Mali

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 10, 2011
Flag of Mali
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Location of Mali
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Map of Mali
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OF MALI
 

Introduction

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The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup - led by the current president Amadou TOURE - enabling Mali's emergence as one of the strongest democracies on the continent. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first democratic presidential election in 1992 and was reelected in 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, KONARE stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was subsequently elected to a second term in 2007. The elections were widely judged to be free and fair.
 
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Geography

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interior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger
 
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17 00 N, 4 00 W
 
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total: 1,240,192 sq km
country comparison to the world: 24
land: 1,220,190 sq km
water: 20,002 sq km
 
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slightly less than twice the size of Texas
 
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total: 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
 
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0 km (landlocked)
 
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none (landlocked)
 
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subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
 
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mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
 
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lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
 
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gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
 
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arable land: 3.76%
permanent crops: 0.03%
other: 96.21% (2005)
 
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2,360 sq km (2008)
 
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100 cu km (2001)
 
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total: 6.55 cu km/yr (9%/1%/90%)
per capita: 484 cu m/yr (2000)
 
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hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
 
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deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
 
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
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landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
 
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People and Society

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noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
 
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Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
 
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French (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
 
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Muslim 90%, Christian 1%, indigenous beliefs 9%
 
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14,159,904 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
 
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0-14 years: 47.3% (male 3,372,717/female 3,325,188)
15-64 years: 49.7% (male 3,438,687/female 3,605,143)
65 years and over: 3% (male 199,862/female 218,307) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 16.3 years
male: 15.9 years
female: 16.7 years (2011 est.)
 
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2.61% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
 
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45.62 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
 
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14.29 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
 
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-5.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
 
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urban population: 36% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 4.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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BAMAKO (capital) 1.628 million (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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830 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 10
 
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total: 111.35 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 4
male: 118.15 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 104.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 52.61 years
country comparison to the world: 206
male: 51.01 years
female: 54.26 years (2011 est.)
 
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6.44 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
 
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7.5% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 65
 
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0.049 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
country comparison to the world: 178
 
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0.57 beds/1,000 population (2008)
country comparison to the world: 167
 
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improved:
urban: 81% of population
rural: 44% of population
total: 56% of population
unimproved:
urban: 19% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 44% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 54% of population
rural: 32% of population
total: 36% of population
unimproved:
urban: 46% of population
rural: 68% of population
total: 54% of population (2008)
 
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1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
 
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76,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
 
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4,400 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
 
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degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2009)
 
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27.9% (2006)
country comparison to the world: 22
 
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4.4% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 86
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 46.4%
male: 53.5%
female: 39.6% (2003 est.)
 
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total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2009)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
 
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republic
 
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name: Bamako
geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
 
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8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
 
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22 September 1960 (from France)
 
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Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
 
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adopted 12 January 1992
 
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civil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
 
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has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister CISSE Mariam Kaidama Sidibe (since 3 April 2011)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 29 April 2007 (next to be held in April 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE reelected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 71.2%, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 19.2%, other 9.6%
 
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unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 1 and 22 July 2007 (next to be held in July 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADP coalition 113 (ADEMA 51, URD 34, MPR 8, CNID 7, UDD 3, and other 10), FDR coalition 15 (RPM 11, PARENA 4), SADI 4, independent 15
 
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Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
 
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African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general]; Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE]; Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); Alliance for Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region); Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]; Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Mady KONATE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]; Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Amadou Ali NIANGADOU]; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Basir GOLOGO]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]
 
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other: the army; Islamic authorities; rebels in the northern region; state-run cotton company CMDT; tuaregs
 
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ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Mamadou TRAORE
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Gillian A. MILOVANOVIC
embassy: located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district
mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
telephone: [223] 270-2300
FAX: [223] 270-2479
 
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three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Senegal (which has an additional green central star) and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea
 
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name: "Le Mali" (Mali)
lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO
note: adopted 1962; the anthem is also known as "Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and "A ton appel Mali" (At Your Call, Mali)
 
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Economy

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Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, Mali is a landlocked country highly dependent on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River and about 65% of its land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government has continued an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that has helped the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali is developing its cotton and iron ore extraction industries to diversify its revenue sources because gold production has started to fall. Mali has invested in tourism but security issues are hurting the industry. Mali's adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a 5% average in 1996-2010. Worker remittances and external trade routes for the landlocked country have been jeopardized by continued unrest in neighboring Cote d'Ivoire. However, Mali is building a road network that will connect it to all adjacent countries and it has a railway line to Senegal. In 2010, Mali experienced a regional drought that hurt livestock and livelihoods.
 
