Luxembourg

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 15, 2011
Flag of Luxembourg
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Location of Luxembourg
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Map of Luxembourg
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OF LUXEMBOURG
 

Introduction

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Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
 
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Geography

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Western Europe, between France and Germany
 
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49 45 N, 6 10 E
 
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total: 2,586 sq km
country comparison to the world: 179
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km
 
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slightly smaller than Rhode Island
 
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total: 359 km
border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
 
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0 km (landlocked)
 
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none (landlocked)
 
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modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
 
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mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
 
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lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m
 
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iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
 
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arable land: 27.42%
permanent crops: 0.69%
other: 71.89% (includes Belgium) (2005)
 
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NA
 
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1.6 cu km (2005)
 
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total: 0.06 cu km/yr (42%/45%/13%)
per capita: 121 cu m/yr (1999)
 
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NA
 
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air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
 
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party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
 
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landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world
 
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People and Society

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noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg
 
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Luxembourger 63.1%, Portuguese 13.3%, French 4.5%, Italian 4.3%, German 2.3%, other EU 7.3%, other 5.2% (2000 census)
 
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Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)
 
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Roman Catholic 87%, other (includes Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 13% (2000)
 
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503,302 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
 
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0-14 years: 18.2% (male 47,274/female 44,366)
15-64 years: 66.9% (male 169,343/female 167,211)
65 years and over: 14.9% (male 31,086/female 44,022) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 39.4 years
male: 38.4 years
female: 40.4 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.145% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
 
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11.69 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
 
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8.48 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
 
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8.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
 
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urban population: 85% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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LUXEMBOURG (capital) 90,000 (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.066 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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17 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 131
 
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total: 4.44 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 193
male: 4.46 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 79.61 years
country comparison to the world: 36
male: 76.36 years
female: 83.08 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.77 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
 
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4.1% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 158
 
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2.862 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
country comparison to the world: 43
 
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5.57 beds/1,000 population (2008)
country comparison to the world: 31
 
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improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2008)
 
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0.3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
 
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fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
 
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fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
 
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NA
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)
 
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total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2006)
 
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total: 17.2%
country comparison to the world: 68
male: 16.7%
female: 17.8% (2009)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg
 
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constitutional monarchy
 
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name: Luxembourg
geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
 
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3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
 
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1839 (from the Netherlands)
 
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National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June; note - the actual date of birth was 23 January 1896, but the festivities were shifted by five months to allow observance during a more favorable time of year
 
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17 October 1868; occasional revisions
 
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civil law system
 
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accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
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18 years of age; universal and compulsory
 
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chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 20 January 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 July 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
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elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
note: government coalition - CSV and LSAP
 
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unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 7 June 2009 (next to be held by June 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 38%, LSAP 21.6%, DP 15%, Green Party 11.7%, ADR 8.1%, The Left 3.3%, other 2.3%; seats by party - CSV 26, LSAP 13, DP 9, Green Party 7, ADR 4, The Left 1
note: there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister
 
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Constitutional Court; judicial courts and tribunals (Superior Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation, 2 district tribunals, 3 lesser tribunals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, Administrative Tribunal and Administrative Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch
 
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Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Robert MEHLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Michel WOLTER]; dei Lenk/la Gauche (the Left); Democratic Party or DP [Claude MEISCH]; Green Party [Francois BAUSCH]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Alex BODRY]; other minor parties
 
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ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); Greenpeace (environment protection); LCGP (center-right trade union); Mouvement Ecologique (protection of ecology); OGBL (center-left trade union)
 
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ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Jean-Paul SENNINGER
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171 through 72
FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Cynthia STROUM
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
telephone: [352] 46 01 23
FAX: [352] 46 14 01
 
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three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)
 
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lion
 
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name: "Ons Heemecht" (Our Motherland); "De Wilhelmus" (The William)
lyrics/music: Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknown
note: "Ons Heemecht," adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while "De Wilhelmus," adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in Luxembourg
 
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Economy

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This small, stable, high-income economy - benefiting from its proximity to France, Belgium, and Germany - has historically featured solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector, which now accounts for about 28% of GDP, has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Most banks are foreign owned and have extensive foreign dealings, but Luxembourg has lost some of its advantages as a tax haven because of OECD and EU pressure. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for about 60% of its labor force. Luxembourg, like all EU members, suffered from the global economic crisis that began in late 2008, but unemployment has trended below the EU average. Following strong expansion from 2004 to 2007, Luxembourg's economy contracted and 3.7% in 2009, but rebounded 3.2% in 2010. The country continues to enjoy an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks third in the world, after Liechtenstein and Qatar, and is the highest in the EU. Turmoil in the world financial markets and lower global demand during 2008-09 prompted the government to inject capital into the banking sector and implement stimulus measures to boost the economy. Government stimulus measures and support for the banking sector, however, led to a 5% government budget deficit in 2009. Nevertheless, the deficit was cut to 1.4% in 2010.
 
