Korea, North

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 10, 2011
Flag of Korea, North
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Location of Korea, North
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Photos of Korea, North
 
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OF KOREA, NORTH
 

Introduction

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An independent kingdom for much of its long history, Korea was occupied by Japan beginning in 1905 following the Russo-Japanese War. Five years later, Japan formally annexed the entire peninsula. Following World War II, Korea was split with the northern half coming under Soviet-sponsored Communist control. After failing in the Korean War (1950-53) to conquer the US-backed Republic of Korea (ROK) in the southern portion by force, North Korea (DPRK), under its founder President KIM Il Sung, adopted a policy of ostensible diplomatic and economic "self-reliance" as a check against outside influence. The DPRK demonized the US as the ultimate threat to its social system through state-funded propaganda, and molded political, economic, and military policies around the core ideological objective of eventual unification of Korea under Pyongyang's control. KIM Il Sung's son, the current ruler KIM Jong Il, was officially designated as his father's successor in 1980, assuming a growing political and managerial role until the elder KIM's death in 1994. In 2010, KIM Jong Il began the process of preparing the way for his youngest son, KIM Jong Un, to succeed him in power. After decades of economic mismanagement and resource misallocation, the DPRK since the mid-1990s has relied heavily on international aid to feed its population. North Korea's history of regional military provocations, proliferation of military-related items, long-range missile development, WMD programs including tests of nuclear devices in 2006 and 2009, and massive conventional armed forces are of major concern to the international community. The regime has marked 2012, the centenary of KIM Il Sung's birth, a banner year; to that end, the country has been focused on development of the economy.
 
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Geography

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Eastern Asia, northern half of the Korean Peninsula bordering the Korea Bay and the Sea of Japan, between China and South Korea
 
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40 00 N, 127 00 E
 
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total: 120,538 sq km
country comparison to the world: 99
land: 120,408 sq km
water: 130 sq km
 
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slightly smaller than Mississippi
 
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total: 1,671.5 km
border countries: China 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km, Russia 17.5 km
 
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2,495 km
 
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territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
note: military boundary line 50 nm in the Sea of Japan and the exclusive economic zone limit in the Yellow Sea where all foreign vessels and aircraft without permission are banned
 
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temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer
 
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mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east
 
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lowest point: Sea of Japan 0 m
highest point: Paektu-san 2,744 m
 
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coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite, iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower
 
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arable land: 22.4%
permanent crops: 1.66%
other: 75.94% (2005)
 
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14,600 sq km (2008)
 
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77.1 cu km (1999)
 
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total: 9.02 cu km/yr (20%/25%/55%)
per capita: 401 cu m/yr (2000)
 
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late spring droughts often followed by severe flooding; occasional typhoons during the early fall
volcanism: Changbaishan (elev. 2,744 m) (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu or P'aektu-san), on the Chinese border, is considered historically active
 
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water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water; waterborne disease; deforestation; soil erosion and degradation
 
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party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
 
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strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and Russia; mountainous interior is isolated and sparsely populated
 
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People and Society

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noun: Korean(s)
adjective: Korean
 
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racially homogeneous; there is a small Chinese community and a few ethnic Japanese
 
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Korean
 
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traditionally Buddhist and Confucianist, some Christian and syncretic Chondogyo (Religion of the Heavenly Way)
note: autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent; government-sponsored religious groups exist to provide illusion of religious freedom
 
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24,457,492 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
 
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0-14 years: 22.4% (male 2,766,006/female 2,700,378)
15-64 years: 68.6% (male 8,345,737/female 8,423,482)
65 years and over: 9.1% (male 738,693/female 1,483,196) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 32.9 years
male: 31.2 years
female: 34.6 years (2011 est.)
 
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0.538% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
 
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14.51 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
 
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9.08 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
 
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-0.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
 
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urban population: 60% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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at birth: 1.047 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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250 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 53
 
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total: 27.11 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 76
male: 30.04 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 24.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 68.89 years
country comparison to the world: 150
male: 65.03 years
female: 72.93 years (2011 est.)
 