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$16.77 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
$16.06 billion (2009 est.)
$15.37 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$9.268 billion (2010 est.)
 
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4.5% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
4.5% (2009 est.)
5% (2008 est.)
 
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$1,200 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
$1,200 (2009 est.)
$1,200 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 38.9%
industry: 21.5%
services: 39.6% (2010 est.)
 
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3.241 million (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
 
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agriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2005 est.)
 
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30% (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
 
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36.1% (2005 est.)
 
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lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 30.5% (2006)
 
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40.1 (2001)
country comparison to the world: 62
50.5 (1994)
 
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25.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
 
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revenues: $1.898 billion
expenditures: $2.143 billion (2010 est.)
 
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20.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
 
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-2.6% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
 
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30.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
24.3% of GDP (2009 est.)
 
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1.1% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
2.2% (2009 est.)
 
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16% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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9.2% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
9.5% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.783 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
$1.758 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$2.522 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
$2.514 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.181 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
$994.9 million (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$NA
 
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cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
 
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food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
 
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NA%
 
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490 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
 
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455.7 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
 
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0 kWh
note: Mali may be providing electricity to Senegal and Mauritania (2009 est.)
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
 
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6,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
 
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0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
 
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4,507 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
 
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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
 
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0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
 
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-$704.6 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
-$645.4 million (2009 est.)
 
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$2.071 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
$1.889 billion (2009 est.)
 
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cotton, gold, livestock
 
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China 27.2%, Indonesia 8.2%, Thailand 5.3%, Burkina Faso 5.2%, Morocco 5%, South Korea 4.9% (2010)
 
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$2.38 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
$2.082 billion (2009 est.)
 
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petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
 
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Senegal 13.6%, France 11%, Cote dIvoire 10%, China 6.8%, South Korea 5.2% (2010)
 
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$1.292 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
$1.605 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$3.024 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
$2.667 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
495.28 (2010)
472.19 (2009)
493.51 (2007)
522.59 (2006)
 
 
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Communications

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114,400 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 144
 
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7.326 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 85
 
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general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas
domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to nearly 30 per 100 persons
international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2008)
 
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national public TV broadcaster; 2 privately-owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately-owned and community broadcast stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
 
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.ml
 
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524 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 179
 
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249,800 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 135
 
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Transportation

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20 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 135
 
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total: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)
 
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total: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 3 (2010)
 
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total: 593 km
country comparison to the world: 109
narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)
 
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total: 18,912 km
country comparison to the world: 114
paved: 3,597 km
unpaved: 15,315 km (2005)
 
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1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 45
 
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Koulikoro
 
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Military

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Malian Armed Forces: Army, Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (2008)
 
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18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2011)
 
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males age 16-49: 2,848,412
females age 16-49: 2,981,106 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 1,825,779
females age 16-49: 1,968,563 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 158,031
female: 159,733 (2010 est.)
 
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1.9% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 75
 
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Transnational Issues

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demarcation is currently underway with Burkina Faso
 
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refugees (country of origin): 6,300 (Mauritania) (2007)
 
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current situation: Mali is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; within Mali, women and girls are forced into domestic servitude, agricultural labor, and support roles in gold mines, as well as subjected to sex trafficking; Malian boys are found in conditions of forced labor in agricultural settings, gold mines, and the informal commercial sector, as well as forced begging both within Mali and neighboring countries; boys from Mali, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Niger, and other countries are forced into begging and exploited for labor; adult men and boys, primarily of Songhai ethnicity, are subjected to the longstanding practice of debt bondage in the salt mines of Taoudenni in northern Mali; some members of Mali's black Tamachek community are subjected to traditional slavery-related practices rooted in hereditary master-slave relationships, and this involuntary servitude reportedly has extended to their children
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - the government acknowledged that human trafficking is a problem in Mali, but it did not demonstrate significant efforts to prosecute and convict trafficking offenders; although the government identified at least 198 trafficking victims during the year - 152 of whom were Malian children in prostitution - it prosecuted only three trafficking cases and convicted two trafficking offenders (2011)
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