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$41.09 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
$39.74 billion (2009 est.)
$41.25 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$54.95 billion (2010 est.)
 
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3.4% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
-3.7% (2009 est.)
1.4% (2008 est.)
 
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$82,600 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
$80,800 (2009 est.)
$84,900 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 0.4%
industry: 13.6%
services: 86% (2007 est.)
 
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205,900
country comparison to the world: 168
note: 125,400 workers commute daily from France, Belgium, and Germany (2010 est.)
 
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agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 17.2%
services: 80.6% (2007 est.)
 
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6% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
5.7% (2009 est.)
 
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NA%
 
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lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)
 
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26 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 134
 
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16.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
 
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revenues: $21.87 billion
expenditures: $22.67 billion (2010 est.)
 
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39.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
 
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-1.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
 
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19.7% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
16.5% of GDP (2009 est.)
 
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2.3% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
0.4% (2009 est.)
 
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1.75% (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 110
1.75% (31 December 2009)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area
 
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2.283% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
2.692% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$90.85 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
$90.86 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders
 
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$235.3 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
$241.1 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$395.1 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
$369.6 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
 
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$101.1 billion (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 40
$105.6 billion (31 December 2009)
$66.46 billion (31 December 2008)
 
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grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy and livestock products
 
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banking and financial services, iron and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism
 
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8% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
 
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2.667 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
 
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6.453 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
 
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2.604 billion kWh (2009 est.)
 
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3.418 billion kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
 
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60,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
 
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686 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
 
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51,930 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
 
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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
 
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0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 156
 
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1.366 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
 
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0 cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
 
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1.366 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
 
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0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
 
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$4.2 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
$3.577 billion (2009 est.)
 
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$16.8 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
$15.53 billion (2009 est.)
 
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machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass
 
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Germany 22.3%, France 15.5%, Belgium 12.1%, UK 9.2%, Italy 7.2%, Netherlands 4.1% (2010)
 
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$22.08 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
$19.85 billion (2009 est.)
 
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minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
 
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Belgium 31.4%, Germany 25.1%, France 11.6%, China 9.2%, Netherlands 5.2% (2010)
 
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$800 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
$800 million (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$2.146 trillion (30 June 2011)
country comparison to the world: 10
$1.892 trillion (30 June 2010)
 
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$NA (31 December 2009 est.)
$11.21 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
 
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$NA
 
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euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.755 (2010)
0.7198 (2009)
0.6827 (2008)
0.7345 (2007)
0.7964 (2006)
 
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Communications

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272,400 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 120
 
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727,000 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 156
 
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general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables
domestic: fixed line teledensity over 50 per 100 persons; nationwide mobile-cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturated
international: country code - 352 (2008)
 
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Luxembourg has a long tradition of operating radio and TV services to pan-European audiences and is home to Europe's largest privately-owned broadcast media group, the RTL group, which operates 45 television stations and 31 radio stations in Europe; also home to Europe's largest satellite operator, Societe Europeenne des Satellites (SES); domestically, the RTL group operates TV and radio networks; other domestic private radio and TV operators and French and German stations are available; satellite and cable TV services are accessible (2008)
 
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.lu
 
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244,225 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 63
 
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424,500 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 121
 
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Transportation

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2 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 202
 
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total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2010)
 
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total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2010)
 
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1 (2010)
 
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gas 142 km; refined products 27 km (2010)
 
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total: 275 km
country comparison to the world: 123
standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (243 km electrified) (2010)
 
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total: 5,227 km
country comparison to the world: 152
paved: 5,227 km (includes 147 km of expressways) (2008)
 
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37 km (on Moselle River) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 105
 
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total: 47
country comparison to the world: 72
by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 3, chemical tanker 16, container 10, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 10
foreign-owned: 45 (Belgium 9, France 16, Germany 9, Netherlands 2, Switzerland 1, UK 5, US 3)
registered in other countries: 16 (Italy 12, Malta 3, Panama 1) (2010)
 
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Mertert
 
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Military

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Army (2010)
 
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17-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; soldiers under 18 are not deployed into combat or with peacekeeping missions; no conscription; Luxembourg citizen or EU citizen with 3-year residence in Luxembourg (2010)
 
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males age 16-49: 118,665
females age 16-49: 117,456 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 97,290
females age 16-49: 96,361 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 3,263
female: 3,084 (2010 est.)
 
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0.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
 
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Transnational Issues


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none
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