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2.02 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
 
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2% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 189
 
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3.29 physicians/1,000 population (2003)
country comparison to the world: 32
 
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13.2 beds/1,000 population (2002)
country comparison to the world: 2
 
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improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 58% of population
rural: 60% of population
total: 59% of population
unimproved:
urban: 42% of population
rural: 40% of population
total: 41% of population (2000)
 
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NA
 
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NA
 
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NA
 
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20.6% (2004)
country comparison to the world: 33
 
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NA
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (1991 est.)
 
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NA
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Democratic People's Republic of Korea
conventional short form: North Korea
local long form: Choson-minjujuui-inmin-konghwaguk
local short form: Choson
abbreviation: DPRK
 
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Communist state one-man dictatorship
 
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name: Pyongyang
geographic coordinates: 39 01 N, 125 45 E
time difference: UTC+9 (14 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
 
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9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 2 municipalities (si, singular and plural)
provinces: Chagang-do (Chagang), Hamgyong-bukto (North Hamgyong), Hamgyong-namdo (South Hamgyong), Hwanghae-bukto (North Hwanghae), Hwanghae-namdo (South Hwanghae), Kangwon-do (Kangwon), P'yongan-bukto (North P'yongan), P'yongan-namdo (South P'yongan), Yanggang-do (Yanggang)
municipalities: Nason-si, P'yongyang-si (Pyongyang)
 
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15 August 1945 (from Japan)
 
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Founding of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), 9 September (1948)
 
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adopted 1948; revised several times most recently in 2009
 
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civil law system based on the Prussian model; system influenced by Japanese traditions and Communist legal theory
 
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has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
 
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17 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: KIM Jong Il (since July 1994); note - on 9 April 2009, rubberstamp Supreme People's Assembly (SPA) reelected KIM Jong Il chairman of the National Defense Commission, a position accorded nation's "highest administrative authority"; SPA reelected KIM Yong Nam in 2009 president of its Presidium also with responsibility of representing state and receiving diplomatic credentials
head of government: Premier CHOE Yong Rim (since 7 June 2010); Vice Premier HAN Kwang Bok (since 7 June 2010), Vice Premier JO Pyong Ju (since 7 June 2010), Vice Premier JON Ha Chol (since 7 June 2010), Vice Premier KANG Nung Su (since 7 June 2010), Vice Premier KIM Rak Hui (since 7 June 2010), Vice Premier PAK Su Gil (since 18 September 2009), Vice Premier RI Mu Yong (since 31 May 2011); Vice Premier RO Tu Chol (since 3 September 2003)
cabinet: Naegak (cabinet) members, except for Minister of People's Armed Forces, are appointed by SPA
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: last election held in September 2003; date of next election NA
election results: KIM Jong Il and KIM Yong Nam were only nominees for positions and ran unopposed
 
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unicameral Supreme People's Assembly or Ch'oego Inmin Hoeui (687 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 8 March 2009 (next to be held in March 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; ruling party approves a list of candidates who are elected without opposition; a token number of seats are reserved for minor parties
 
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Central Court (judges are elected by the Supreme People's Assembly)
 
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major party - Korean Workers' Party or KWP [KIM Jong Il]; minor parties - Chondoist Chongu Party [RYU Mi Yong] (under KWP control), Social Democratic Party [KIM Yong Dae] (under KWP control)
 
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none
 
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ARF, FAO, G-77, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, IMO, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
 
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none; North Korea has a Permanent Mission to the UN in New York
 
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none; note - Swedish Embassy in Pyongyang represents the US as consular protecting power
 
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three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band is a white disk with a red five-pointed star; the broad red band symbolizes revolutionary traditions; the narrow white bands stands for purity, strength, and dignity; the blue bands signify sovereignty, peace, and friendship; the red star represents socialism
 
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red star
 
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name: "Aegukka" (Patriotic Song)
lyrics/music: PAK Se Yong/KIM Won Gyun
note: adopted 1947; both North Korea and South Korea's anthems share the same name and have a vaguely similar melody but have different lyrics; the North Korean anthem is also known as "Ach'imun pinnara" (Let Morning Shine)
 
