Iraq

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 22, 2011
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Location of Iraq
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OF IRAQ
 

Introduction

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Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq was occupied by Britain during the course of World War I; in 1920, it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration. In stages over the next dozen years, Iraq attained its independence as a kingdom in 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed in 1958, but in actuality a series of strongmen ruled the country until 2003. The last was SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In August 1990, Iraq seized Kuwait but was expelled by US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of January-February 1991. Following Kuwait's liberation, the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraqi noncompliance with UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years led to the US-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Husayn regime. US forces remained in Iraq under a UNSC mandate through 2009 and under a bilateral security agreement thereafter, helping to provide security and to train and mentor Iraqi security forces. In October 2005, Iraqis approved a constitution in a national referendum and, pursuant to this document, elected a 275-member Council of Representatives (CoR) in December 2005. The CoR approved most cabinet ministers in May 2006, marking the transition to Iraq's first constitutional government in nearly a half century. In January 2009, Iraq held elections for provincial councils in all provinces except for the three provinces comprising the Kurdistan Regional Government and Kirkuk province. Iraq held a national legislative election in March 2010, and after nine months of deadlock the CoR approved the new government in December 2010.
 
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Geography

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Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait
 
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33 00 N, 44 00 E
 
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total: 438,317 sq km
country comparison to the world: 59
land: 437,367 sq km
water: 950 sq km
 
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slightly more than twice the size of Idaho
 
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total: 3,650 km
border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 352 km
 
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58 km
 
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territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: not specified
 
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mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq
 
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mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey
 
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lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: unnamed peak; 3,611 m; note - this peak is neither Gundah Zhur 3,607 m nor Kuh-e Hajji-Ebrahim 3,595 m
 
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petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
 
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arable land: 13.12%
permanent crops: 0.61%
other: 86.27% (2005)
 
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35,250 sq km (2008)
 
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96.4 cu km (1997)
 
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total: 42.7 cu km/yr (3%/5%/92%)
per capita: 1,482 cu m/yr (2000)
 
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dust storms; sandstorms; floods
 
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government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Marsh Arabs, who inhabited these areas for thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers system contingent upon agreements with upstream riparian Turkey; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification
 
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party to: Biodiversity, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
 
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strategic location on Shatt al Arab waterway and at the head of the Persian Gulf
 
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People and Society

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noun: Iraqi(s)
adjective: Iraqi
 
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Arab 75%-80%, Kurdish 15%-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian, or other 5%
 
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Arabic (official), Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions), Turkoman (a Turkish dialect), Assyrian (Neo-Aramaic), Armenian
 
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Muslim (official) 97% (Shia 60%-65%, Sunni 32%-37%), Christian or other 3%
note: while there has been voluntary relocation of many Christian families to northern Iraq, recent reporting indicates that the overall Christian population may have dropped by as much as 50 percent since the fall of the Saddam HUSSEIN regime in 2003, with many fleeing to Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon
 
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30,399,572 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
 
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0-14 years: 38% (male 5,882,682/female 5,678,741)
15-64 years: 58.9% (male 9,076,558/female 8,826,545)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 435,908/female 499,138) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 20.9 years
male: 20.8 years
female: 21 years (2011 est.)
 
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2.399% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
 
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28.81 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
 
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4.82 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
 
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0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
 
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urban population: 66% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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BAGHDAD (capital) 5.751 million; Mosul 1.447 million; Erbil 1.009 million; Basra 923,000; As Sulaymaniyah 836,000 (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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75 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 83
 
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total: 41.68 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 62
male: 45.93 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 37.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 70.55 years
country comparison to the world: 146
male: 69.15 years
female: 72.02 years (2011 est.)
 
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3.67 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
 
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9.7% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 33
 
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0.69 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
country comparison to the world: 115
 
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1.3 beds/1,000 population (2009)
country comparison to the world: 130
 
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improved:
urban: 91% of population
rural: 55% of population
total: 79% of population
unimproved:
urban: 9% of population
rural: 45% of population
total: 21% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 76% of population
rural: 66% of population
total: 73% of population
unimproved:
urban: 24% of population
rural: 34% of population
total: 27% of population (2008)
 
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less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
 
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fewer than 500 (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
 
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NA
 
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degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
 
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7.1% (2006)
country comparison to the world: 72
 
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NA
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 74.1%
male: 84.1%
female: 64.2% (2000 est.)
 
