Moldova

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON DECEMBER 6, 2011
Flag of Moldova
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Moldova
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Introduction

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Part of Romania during the interwar period, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although the country has been independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting the Slavic majority population, mostly Ukrainians and Russians, who have proclaimed a "Transnistria" republic. One of the poorest nations in Europe, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a Communist, Vladimir VORONIN, as its president in 2001. VORONIN served as Moldova's president until he resigned in September 2009, following the opposition's gain of a narrow majority in July parliamentary elections and the Communist Party's (PCRM) subsequent inability to attract the three-fifths of parliamentary votes required to elect a president. Moldova's four opposition parties formed a new coalition, the Alliance for European Integration (AIE), which acted as Moldova's governing coalition until December 2010. Moldova experienced significant political uncertainty in 2009 and 2010, holding three general elections (in April 2009, July 2009, and November 2010) and four presidential ballots in parliament, all of which failed to secure a president. Following the November 2010 parliamentary elections, a reconstituted AIE-coalition of three parties formed a government, but remains two votes short of the three-fifths majority required to elect a president.
 
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Geography

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Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
 
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47 00 N, 29 00 E
 
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total: 33,851 sq km
country comparison to the world: 140
land: 32,891 sq km
water: 960 sq km
 
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slightly larger than Maryland
 
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total: 1,390 km
border countries: Romania 450 km, Ukraine 940 km
 
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0 km (landlocked)
 
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none (landlocked)
 
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moderate winters, warm summers
 
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rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
 
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lowest point: Dniester (Nistru) 2 m
highest point: Dealul Balanesti 430 m
 
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lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, arable land, limestone
 
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arable land: 54.52%
permanent crops: 8.81%
other: 36.67% (2005)
 
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2,283 sq km (2008)
 
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11.7 cu km (1997)
 
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total: 2.31 cu km/yr (10%/58%/33%)
per capita: 549 cu m/yr (2000)
 
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landslides
 
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heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
 
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party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
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landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
 
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People and Society

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noun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan
 
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Moldovan/Romanian 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3% (2004 census)
note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region
 
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Moldovan (official, virtually the same as the Romanian language), Russian, Gagauz (a Turkish dialect)
 
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Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5% (2000)
 
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4,314,377 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
 
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0-14 years: 15.5% (male 344,101/female 325,995)
15-64 years: 74% (male 1,550,386/female 1,643,108)
65 years and over: 10.4% (male 164,512/female 286,275) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 35.4 years
male: 33.5 years
female: 37.4 years (2011 est.)
 
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-0.072% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 202
 
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11.16 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
 
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10.74 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
 
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-1.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
 
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urban population: 47% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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CHISINAU (capital) 650,000 (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.059 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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32 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 109
 
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total: 12.43 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 132
male: 13.85 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 71.37 years
country comparison to the world: 137
male: 67.68 years
female: 75.28 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.29 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 211
 
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11.9% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 11
 
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2.668 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
country comparison to the world: 50
 
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6.12 beds/1,000 population (2007)
country comparison to the world: 24
 
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improved:
urban: 96% of population
rural: 85% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4% of population
rural: 15% of population
total: 10% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 85% of population
rural: 74% of population
total: 79% of population
unimproved:
urban: 15% of population
rural: 26% of population
total: 21% of population (2008)
 
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0.4% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
 
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12,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
 
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fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
 
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3.2% (2005)
country comparison to the world: 104
 
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9.6% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 7
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.1%
male: 99.7%
female: 98.6% (2005 est.)
 
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total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2009)
 
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total: 15.4%
country comparison to the world: 73
male: 15.8%
female: 14.9% (2009)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form: Moldova
former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
 
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republic
 
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name: Chisinau in Romanian (Kishinev in Russian)
note: pronounced KEE-shee-now (KIH-shi-nyev)
geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
 
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32 raions (raioane, singular - raion), 3 municipalities (municipii, singular - municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)
raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni
municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau
autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia
territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)
 
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27 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
 
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Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
 
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adopted 29 July 1994; effective 27 August 1994; note - replaced 1979 Soviet Constitution
 
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civil law system with Germanic law influences; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
 