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Economy

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North Korea, one of the world's most centrally directed and least open economies, faces chronic economic problems. Industrial capital stock is nearly beyond repair as a result of years of underinvestment, shortages of spare parts, and poor maintenance. Large-scale military spending draws off resources needed for investment and civilian consumption. Industrial and power output have stagnated for years at a fraction of pre-1990 levels. Frequent weather-related crop failures aggravated chronic food shortages caused by on-going systemic problems, including a lack of arable land, collective farming practices, poor soil quality, insufficient fertilization, and persistent shortages of tractors and fuel. Large-scale international food aid deliveries have allowed the people of North Korea to escape widespread starvation since famine threatened in 1995, but the population continues to suffer from prolonged malnutrition and poor living conditions. Since 2002, the government has allowed private "farmers' markets" to begin selling a wider range of goods. It also permitted some private farming - on an experimental basis - in an effort to boost agricultural output. In October 2005, the government tried to reverse some of these policies by forbidding private sales of grains and reinstituting a centralized food rationing system. By December 2005, the government terminated most international humanitarian assistance operations in North Korea (calling instead for developmental assistance only) and restricted the activities of remaining international and non-governmental aid organizations. In mid-2008, North Korea began receiving food aid under a US program to deliver 500,000 metric tons of food via the World Food Program and US nongovernmental organizations; but Pyongyang stopped accepting the aid in March 2009. In December 2009, North Korea carried out a redenomination of its currency, capping the amount of North Korean won that could be exchanged for the new notes, and limiting the exchange to a one-week window. A concurrent crackdown on markets and foreign currency use yielded severe shortages and inflation, forcing Pyongyang to ease the restrictions by February 2010. In response to the sinking of the South Korean destroyer Cheonan and the shelling of Yeonpyong Island, South Korea's government cut off most aid, trade, and bilateral cooperation activities, with the exception of operations at the Kaesong Industrial Complex. The year 2012 will be the 100th anniversary of Kim Il-sung's birthday. The North Korean government often highlights its 2012 goal of becoming a "strong and prosperous" nation. Attracting foreign investment, especially from neighboring China, will be a key factor for improving the overall standard of living. Nevertheless, firm political control remains the government's overriding concern, which likely will inhibit changes to North Korea's current economic system.
 
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$40 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
$40 billion (2009 est.)
$40 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars;
North Korea does not publish reliable National Income Accounts data; the data shown here are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) GDP estimates for North Korea that were made by Angus MADDISON in a study conducted for the OECD; his figure for 1999 was extrapolated to 2009 using estimated real growth rates for North Korea's GDP and an inflation factor based on the US GDP deflator; the results were rounded to the nearest $10 billion.
 
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$28 billion (2009 est.)
 
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-0.9% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
3.7% (2008 est.)
 
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$1,800 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
$1,800 (2009 est.)
$1,900 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 20.7%
industry: 47.8%
services: 31.5% (2010 est.)
 
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12.2 million
country comparison to the world: 41
note: estimates vary widely (2009 est.)
 
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agriculture: 35%
industry and services: 65% (2008 est.)
 
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NA%
 
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NA%
 
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lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
 
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revenues: $3.2 billion
expenditures: $3.3 billion (2007 est.)
 
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11.4% of GDP
country comparison to the world: 202
note: excludes earnings from state operated enterprises (2007 est.)
 
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-0.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
 
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NA%
 
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rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; cattle, pigs, pork, eggs
 
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military products; machine building, electric power, chemicals; mining (coal, iron ore, limestone, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead, and precious metals), metallurgy; textiles, food processing; tourism
 
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NA%
 
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22.52 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
 
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18.85 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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118 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118
 
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13,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
 
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0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
 
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15,810 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
 
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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
 
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0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
 
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$1.997 billion (2009)
country comparison to the world: 135
$2.062 billion (2008)
 
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minerals, metallurgical products, manufactures (including armaments), textiles, agricultural and fishery products
 
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China 50.3%, Brazil 5.7%, Lebanon 4.7%, Dominican Republic 4.2%, Netherlands 4.1% (2010)
 
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$3.096 billion (2009)
country comparison to the world: 138
$3.574 billion (2008)
 
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petroleum, coking coal, machinery and equipment, textiles, grain
 
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China 40.6%, Algeria 34.2%, India 8.9% (2010)
 
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$12.5 billion (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
 
