Jamaica

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 10, 2011
Flag of Jamaica
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Jamaica
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Map of Jamaica
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Photos of Jamaica
 
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OF JAMAICA
 

Introduction

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The island - discovered by Christopher COLUMBUS in 1494 - was settled by the Spanish early in the 16th century. The native Taino Indians, who had inhabited Jamaica for centuries, were gradually exterminated and replaced by African slaves. England seized the island in 1655 and established a plantation economy based on sugar, cocoa, and coffee. The abolition of slavery in 1834 freed a quarter million slaves, many of whom became small farmers. Jamaica gradually obtained increasing independence from Britain. In 1958 it joined other British Caribbean colonies in forming the Federation of the West Indies. Jamaica gained full independence when it withdrew from the Federation in 1962. Deteriorating economic conditions during the 1970s led to recurrent violence as rival gangs affiliated with the major political parties evolved into powerful organized crime networks involved in international drug smuggling and money laundering. Violent crime, drug trafficking, and poverty pose significant challenges to the government today. Nonetheless, many rural and resort areas remain relatively safe and contribute substantially to the economy.
 
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Geography

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Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba
 
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18 15 N, 77 30 W
 
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total: 10,991 sq km
country comparison to the world: 168
land: 10,831 sq km
water: 160 sq km
 
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slightly smaller than Connecticut
 
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0 km
 
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1,022 km
 
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measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
 
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tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior
 
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mostly mountains, with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
 
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lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Blue Mountain Peak 2,256 m
 
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bauxite, gypsum, limestone
 
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arable land: 15.83%
permanent crops: 10.01%
other: 74.16% (2005)
 
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250 sq km (2008)
 
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9.4 cu km (2000)
 
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total: 0.41 cu km/yr (34%/17%/49%)
per capita: 155 cu m/yr (2000)
 
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hurricanes (especially July to November)
 
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heavy rates of deforestation; coastal waters polluted by industrial waste, sewage, and oil spills; damage to coral reefs; air pollution in Kingston results from vehicle emissions
 
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
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strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica Channel, the main sea lanes for the Panama Canal
 
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People and Society

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noun: Jamaican(s)
adjective: Jamaican
 
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black 91.2%, mixed 6.2%, other or unknown 2.6% (2001 census)
 
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English, English patois
 
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Protestant 62.5% (Seventh-Day Adventist 10.8%, Pentecostal 9.5%, Other Church of God 8.3%, Baptist 7.2%, New Testament Church of God 6.3%, Church of God in Jamaica 4.8%, Church of God of Prophecy 4.3%, Anglican 3.6%, other Christian 7.7%), Roman Catholic 2.6%, other or unspecified 14.2%, none 20.9%, (2001 census)
 
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2,868,380 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
 
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0-14 years: 30.1% (male 438,888/female 424,383)
15-64 years: 62.3% (male 882,548/female 904,242)
65 years and over: 7.6% (male 97,717/female 120,602) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 24.2 years
male: 23.7 years
female: 24.7 years (2011 est.)
 
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0.733% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
 
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19.2 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
 
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6.54 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
 
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-5.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196
 
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urban population: 52% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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KINGSTON (capital) 580,000 (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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89 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 77
 
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total: 14.6 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 123
male: 15.18 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 73.45 years
country comparison to the world: 117
male: 71.79 years
female: 75.19 years (2011 est.)
 
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2.17 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
 
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8.3% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 49
 
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0.85 physicians/1,000 population (2003)
country comparison to the world: 109
 
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1.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)
country comparison to the world: 114
 
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improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 89% of population
total: 94% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 11% of population
total: 6% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 82% of population
rural: 84% of population
total: 83% of population
unimproved:
urban: 18% of population
rural: 16% of population
total: 17% of population (2008)
 
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1.7% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
 
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32,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
 
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1,200 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
 
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2.2% (2007)
country comparison to the world: 109
 
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5.8% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 35
 
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definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 87.9%
male: 84.1%
female: 91.6% (2003 est.)
 