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has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: Acting President Marian LUPU (since 30 December 2010)
note: Vladimir VORONIN, president since 4 April 2001, resigned on 11 September 2009; during the first AEI government, Speaker of Parliament Mihai GHIMPU served as acting president; Marian LUPU, the Speaker of Parliament, is serving as acting president until new elections can be held
head of government: Prime Minister Vladimir FILAT (since 25 September 2009); reelected/confirmed on 14 January 2011
note: Vladimir FILAT resigned on 27 December 2010, but was reappointed on 31 December 2010
cabinet: Cabinet selected by president, subject to approval of Parliament
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elections: president elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); last successful election held on 4 April 2005, most recent (failed) election held on 10 December 2009); note - prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence from the Parliament regarding his/her work program and entire cabinet; prime minister (re)designated on 31 December 2010; the prime minister and cabinet received a vote of confidence 14 January 2011
election results: Vladimir VORONIN reelected president (2005); parliamentary votes - Vladimir VORONIN 75, Gheorghe DUCA 1; Vladimir FILAT (re)designated prime minister; parliamentary votes of confidence - 59 of 101
 
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unicameral Parliament or Parlamentul (101 seats; members elected on an at-large basis by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 28 November 2010 (next to be held in 2014, unless Parliament fails to elect a president); note - this was the third parliamentary election in less than two years; the earlier parliaments (elected 5 April 2009 and 29 July 2009) were dissolved after they could not agree on a presidential candidate
election results: percent of vote by party - PCRM 39.3%, PLDM 29.4%, PD 12.7%, PL 10%, other 8.6%; seats by party - PCRM 42, PLDM 32, PD 15, PL 12; note - the PLDM, PD, and PL governing coalition, termed the Alliance for European Integration, has 59 seats; it remains 2 votes short of the 61 needed to elect a new president
 
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Supreme Court; Constitutional Court (the sole authority for constitutional judicature)
 
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represented in Parliament: Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN]; Democratic Party or PD [Marian LUPU]; Liberal Democratic Party or PLDM [Vladimir FILAT]; Liberal Party or PL [Mihai GHIMPU]; Alliance for European Integration or AIE (coalition of the PD, PLDM, and PL)
not represented in Parliament: Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA]; Conservative Party or PC [Natalia NIRCA]; Ecological Party of Moldova "Green Alliance" or PEMAVE [Vladimir BRAGA]; European Action Movement or MAE [Veaceslav UNTILA]; For Nation and Country Party or PpNT [Sergiu MOCANU]; Humanist Party of Moldova or PUM [Valeriu PASAT]; Labor Party or PM [Gheorghe SIMA]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO]; Our Moldova Alliance or AMN [Serafim URECHEAN]; Patriots of Moldova Party or PPM [Mihail GARBUZ]; Popular Republican Party or PPR [Nicolae ANDRONIC]; Republican Party of Moldova or PRM [Andrei STRATAN]; Roma Social Political Movement of the Republic of Moldova or MRRM [Ion BUCUR]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor SELIN]; Social Political Movement "Equality" or MR [Valeriy KLIMENCO]; United Moldova Party or PMUEM [Vladimir TURCAN]
 
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NA
 
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BSEC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Igor MUNTEANU
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Asif J. CHAUDHRY
embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300
FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044
 
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three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of gold outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized aurochs head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow; based on the color scheme of the flag of Romania - with which Moldova shares a history and culture - but Moldova's blue band is lighter; the reverse of the flag does not display any coat of arms
note: one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Paraguay and Saudi Arabia
 
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aurochs (a type of wild cattle)
 
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name: "Limba noastra" (Our Language)
lyrics/music: Alexei MATEEVICI/Alexandru CRISTEA
note: adopted 1994
 
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Economy

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Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe despite recent progress from its small economic base. It enjoys a favorable climate and good farmland but has no major mineral deposits. As a result, the economy depends heavily on agriculture, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova must import almost all of its energy supplies. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy was underscored at the end of 2005, when a Russian-owned electrical station in Moldova's separatist Transnistria region cut off power to Moldova and Russia's Gazprom cut off natural gas in disputes over pricing. In January 2009, gas supplies were cut during a dispute between Russia and Ukraine. Russia's decision to ban Moldovan wine and agricultural products, coupled with its decision to double the price Moldova paid for Russian natural gas, have hurt growth. The onset of the global financial crisis and poor economic conditions in Moldova's main foreign markets caused GDP to fall 6% in 2009. Unemployment almost doubled and inflation disappeared - at -0.1%, a record low. Moldova's IMF agreement expired in May 2009. In fall 2009, the IMF allocated $186 million to Moldova to cover its immediate budgetary needs, and the government signed a new agreement with the IMF in January 2010 for a program worth $574 million. In 2010, an upturn in the world economy boosted GDP growth to 6.5% and inflation to 7.3%. Economic reforms have been slow because of corruption and strong political forces backing government controls. Nevertheless, the government's primary goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. The granting of EU trade preferences and increased exports to Russia will encourage higher growth rates, but the agreements are unlikely to serve as a panacea, given the extent to which export success depends on higher quality standards and other factors. The economy has made a modest recovery, but remains vulnerable to political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, higher fuel prices, poor agricultural weather, and the skepticism of foreign investors as well as the presence of an illegal separatist regime in Moldova's Transnistria region.
 
