Macau

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 10, 2011
Flag of Macau
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Macau
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Map of Macau
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Photos of Macau
 
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OF MACAU
 

Introduction

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Colonized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, Macau was the first European settlement in the Far East. Pursuant to an agreement signed by China and Portugal on 13 April 1987, Macau became the Macau Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China on 20 December 1999. In this agreement, China promised that, under its "one country, two systems" formula, China's socialist economic system would not be practiced in Macau, and that Macau would enjoy a high degree of autonomy in all matters except foreign and defense affairs for the next 50 years.
 
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Geography

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Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China
 
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22 10 N, 113 33 E
 
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total: 28.2 sq km
country comparison to the world: 237
land: 28.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km
 
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less than one-sixth the size of Washington, DC
 
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total: 0.34 km
regional border: China 0.34 km
 
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41 km
 
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not specified
 
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subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers
 
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generally flat
 
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lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Coloane Alto 172 m
 
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NEGL
 
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arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2005)
 
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NA; note - included in the total for China (2008)
 
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typhoons
 
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NA
 
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party to: Marine Dumping (associate member), Ship Pollution (associate member)
 
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essentially urban; an area of land reclaimed from the sea measuring 5.2 sq km and known as Cotai now connects the islands of Coloane and Taipa; the island area is connected to the mainland peninsula by three bridges
 
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People and Society

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noun: Chinese
adjective: Chinese
 
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Chinese 94.3%, other 5.7% (includes Macanese - mixed Portuguese and Asian ancestry) (2006 census)
 
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Cantonese 85.7%, Hokkien 4%, Mandarin 3.2%, other Chinese dialects 2.7%, English 1.5%, Tagalog 1.3%, other 1.6%
note: Chinese and Portuguese are the official language (2001 census)
 
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Buddhist 50%, Roman Catholic 15%, none or other 35% (1997 est.)
 
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573,003 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
 
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0-14 years: 15% (male 45,635/female 40,523)
15-64 years: 76.8% (male 205,998/female 233,820)
65 years and over: 8.2% (male 22,043/female 24,984) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 36.2 years
male: 36.8 years
female: 35.6 years (2011 est.)
 
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0.879% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
 
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9.03 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
 
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3.72 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
 
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3.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
 
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urban population: 100% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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total: 3.18 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 217
male: 3.34 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 84.41 years
country comparison to the world: 2
male: 81.45 years
female: 87.52 years (2011 est.)
 
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0.92 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 223
 
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NA
 
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NA
 
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NA
 
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2.2% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 152
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.3%
male: 95.3%
female: 87.8% (2001 census)
 
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total: 14 years
male: 15 years
female: 14 years (2009)
 
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total: 7.5%
country comparison to the world: 115
male: 9.8%
female: 5.4% (2009)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Macau Special Administrative Region
conventional short form: Macau
official long form: Aomen Tebie Xingzhengqu (Chinese); Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau (Portuguese)
official short form: Aomen (Chinese); Macau (Portuguese)
 
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special administrative region of China
 
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limited democracy
 
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none (special administrative region of the People's Republic of China)
 
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none (special administrative region of China)
 
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National Day (Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China), 1 October (1949); note - 20 December 1999 is celebrated as Macau Special Administrative Region Establishment Day
 
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Basic Law, approved 31 March 1993 by China's National People's Congress, is Macau's charter
 
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civil law system based on the Portuguese model
 
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direct election 18 years of age for some non-executive positions, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past seven years; indirect election limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" (257 are currently registered) and a 300-member Election Committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
 
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chief of state: President of China HU Jintao (since 15 March 2003)
head of government: Chief Executive Fernando CHUI Sai-on (since 20 December 2009)
cabinet: Executive Council consists of 1 government secretary, 3 legislators, 4 businessmen, 1 pro-Beijing unionist, and 1 pro-Beijing educator
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: chief executive chosen by a 300-member Election Committee for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 July 2009 (next to be held in July 2014)
election results: Fernando CHUI Sai-on elected in 2009 with 282 votes, took office on 20 December 2009
 
