote Jejomar BINAY 41.6%, Manuel ROXAS 39.6%, six others 18.8%
 
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bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24 seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected at large by popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Nga Kinatawan; the House has 287 seats including 230 members in one tier representing districts and 57 sectoral party-list members in a second tier representing special minorities elected on the basis of one seat for every 2% of the total vote but with each party limited to three seats; a party represented in one tier may not hold seats in the other tier; all House members are elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms
note: the constitution limits the House of Representatives to 250 members; the number of members allowed was increased, however, through legislation when in April 2009 the Philippine Supreme Court ruled that additional party members could sit in the House of Representatives if they received the required number of votes
elections: Senate - elections last held on 10 May 2010 (next to be held in May 2013); House of Representatives - elections last held on 10 May 2010 (next to be held in May 2013)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Lakas-Kampi CMD 4, LP 4, NP 4, NPC 2, PMP 2, LDP 1, PRP 1, independents 5; note - there are 23 rather than 24 sitting senators because one senator was elected mayor of Manila; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LP 119, Lakas-Kampi CMD 46, NPC 30, NP 22, others 10, independents 1, party-list 55; vacant seats - 1 district and 2 party-list
 
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Supreme Court (15 justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years of age); Court of Appeals; Sandigan-bayan (special court for hearing corruption cases of government officials)
 
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Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]; Lakas ng EDSA-Christian Muslim Democrats or Lakas-CMD [Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO]; Liberal Party or LP [Manuel ROXAS]; Nacionalista Party or NP [Manuel VILLAR]; Nationalist People's Coalition or NPC [Frisco SAN JUAN]; PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL]; People's Reform Party [Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO]; Puwersa ng Masang Pilipino (Force of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA]
 
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ABONO [Robert ESTRELLA]; AKBAYAN [Walden BELLO]; An Waray [Florencio NOEL]; Anak Mindanao [Mujiv HATAMIN]; ANAKPAWIS [Rafael MARIANO]; ARC [Narciso SANTIAGO III]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC) [Ponciano PAYUYO]; A TEACHER [Mariano PIAMONTE]; BAGON HENERASYON [Bernadette HERRERA-DY]; Bayan Muna [Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; Black and White Movement [Vicente ROMANO]; BUHAY [Rene VELARDE]; BUTIL [Leonila CHAVEZ]; CIBAC [Cinchoa CRUZ-GONZALES]; COOP-NATCO [Jose PING-AY]; GABRIELA [Luzviminda ILAGAN]; KABATAAN [Raymon PALATINO]; Kilosbayan [Jovito SALONGA]; YACAP [Carol LOPEZ]
 
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ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, EAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Jose L. CUISIA Jr.
chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
FAX: [1] (202) 467-9417
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands), San Francisco, Tamuning (Guam)
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Harry K. THOMAS Jr.
embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita 1000, Manila
mailing address: PSC 500, FPO AP 96515-1000
telephone: [63] (2) 301-2000
FAX: [63] (2) 301-2399
 
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two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red; a white equilateral triangle is based on the hoist side; the center of the triangle displays a yellow sun with eight primary rays; each corner of the triangle contains a small, yellow, five-pointed star; blue stands for peace and justice, red symbolizes courage, the white equal-sided triangle represents equality; the rays recall the first eight provinces that sought independence from Spain, while the stars represent the three major geographical divisions of the country: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao; the design of the flag dates to 1897
note: in wartime the flag is flown upside down with the red band at the top
 
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Philippine eagle
 
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name: "Lupang Hinirang" (Chosen Land)
lyrics/music: Jose PALMA (revised by Felipe PADILLA de Leon)/Julian FELIPE
note: music adopted 1898, original Spanish lyrics adopted 1899, Filipino (Tagalog) lyrics adopted 1956; although the original lyrics were written in Spanish, later English and Filipino versions were created; today, only the Filipino version is used
 
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Economy

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Philippine GDP grew 7.3% in 2010, spurred by consumer demand, a rebound in exports and investments, and election-related spending. The economy weathered the 2008-09 global recession better than its regional peers due to minimal exposure to troubled international securities, lower dependence on exports, relatively resilient domestic consumption, large remittances from four- to five-million overseas Filipino workers, and a growing business process outsourcing industry. Economic growth in the Philippines averaged 4.5% during the MACAPAGAL-ARROYO administration. Despite this growth, poverty worsened, because of a high population growth rate and inequitable distribution of income. The AQUINO administration is working to reduce the government deficit from 3.9% of GDP, when it took office, to 2% of GDP by 2013. The government has had little difficulty issuing debt both locally and internationally to finance the deficits. AQUINO's first budget emphasizes education, health, conditional cash transfers for the poor, and other social spending programs, relying on the private sector to finance important infrastructure projects. Weak tax collection, exacerbated by new tax breaks and incentives, has limited the government's ability to address major challenges. The AQUINO administration has vowed to focus on improving tax collection efficiency - rather than imposing new taxes - as a part of its good governance platform.
 
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$351.4 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
$327.4 billion (2009 est.)
$323.9 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$188.7 billion (2010 est.)
 
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7.3% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
1.1% (2009 est.)
3.7% (2008 est.)
 