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total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 15 years (2008)
 
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total: 27.1%
country comparison to the world: 20
male: 22.5%
female: 33.1% (2009)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Jamaica
 
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constitutional parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm
 
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name: Kingston
geographic coordinates: 18 00 N, 76 48 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
 
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14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland
note: for local government purposes, Kingston and Saint Andrew were amalgamated in 1923 into the present single corporate body known as the Kingston and Saint Andrew Corporation
 
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6 August 1962 (from the UK)
 
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Independence Day, 6 August (1962)
 
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6 August 1962
 
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common law system based on the English model
 
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has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Dr. Patrick L. ALLEN (since 26 February 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Andrew HOLNESS (since 23 October 2011)
cabinet: Cabinet is appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
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elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Representatives is appointed prime minister by the governor general
 
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bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (a 21-member body appointed by the governor general on the recommendations of the prime minister and the leader of the opposition; ruling party is allocated 13 seats, and the opposition is allocated 8 seats) and the House of Representatives (60 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 3 September 2007 (next to be held no later than December 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - JLP 50.1%, PNP 49.8%; seats by party - JLP 33, PNP 27
 
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Supreme Court (judges appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister); Court of Appeal; Privy Council in UK; member of the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ)
 
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Jamaica Labor Party or JLP [Andrew HOLNESS]; People's National Party or PNP [Portia SIMPSON-MILLER]; National Democratic Movement or NDM [Michael WILLIAMS]
 
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New Beginnings Movement or NBM; Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)
 
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ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PetroCaribe, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Audrey P. MARKS
chancery: 1520 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 452-0660
FAX: [1] (202) 452-0081
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela BRIDGEWATER
embassy: 142 Old Hope Road, Kingston 6
mailing address: P.O. Box 541, Kingston 5
telephone: [1] (876) 702-6000
FAX: [1] (876) 702-6001
 
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diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles - green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and outer side); green represents hope, vegetation, and agriculture, black reflects hardships overcome and to be faced, and yellow recalls golden sunshine and the island's natural resources
 
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green-and-black streamertail (bird)
 
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name: "Jamaica, Land We Love"
lyrics/music: Hugh Braham SHERLOCK/Robert Charles LIGHTBOURNE
note: adopted 1962
 
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Economy

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The Jamaican economy is heavily dependent on services, which now account for more than 60% of GDP. The country continues to derive most of its foreign exchange from tourism, remittances, and bauxite/alumina. Remittances account for nearly 15% of GDP and exports of bauxite and alumina make up about 10%. The bauxite/alumina sector was most affected by the global downturn while the tourism industry was resilient, experiencing an increase of 4% in tourist arrivals. Tourism revenues account for roughly 10% of GDP, and both arrivals and revenues grew in 2010, up 4% and 6% respectively. The Economic growth faces many challenges: high crime and corruption, large-scale unemployment and underemployment, and a debt-to-GDP ratio of more than 120%. Jamaica's onerous public debt burden - the fourth highest in the world on a per capita basis - is the result of government bailouts to ailing sectors of the economy, most notably to the financial sector in the mid-to-late 1990s. In early 2010, the Jamaican government created the Jamaica Debt Exchange (JDX) in order to retire high-priced domestic bonds and significantly reduce annual debt servicing. The Government of Jamaica signed a $1.27 billion, 27-month Standby Agreement with the International Monetary Fund for balance of payment support in February 2010. Other multilaterals have also provided millions of dollars in loans and grants. Despite the improvement, debt servicing costs still hinder the government's ability to spend on infrastructure and social programs, particularly as job losses rise in a shrinking economy. The GOLDING administration faces the difficult prospect of having to achieve fiscal discipline in order to maintain debt payments, while simultaneously attacking a serious crime problem that is hampering economic growth. High unemployment exacerbates the crime problem, including gang violence that is fueled by the drug trade.
 
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$23.72 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
$23.99 billion (2009 est.)
$24.74 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$13.69 billion (2010 est.)
 
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-1.1% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
-3% (2009 est.)
-0.9% (2008 est.)
 
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$8,300 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
$8,500 (2009 est.)
$8,800 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 5.8%
industry: 30%
services: 64.3% (2010 est.)
 
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1.317 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
 
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agriculture: 17%
industry: 19%
services: 64% (2006)
 
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12.4% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
11.4% (2009 est.)
 