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total: 10 years
male: 11 years
female: 8 years (2005)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Republic of Iraq
conventional short form: Iraq
local long form: Jumhuriyat al-Iraq
local short form: Al Iraq
 
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parliamentary democracy
 
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name: Baghdad
geographic coordinates: 33 20 N, 44 23 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
 
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18 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah) and 1 region*; Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna, Al Qadisiyah (Ad Diwaniyah), An Najaf, Arbil (Erbil), As Sulaymaniyah, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Karbala', Kirkuk, Kurdistan Regional Government*, Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit
 
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3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration); note - on 28 June 2004 the Coalition Provisional Authority transferred sovereignty to the Iraqi Interim Government
 
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Republic Day, July 14 (1958); note - the Government of Iraq has yet to declare an official national holiday but still observes Republic Day
 
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ratified 15 October 2005 (subject to review by the Constitutional Review Committee and a possible public referendum)
 
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mixed legal system of civil and Islamic law
 
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has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: President Jalal TALABANI (since 6 April 2005); Vice Presidents Tariq al-HASHIMI and Khudayr Musa Jafar Abbas al-KHUZAI
head of government: Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI (since 20 May 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers consists of ministers appointed by the Presidency Council plus the Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Ministers
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by Council of Representatives (parliament) to serve a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 11 November 2010 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: President Jalal TALABANI reelected on 11 November 2010; parliamentary vote count on second ballot - 195 votes; Nuri al-MALIKI reselected prime minister
 
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unicameral Council of Representatives (325 seats consisting of 317 members elected by an optional open-list, proportional representation system and 8 seats reserved for minorities; members serve four-year terms); note - Iraq's Constitution calls for the establishment of an upper house, the Federation Council
elections: last held on 7 March 2010 for an enlarged 325-seat parliament (next to be held in 2014)
election results: Council of Representatives - percent of vote by coalition - Iraqi National Movement 25.9%, State of Law coalition 25.8%, Iraqi National Alliance 19.4%, Kurdistan Alliance 15.3%, Goran (Change) List 4.4%, Tawafuq Front 2.7%, Iraqi Unity Alliance 2.9%, Kurdistan Islamic Union 2.3%, Kurdistan Islamic Group 1.4%; seats by coalition - Iraqi National Movement 91, State of Law Coalition 89, Iraqi National Alliance 70, Kurdistan Alliance 43, Goran (Change) List 8, Tawafuq Front 6, Iraqi Unity Alliance 4, Kurdistan Islamic Union 4, Kurdistan Islamic Group 2, seats reserved for minorities 8
 
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the Iraq Constitution calls for the federal judicial power to be comprised of the Higher Judicial Council, Federal Supreme Court, Federal Court of Cassation, Public Prosecution Department, Judiciary Oversight Commission and other federal courts that are regulated in accordance with the law
 
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Badr Organization [Hadi al-AMIRI]; Da'wa al-Islamiya Party [Prime Minister Nuri al-MALIKI]; Da'wa Tanzim [Hashim al-MUSAWI branch]; Da-wa Tanzim [Abd al-Karim al-ANZI branch]; Fadilah Party [Hashim al-HASHIMI]; Hadba Gathering [Athil al-NUJAYFI]; Iraqi Charter Assembly [Ahmad Abd al-Ghafur al-SAMARRAI]; Iraqi Constitutional Party [Jawad al-BULANI]; Iraqi Front for National Dialogue [Salih al-MUTLAQ]; Iraqi Islamic Party or IIP [Usama al-TIKRITI]; Justice and Reform Movement [Shaykh Abdallah al-YAWR]; Iraqi National Congress or INC [Ahmad CHALABI]; Iraqi National Movement or INM (a coalition that includes Iraqi National Accord) [Ayad ALLAWI]; Iraqi National Accord or INA [Ayad ALLAWI]; Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq or ISCI [Ammar al-HAKIM]; Kurdistan Democratic Party or KDP [Kurdistan Regional Government President Masud BARZANI]; Future National Gathering [Deputy Prime Minister Rafi al-ISSAWI]; National Movement for Reform and Development [Jamal al-KARBULI]; National Reform Trend [former Prime Minister Ibrahim al-JAFARI]; Patriotic Union of Kurdistan or PUK [Jalal TALABANI]; Renewal List [Vice President Tariq al-HASHIMI]; Sadrist Trend [Muqtada al-SADR]; Sahawa al-Iraq [Ahmad al-RISHAWI]; Tawafuq Front
note: numerous smaller local, tribal, and minority parties
 
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Sunni militias; Shia militias, some associated with political parties
 
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ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CICA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Samir Shakir al-SUMAYDI
chancery: 3421 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 742-1600
FAX: [1] (202) 333-1129
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador James F. JEFFREY
embassy: Baghdad
mailing address: APO AE 09316
telephone: 1-240-553-0589 ext. 5340 or 5635; note - Consular Section
FAX: NA
 
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three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning "God is great") in green Arabic script is centered in the white band; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white); the Council of Representatives approved this flag in 2008 as a compromise temporary replacement for the Ba'athist Saddam-era flag
note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two stars but no script, Yemen, which has a plain white band, and that of Egypt, which has a gold Eagle of Saladin centered in the white band
 