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unicameral Legislative Assembly (29 seats; 12 members elected by popular vote, 10 by indirect vote, and 7 appointed by the chief executive; members to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 20 September 2009 (next to be held in September 2013)
election results: percent of vote - UPD 14.9%, ACUM 12%, APMD 11.6%, NUDM 9.9%, UPP 9.9%, ANMD 7.8%, UMG 7.3%, MUDAR 5.5%, others 21.1%; seats by political group - UPD 2, ACUM 2, APMD 2, NUMD 1, UPP 1, ANMD 1, UMG 1, MUDAR 1; 10 seats filled by professional and business groups; 7 members appointed by the chief executive
 
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Court of Final Appeal in Macau Special Administrative Region
 
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Alliance for Change or MUDAR; Macau Development Alliance or NUDM [Angela LEONG On-kei]; Macau-Guangdong Union or UNG; Macau United Citizens' Association or ACUM [CHAN Meng-kam]; New Democratic Macau Association or APMD [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong]; New Hope or NE [Jose Maria Pereira COUTINHO]; Union for Promoting Progress or UPP [LEONG Heng-teng]
note: there is no political party ordinance, so there are no registered political parties; politically active groups register as societies or companies
 
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Civic Power [Agnes LAM lok-fong]; Macau New Chinese Youth Association [LEONG Sin-man]; Macau Society of Tourism and Entertainment or STDM [Stanley HO]; Macau Worker's Union [HO Heng-kuok]; Union for Democracy Development [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong]
 
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ICC, IHO, IMF, IMO (associate), Interpol (subbureau), ISO (correspondent), UNESCO (associate), UNWTO (associate), UPU, WCO, WTO
 
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none (special administrative region of China)
 
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the US has no offices in Macau; US Consulate General in Hong Kong is accredited to Macau
 
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green with a lotus flower above a stylized bridge and water in white, beneath an arc of five gold, five-pointed stars: one large in the center of the arc and two smaller on either side; the lotus is the floral emblem of Macau, the three petals represent the peninsula and two islands that make up Macau; the five stars echo those on the flag of China
 
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lotus blossom
 
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note: as a Special Administrative Region of China, "Yiyonggjun Jinxingqu" is official (see China)
 
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Economy

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Macau's economy slowed dramatically in 2009 as a result of the global economic slowdown, but strong growth resumed in 2010, largely on the back of strong tourism and gaming sectors. After opening up its locally-controlled casino industry to foreign competition in 2001, the territory attracted tens of billions of dollars in foreign investment, transforming Macau into one of the world's largest gaming center. Macau's gaming and tourism businesses were fueled by China's decision to relax travel restrictions on Chinese citizens wishing to visit Macau. By 2006, Macau's gaming revenue surpassed that of the Las Vegas strip, and gaming-related taxes accounted for more than 70% of total government revenue. In 2008, Macau introduced measures to cool the rapidly developing sector. This city of nearly 552,300 hosted nearly 25 million visitors in 2010. Almost 53% came from mainland China. Macau's traditional manufacturing industry has virtually disappeared since the termination of the Multi-Fiber Agreement in 2005. In 2010, total exports were less than US$900 million, while gaming receipts were almost US$24 billion, a 58% increase over 2009. The Macau government plans to tighten control over the opening of new casinos and strengthen supervision of local casino operations in 2011 and has introduced measures to diversify the economy. The Closer Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) between Macau and mainland China that came into effect on 1 January 2004 offers Macau-made products tariff-free access to the mainland; nevertheless, China is Macau's second largest goods export market, behind Hong Kong, and followed by the United States. Macau's currency, the pataca, is closely tied to the Hong Kong dollar, which is also freely accepted in the territory.
 
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$18.47 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
$18.14 billion (2008 est.)
$14.4 billion (2006)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$22.1 billion (2009 est.)
 