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16.5% (2009 est.)
 
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lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 35.8% (2004)
 
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45.5 (2004)
country comparison to the world: 38
37.9 (2000)
 
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20.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
 
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revenues: $3.607 billion
expenditures: $4.458 billion (2010 est.)
 
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26.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
 
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-6.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 166
 
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126.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
129.7% of GDP (2009 est.)
 
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12.6% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
9.6% (2009 est.)
 
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2% (31 December 2010 est.)
NA% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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16% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
16.43% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.464 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
$1.349 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$5.801 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
$5.384 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$7.253 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
$7.165 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$6.626 billion (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 76
$6.201 billion (31 December 2009)
$7.513 billion (31 December 2008)
 
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sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, yams, ackees, vegetables; poultry, goats, milk; crustaceans, mollusks
 
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tourism, bauxite/alumina, agro processing, light manufactures, rum, cement, metal, paper, chemical products, telecommunications
 
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-2% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
 
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7.323 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
 
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6.4 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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506 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
 
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63,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
 
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0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
 
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90,520 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
 
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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
 
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0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
 
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-$986.5 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
-$1.126 billion (2009 est.)
 
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$1.376 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
$1.388 billion (2009 est.)
 
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alumina, bauxite, sugar, rum, coffee, yams, beverages, chemicals, wearing apparel, mineral fuels
 
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US 34%, Canada 15.8%, Norway 9.4%, UK 6.6%, Netherlands 6.1% (2010)
 
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$4.581 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
$4.476 billion (2009 est.)
 
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food and other consumer goods, industrial supplies, fuel, parts and accessories of capital goods, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials
 
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US 32.6%, Venezuela 15%, Trinidad and Tobago 14.5%, China 4.6% (2010)
 
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$2.501 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
$2.076 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$12.57 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
$10.77 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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Jamaican dollars (JMD) per US dollar -
87.41 (2010)
87.89 (2009)
72.236 (2008)
69.034 (2007)
65.768 (2006)
 
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Communications

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263,100 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 121
 
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3.103 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 120
 
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general assessment: fully automatic domestic telephone network
domestic: the 1999 agreement to open the market for telecommunications services resulted in rapid growth in mobile-cellular telephone usage while the number of fixed-lines in use has declined; combined mobile-cellular teledensity exceeded 110 per 100 persons in 2009
international: country code - 1-876; the Fibralink submarine cable network provides enhanced delivery of business and broadband traffic and is linked to the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) submarine cable in the Dominican Republic; the link to ARCOS-1 provides seamless connectivity to US, parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2008)
 
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privately-owned Radio Jamaica Limited and its subsidiaries operate multiple television stations, subscription cable services, and radio stations; 2 other privately-owned television stations broadcast; roughly 70 radio stations (2007)
 
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.jm
 
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3,099 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 143
 
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1.581 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 80
 
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Transportation

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27 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 125
 
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total: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 7 (2010)
 
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total: 15
under 914 m: 15 (2010)
 
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total: 22,121 km (includes 44 km of expressways) (2008)
country comparison to the world: 107
 
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total: 19
country comparison to the world: 100
by type: bulk carrier 9, cargo 5, container 4, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 19 (Denmark 1, Germany 10, Greece 8) (2010)
 
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Discovery Bay (Port Rhoades), Kingston, Montego Bay, Port Antonio, Port Esquivel, Port Kaiser, Rocky Point
 
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Military

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Jamaica Defense Force: Ground Forces, Coast Guard, Air Wing (2010)
 
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18 years of age for voluntary military service; younger recruits may be conscripted with parental consent (2001)
 
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males age 16-49: 726,263
females age 16-49: 742,958 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 590,673
females age 16-49: 596,414 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 33,369
female: 32,702 (2010 est.)
 
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0.6% of GDP (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
 
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Transnational Issues

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none
 
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transshipment point for cocaine from South America to North America and Europe; illicit cultivation and consumption of cannabis; government has an active manual cannabis eradication program; corruption is a major concern; substantial money-laundering activity; Colombian narcotics traffickers favor Jamaica for illicit financial transactions
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