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$3,500 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
$3,300 (2009 est.)
$3,400 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 12.3%
industry: 32.6%
services: 55.1% (2010 est.)
 
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38.9 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
 
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agriculture: 33%
industry: 15%
services: 52% (2010 est.)
 
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7.3% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
7.5% (2009 est.)
 
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32.9% (2006 est.)
 
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lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 31.2% (2006)
 
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45.8 (2006)
country comparison to the world: 36
46.6 (2003)
 
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20.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
 
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revenues: $26.78 billion
expenditures: $33.75 billion (2010 est.)
 
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14.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
 
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-3.7% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
 
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52.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
54.8% of GDP (2009 est.)
 
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3.8% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
4.2% (2009 est.)
 
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3.8% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
3.5% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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7.673% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
8.566% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$29.08 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
$24.86 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$97.35 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
$83.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$98.22 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
$85.54 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$202.3 billion (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 36
$130.5 billion (31 December 2009)
$85.63 billion (31 December 2008)
 
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sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, cassavas, pineapples, mangoes; pork, eggs, beef; fish
 
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electronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing
 
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23.2% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
 
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59.19 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
 
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54.4 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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33,110 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
 
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310,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
 
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60,460 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
 
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338,400 bbl/day (September 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
 
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138.5 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
 
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3.15 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
 
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3.15 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
 
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98.54 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
 
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$9.51 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
$9.358 billion (2009 est.)
 
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$50.68 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
$37.61 billion (2009 est.)
 
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semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits
 
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China 19%, US 13.4%, Singapore 13.2%, Japan 12.8%, Hong Kong 7.6%, Germany 4.2%, South Korea 4.1% (2010)
 
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$61.07 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
$46.45 billion (2009 est.)
 
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electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic
 
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Japan 14.1%, China 13.6%, US 9.9%, Singapore 9.3%, Thailand 6.5%, South Korea 5.6%, Indonesia 4.1% (2010)
 
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$62.37 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
$44.24 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$61.42 billion (30 June 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
$62.62 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
 
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$25.27 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
$23.56 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$6.582 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
$6.095 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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Philippine pesos (PHP) per US dollar -
45.11 (2010)
47.68 (2009)
44.439 (2008)
46.148 (2007)
51.246 (2006)
 
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Communications

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6.783 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 29
 
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79.896 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 15
 
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general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate
domestic: telecommunications infrastructure includes the following platforms: fixed line, mobile cellular, cable TV, over-the-air TV, radio and Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT), fiber optic cable, and satellite; mobile-cellular communications now dominate the industry
international: country code - 63; a series of submarine cables together provide connectivity to Asia, US, the Middle East, and Europe; multiple international gateways (2010)
 
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multiple national private TV and radio networks; multi-channel satellite and cable TV systems available; five national or major TV networks; three government-owned networks; five major cable TV networks and a government-operated national TV and radio network; about 300 analog television stations; more than 1,000 radio stations (2010)
 
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.ph
 
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394,990 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 53
 
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8.278 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 34
 
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Transportation

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254 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 25
 
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total: 85
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 29
914 to 1,523 m: 34
under 914 m: 10 (2010)
 
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total: 169
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 66
under 914 m: 99 (2010)
 
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2 (2010)
 
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gas 7 km; oil 107 km; refined products 181 km (2010)
 
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total: 995 km
country comparison to the world: 87
narrow gauge: 995 km 1.067-m gauge (484 km are in operation) (2010)
 
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total: 213,151 km
country comparison to the world: 24
paved: 54,481 km
unpaved: 158,670 km (2009)
 
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3,219 km (limited to vessels with draft less than 1.5 m) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 30
 
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total: 428
country comparison to the world: 24
by type: bulk carrier 75, cargo 135, carrier 16, chemical tanker 26, container 13, liquefied gas 5, passenger 7, passenger/cargo 68, petroleum tanker 45, refrigerated cargo 17, roll on/roll off 12, vehicle carrier 9
foreign-owned: 156 (Bermuda 43, China 4, Greece 4, Japan 82, Malaysia 1, Netherlands 18, Singapore 1, South Korea 1, Taiwan 1, UAE 1)
registered in other countries: 7 (Cyprus 1, Panama 6) (2010)
 
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Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Liman, Manila
 
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the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift
 
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Military

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Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP): Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps and Coast Guard), Air Force (2011)
 
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18-25 years of age (officers 21-29) for compulsory and voluntary military service; applicants must be single male or female Philippine citizens (2010)
 
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males age 16-49: 25,614,135
females age 16-49: 25,035,061 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 20,142,940
females age 16-49: 21,427,792 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 1,060,319
female: 1,021,069 (2010 est.)
 
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0.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
 
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Transnational Issues

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Philippines claims sovereignty over Scarborough Reef (also claimed by China together with Taiwan) and over certain of the Spratly Islands, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputants; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; Philippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalf; maritime delimitation negotiations continue with Palau
 
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IDPs: 300,000 (fighting between government troops and MILF and Abu Sayyaf groups) (2007)
 
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domestic methamphetamine production has been a growing problem in recent years despite government crackdowns; major consumer of amphetamines; longstanding marijuana producer mainly in rural areas where Manila's control is limited
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