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$10.99 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
$10.28 billion (2009 est.)
$10.93 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$5.81 billion (2010 est.)
 
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6.9% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
-6% (2009 est.)
7.8% (2008 est.)
 
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$2,500 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
$2,400 (2009 est.)
$2,500 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 16.3%
industry: 20%
services: 63.8% (2010 est.)
 
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1.235 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
 
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agriculture: 40.6%
industry: 16%
services: 43.3% (2005)
 
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7.5% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
6.4% (2009 est.)
 
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26.3% (2009)
 
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lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 29.8% (2008)
 
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38 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 75
33.2 (2003)
 
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22.7% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
 
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revenues: $2.227 billion
expenditures: $2.371 billion (2010 est.)
 
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38.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
 
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-2.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
 
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21.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
24.4% of GDP (2009 est.)
 
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7.4% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
-0.1% (2009 est.)
 
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16.36% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
20.54% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.293 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
$1.074 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$3.049 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
$2.657 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$2.199 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
$2.033 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$573.9 million (2004)
country comparison to the world: 109
$573.9 million (2004)
 
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vegetables, fruits, grapes, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seed, tobacco; beef, milk; wine
 
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sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
 
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7% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
 
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3.412 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
 
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4.463 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
 
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0 kWh (2008 est.)
 
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2.958 billion kWh (2008 est.)
 
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0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
 
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20,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
 
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741 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
 
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14,730 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
 
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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
 
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60,000 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
 
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3.176 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
 
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0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
 
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2.33 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
 
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0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
 
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-$482.3 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
-$469.2 million (2009 est.)
 
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$1.59 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
$1.327 billion (2009 est.)
 
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foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
 
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Russia 23.8%, Italy 13%, Romania 10.9%, Turkey 6.6%, Germany 6.3%, Ukraine 5.5%, Belarus 5% (2010)
 
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$3.81 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
$3.276 billion (2009 est.)
 
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mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles
 
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Ukraine 16.3%, Romania 15.4%, Russia 11%, Germany 8.6%, Italy 5.6%, Kazakhstan 5%, Belarus 4.2% (2010)
 
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$1.718 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
$1.48 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$5.056 billion (30 June 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
$3.697 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
 
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$2.649 billion (1 January 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
$1.813 billion (2008)
 
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$62.44 million (1 January 2010)
country comparison to the world: 83
 
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Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar -
12.37 (2010)
11.11 (2009)
10.326 (2008)
12.177 (2007)
13.131 (2006)
 
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Communications

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1.161 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 73
 
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3.165 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 119
 
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general assessment: poor service outside Chisinau; some modernization is under way
domestic: depending on location, new subscribers may face long wait for service; multiple private operators of GSM mobile-cellular telephone service are operating; GPRS system is being introduced; a CDMA mobile telephone network began operations in 2007; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 90 per 100 persons
international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik) (2009)
 
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state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 2 television and 2 radio stations; a total of nearly 40 terrestrial TV channels and some 50 radio stations are in operation; Russian and Romanian channels also are available (2007)
 
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.md
 
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492,181 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 50
 
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1.333 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 89
 
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Transportation

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11 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 154
 
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total: 5
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2010)
 
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total: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2010)
 
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gas 1,906 km (2010)
 
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total: 1,190 km
country comparison to the world: 85
broad gauge: 1,176 km 1.520-m gauge
standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2010)
 
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total: 9,343 km
country comparison to the world: 137
paved: 8,810 km
unpaved: 533 km (2008)
 
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558 km (in public use on Danube, Dniester and Prut rivers) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 83
 
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total: 107
country comparison to the world: 48
by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 89, chemical tanker 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 6
foreign-owned: 63 (Belgium 2, Egypt 5, Greece 4, Israel 4, Lebanon 1, Romania 2, Russia 5, Syria 3, Turkey 18, UK 6, Ukraine 12, Yemen 1) (2010)
 
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Military

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National Army: Land Forces Command (includes special forces), Air Forces Command (includes air defense unit), Logistics Command (2010)
 
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18 years of age for compulsory military service; 17 years of age for voluntary service; male registration required at age 16; 12-month service obligation (2009)
 
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males age 16-49: 1,143,440
females age 16-49: 1,156,958 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
males age 16-49: 875,224
females age 16-49: 969,903 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
male: 28,213
female: 26,614 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0.4% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
 
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Transnational Issues

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Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under OSCE supervision
 
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limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity
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