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$1.437 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
$1.475 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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North Korean won (KPW) per US dollar (market rate)
1,800 (December 2010)
3,630 (December 2008)
 
140 (2007)
141 (2006)
 
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Communications

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1.18 million (2008)
country comparison to the world: 71
 
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431,900 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 167
 
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general assessment: adequate system; nationwide fiber-optic network; mobile-cellular service expanding beyond Pyongyang
domestic: fiber-optic links installed down to the county level; telephone directories unavailable; GSM mobile-cellular service initiated in 2002 but suspended in 2004; Orascom Telecom Holding, an Egyptian company, launched W-CDMA mobile service on December 15, 2008 for the Pyongyang area and has expanded service to several large cities
international: country code - 850; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean, 1 Russian - Indian Ocean region); other international connections through Moscow and Beijing (2009)
 
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no independent media; radios and televisions are pre-tuned to government stations; 4 government-owned television stations; the Korean Workers' Party owns and operates the Korean Central Broadcasting Station, and the state-run Voice of Korea operates an external broadcast service; the government prohibits listening to and jams foreign broadcasts (2008)
 
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.kp
 
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3 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 229
 
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Transportation

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79 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 70
 
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total: 37
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 23
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 4 (2010)
 
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total: 42
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 14
under 914 m: 8 (2010)
 
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22 (2010)
 
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oil 154 km (2010)
 
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total: 5,242 km
country comparison to the world: 33
standard gauge: 5,242 km 1.435-m gauge (3,500 km electrified) (2009)
 
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total: 25,554 km
country comparison to the world: 104
paved: 724 km
unpaved: 24,830 km (2006)
 
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2,250 km (most navigable only by small craft) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 38
 
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total: 158
country comparison to the world: 42
by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 129, carrier 1, container 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 11, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 19 (Belgium 1, China 1, Nigeria 1, Romania 1, Singapore 2, South Korea 1, Syria 6, UAE 6)
registered in other countries: 5 (Mongolia 1, Sierra Leone 1, unknown 3) (2010)
 
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Ch'ongjin, Haeju, Hungnam (Hamhung), Namp'o, Senbong, Songnim, Sonbong (formerly Unggi), Wonsan
 
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Military

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North Korean People's Army: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force; civil security forces (2005)
 
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17 years of age (2004)
 
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males age 16-49: 6,515,279
females age 16-49: 6,418,693 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 4,836,567
females age 16-49: 5,230,137 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 207,737
female: 204,553 (2010 est.)
 
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NA
 
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Transnational Issues

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risking arrest, imprisonment, and deportation, tens of thousands of North Koreans cross into China to escape famine, economic privation, and political oppression; North Korea and China dispute the sovereignty of certain islands in Yalu and Tumen rivers; Military Demarcation Line within the 4-km wide Demilitarized Zone has separated North from South Korea since 1953; periodic incidents in the Yellow Sea with South Korea which claims the Northern Limiting Line as a maritime boundary; North Korea supports South Korea in rejecting Japan's claim to Liancourt Rocks (Tok-do/Take-shima)
 
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IDPs: undetermined (flooding in mid-2007 and famine during mid-1990s) (2007)
 
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current situation: North Korea is a source country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; the most common form of trafficking involves North Korean women and girls who cross the border into China voluntarily; additionally, North Korean women and girls are lured out of North Korea to escape poor social and economic conditions by the promise of food, jobs, and freedom, only to be forced into prostitution, marriage, or exploitative labor arrangements once in China; within the country, North Koreans do not have a choice in the work the government assigns them and are not free to change jobs at will
tier rating: Tier 3 - North Korea does not fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government does not acknowledge the existence of human rights abuses in the country or recognize trafficking, either within the country or transnationally (2011)
 
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for years, from the 1970s into the 2000s, citizens of the Democratic People's Republic of (North) Korea (DPRK), many of them diplomatic employees of the government, were apprehended abroad while trafficking in narcotics, including two in Turkey in December 2004; police investigations in Taiwan and Japan in recent years have linked North Korea to large illicit shipments of heroin and methamphetamine, including an attempt by the North Korean merchant ship Pong Su to deliver 150 kg of heroin to Australia in April 2003
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