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golden eagle
 
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name: "Mawtini" (My Homeland)
lyrics/music: Ibrahim TOUQAN/Mohammad FLAYFEL
note: adopted 2004; following the ousting of Saddam HUSSEIN, Iraq adopted "Mawtini," a popular folk song throughout the Arab world, which also serves as an unofficial anthem of the Palestinian people
 
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Economy

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An improved security environment and an initial wave of foreign investment are helping to spur economic activity, particularly in the energy, construction, and retail sectors. Broader economic improvement, long-term fiscal health, and sustained increases in the standard of living still depend on the government passing major policy reforms and on continued development of Iraq's massive oil reserves. Although foreign investors viewed Iraq with increasing interest in 2010, most are still hampered by difficulties in acquiring land for projects and by other regulatory impediments. Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which provides over 90% of government revenue and 80% of foreign exchange earnings. Since mid-2009, oil export earnings have returned to levels seen before Operation Iraqi Freedom and government revenues have rebounded, along with global oil prices. In 2011 Baghdad probably will increase oil exports above the current level of 1.9 million barrels per day (bbl/day) as a result of new contracts with international oil companies, but is likely to fall short of the 2.4 million bbl/day it is forecasting in its budget. Iraq is making modest progress in building the institutions needed to implement economic policy. In 2010, Bagdad signed a new agreement with both the IMF and World Bank for conditional aid programs that will help strengthen Iraq's economic institutions. Some reform-minded leaders within the Iraqi government are seeking to pass laws to strengthen the economy. This legislation includes a package of laws to establish a modern legal framework for the oil sector and a mechanism to equitably divide oil revenues within the nation, although these and other important reforms are still under contentious and sporadic negotiation. Iraq's recent contracts with major oil companies have the potential to greatly expand oil revenues, but Iraq will need to upgrade its oil processing, pipeline, and export infrastructure to enable these deals to reach their potential. The Government of Iraq is pursuing a strategy to gain additional foreign investment in Iraq's economy. This includes an amendment to the National Investment Law, multiple international trade and investment events, as well as potential participation in joint ventures with state-owned enterprises. Provincial Councils also are using their own budgets to promote and facilitate investment at the local level. However, widespread corruption, inadequate infrastructure, insufficient essential services, and antiquated commercial laws and regulations stifle investment and continue to constrain the growth of private, non-energy sectors. The Central Bank has successfully held the exchange rate at approximately 1,170 Iraqi dinar/US dollar since January 2009. Inflation has decreased consistently since 2006 as the security situation has improved. However, Iraqi leaders remain hard pressed to translate macroeconomic gains into improved lives for ordinary Iraqis. Unemployment remains a problem throughout the country. Reducing corruption and implementing reforms - such as bank restructuring and developing the private sector - would be important steps in this direction.
 
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$113.4 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
$112.4 billion (2009 est.)
$107.9 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$82.15 billion (2010 est.)
 
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0.8% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
4.2% (2009 est.)
9.5% (2008 est.)
 
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$3,800 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
$3,900 (2009 est.)
$3,800 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 9.7%
industry: 60.5%
services: 29.8% (2010 est.)
 
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8.5 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
 
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agriculture: 21.6%
industry: 18.7%
services: 59.8% (2008 est.)
 
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15.3% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
15.2% (2008 est.)
 
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25% (2008 est.)
 
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lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
 
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revenues: $59.42 billion
expenditures: $55 billion (2010 est.)
 
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72.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
 
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5.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
 
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2.4% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
-2.8% (2009 est.)
 
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6.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
8.83% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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6% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
7% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$44.12 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
$31.88 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$51.61 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
$38.84 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$21.94 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
$10.16 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
 
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$2.6 billion (31 July 2010)
country comparison to the world: 95
$2 billion (31 July 2009)
$1.878 billion (31 March 2008)
 
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wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, cotton; cattle, sheep, poultry
 
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petroleum, chemicals, textiles, leather, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing
 
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4.8% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
 
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46.39 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
 
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52 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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5.6 billion kWh (2009 est.)
 
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2.408 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
 
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694,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
 
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1.91 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
 
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231,200 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
 
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115 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
 
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1.149 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
 
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1.149 billion cu m
country comparison to the world: 88
note: 1.48 billion cu m were flared (2009 est.)
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 209
 
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3.17 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
 
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$3.105 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
-$2.178 billion (2009 est.)
 
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$51.76 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
$39.43 billion (2009 est.)
 
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crude oil 84%, crude materials excluding fuels, food and live animals
 
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US 24.3%, India 16.7%, China 12.1%, South Korea 8.2%, Italy 6.9%, Japan 6.6% (2010)
 
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$43.92 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
$38.44 billion (2009 est.)
 