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1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
12.9% (2008)
26% (2007)
 
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$33,000 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 40
$31,800 (2008)
$28,400 (2006)
 
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agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 2.8%
services: 97.1% (2009 est.)
 
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330,900 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
 
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manufacturing: 4.3%
construction: 8.7%
transport and communications: 5.5%
wholesale and retail trade: 13.3%
restaurants and hotels: 12.7%
gambling: 13.3%
public sector: 6.7%
financial services: 2.4%
other services and agriculture: 33.2% (2010)
 
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2.9% (2010)
country comparison to the world: 23
3.6% (2009)
 
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NA%
 
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lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
 
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12.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
 
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revenues: $8.998 billion
expenditures: $3.862 billion (2010 est.)
 
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40.7% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
 
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23.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
 
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2.8% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
1.1% (2009 est.)
 
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5.3% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
5.25% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$2.495 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
$2.38 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$30.33 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
$26.56 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.372 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
$701.1 million (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$46.1 billion (31 February 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
$2.3 billion (31 December 2008)
$413.1 million (2004 est.)
 
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only 2% of land area is cultivated, mainly by vegetable growers; fishing, mostly for crustaceans, is important; some of the catch is exported to Hong Kong
 
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tourism, gambling, clothing, textiles, electronics, footwear, toys
 
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-23.7%
country comparison to the world: 167
 
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1.1 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
 
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3.66 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
 
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0 kWh (2010 est.)
 
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2.79 billion kWh (2010 est.)
 
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0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
 
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17,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
 
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0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
 
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15,400 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
 
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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
 
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0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
 
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154.7 million cu m (2010)
country comparison to the world: 101
 
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0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
 
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154.5 million cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
 
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174,000 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
 
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$6.23 billion (2009)
country comparison to the world: 31
 
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$870 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
$973 million (2009 est.)
note: includes reexports
 
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clothing, textiles, footwear, toys, electronics, machinery and parts
 
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Hong Kong 43.1%, China 15.8%, US 11.2%, Germany 4% (2010 est.)
 
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$5.5 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
$4.5 billion (2009 est.)
 
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raw materials and semi-manufactured goods, consumer goods (foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco), capital goods, mineral fuels and oils
 
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China 31.1%, Hong Kong 10.5%, France 9.2%, Japan 8.6%, US 5.9% (2010 est.)
 
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$23.73 billion (2010) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 53
 
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$0 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 201
 
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$12.1 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
$10.5 billion (#REF! est.)
 
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$240 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
$964 million (2008)
 
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patacas (MOP) per US dollar -
8.002 (2010)
7.983 (2008)
8.011 (2007)
8.0015 (2006)
 
 
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Communications

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167,500 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 132
 
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1.122 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 149
 
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general assessment: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services
domestic: termination of monopoly over mobile-cellular telephone services in 2001 spurred sharp increase in subscriptions with mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 200 per 100 persons in 2010; fixed-line subscribership appears to have peaked and is now in decline
international: country code - 853; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; HF radiotelephone communication facility; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2010)
 
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local government dominates broadcast media; 2 television stations operated by the government with one broadcasting in Portuguese and the other in Cantonese and Mandarin; cable and satellite TV services are available; 3 radio stations broadcasting, of which 2 are government-operated (2010)
 
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.mo
 
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252 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 189
 
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270,200 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 134
 
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Transportation

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1 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 224
 
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total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2010)
 
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2 (2010)
 
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total: 413 km
country comparison to the world: 199
paved: 413 km (2009)
 
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Macau
 
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Military

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no regular military forces
 
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males age 16-49: 150,780 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 124,189
females age 16-49: 149,514 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 4,274
female: 3,674 (2010 est.)
 
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defense is the responsibility of China
 
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Transnational Issues

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none
 
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transshipment point for drugs going into mainland China; consumer of opiates and amphetamines
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