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food, medicine, manufactures
 
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Turkey 24.2%, Syria 18.6%, China 14.4%, US 6.6% (2010)
 
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$48.61 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
$43.25 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$52.58 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
$73 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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Iraqi dinars (IQD) per US dollar -
1,170 (2010)
1,170 (2009)
1,176 (2008)
1,255 (2007)
1,466 (2006)
 
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Communications

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1.6 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 63
 
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24 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 39
 
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general assessment: the 2003 liberation of Iraq severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Iraq including international connections; widespread government efforts to rebuild domestic and international communications through fiber optic links are in progress; the mobile cellular market has expanded rapidly and its subscribership base is expected to continue increasing rapidly
domestic: repairs to switches and lines destroyed during 2003 continue; additional switching capacity is improving access; mobile-cellular service is available and centered on 3 GSM networks which are being expanded beyond their regional roots, improving country-wide connectivity; wireless local loop is available in some metropolitan areas and additional licenses have been issued with the hope of overcoming the lack of fixed-line infrastructure
international: country code - 964; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region, and 1 Arabsat (inoperative)); local microwave radio relay connects border regions to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; international terrestrial fiber-optic connections have been established with Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Kuwait with planned connections to Iran and Jordan; a link to the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine fiber-optic cable is planned (2009)
 
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the number of private radio and television stations has increased rapidly since 2003; government-owned TV and radio stations are operated by the publicly-funded Iraqi Public Broadcasting Service; private broadcast media are mostly linked to political, ethnic, or religious groups; satellite TV is available to an estimated 70% of viewers and many of the broadcasters are based abroad; transmissions of multiple international radio broadcasters are accessible (2007)
 
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.iq
 
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9 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 224
 
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325,900 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 126
 
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Transportation

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104 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 56
 
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total: 75
over 3,047 m: 20
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 8 (2010)
 
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total: 29
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 6 (2010)
 
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21 (2010)
 
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gas 2,447 km; liquid petroleum gas 918 km; oil 5,104 km; refined products 1,637 km (2010)
 
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total: 2,272 km
country comparison to the world: 66
standard gauge: 2,272 km 1.435-m gauge (2008)
 
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total: 44,900 km
country comparison to the world: 82
paved: 37,851 km
unpaved: 7,049 km (2002)
 
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5,279 km (the Euphrates River (2,815 km), Tigris River (1,899 km), and Third River (565 km) are the principal waterways) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 23
 
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total: 2
country comparison to the world: 148
by type: petroleum tanker 2
registered in other countries: 2 (Marshall Islands 2) (2010)
 
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Al Basrah, Khawr az Zubayr, Umm Qasr
 
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Military

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Counterterrorism Service Forces: Counterterrorism Command; Iraqi Special Operations Forces (ISOF); Ministry of Defense Forces: Iraqi Army (includes Army Aviation Directorate, former National Guard Iraqi Intervention Forces, and Strategic Infrastructure Battalions), Iraqi Navy (former Iraqi Coastal Defense Force, includes Iraq Marine Force), Iraqi Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Iraqiya) (2011)
 
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18-40 years of age for voluntary military service (2010)
 
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males age 16-49: 7,767,329
females age 16-49: 7,461,766 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 6,591,185
females age 16-49: 6,421,717 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 332,194
female: 322,010 (2010 est.)
 
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8.6% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 5
 
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Transnational Issues

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coalition forces assist Iraqis in monitoring internal and cross-border security; approximately two million Iraqis have fled the conflict in Iraq, with the majority taking refuge in Syria and Jordan, and lesser numbers to Egypt, Lebanon, Iran, and Turkey; Iraq's lack of a maritime boundary with Iran prompts jurisdiction disputes beyond the mouth of the Shatt al Arab in the Persian Gulf; Turkey has expressed concern over the autonomous status of Kurds in Iraq
 
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refugees (country of origin): 10,000-15,000 (Palestinian Territories); 11,773 (Iran); 16,832 (Turkey)
IDPs: 2.4 million (ongoing US-led war and ethno-sectarian violence) (2007)
 
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current situation: Iraq is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor; Iraqi women and girls are subjected to conditions of trafficking within the country and in Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, Iran, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia for forced prostitution and sexual exploitation within households; women from Iran, China, and the Philippines reportedly may be trafficked to or through Iraq for commercial sexual exploitation; Iraq is also a destination country for men and women who migrate from Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Pakistan, Georgia, Jordan, and Uganda and are subsequently subjected to involuntary servitude as construction workers, security guards, cleaners, handymen, and domestic workers
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - the government did not demonstrate evidence of significant efforts to punish traffickers or proactively identify victims; it also did not enact its draft anti-trafficking legislation and has reported no other efforts to prosecute or punish traffickers (2011)
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