Guinea-Bissau

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 10, 2011
Flag of Guinea-Bissau
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Location of Guinea-Bissau
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Map of Guinea-Bissau
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OF GUINEA-BISSAU
 

Introduction

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Since independence from Portugal in 1974, Guinea-Bissau has experienced considerable political and military upheaval. In 1980, a military coup established authoritarian dictator Joao Bernardo 'Nino' VIEIRA as president. Despite setting a path to a market economy and multiparty system, VIEIRA's regime was characterized by the suppression of political opposition and the purging of political rivals. Several coup attempts through the 1980s and early 1990s failed to unseat him. In 1994 VIEIRA was elected president in the country's first free elections. A military mutiny and resulting civil war in 1998 eventually led to VIEIRA's ouster in May 1999. In February 2000, a transitional government turned over power to opposition leader Kumba YALA after he was elected president in transparent polling. In September 2003, after only three years in office, YALA was ousted by the military in a bloodless coup, and businessman Henrique ROSA was sworn in as interim president. In 2005, former President VIEIRA was re-elected president pledging to pursue economic development and national reconciliation; he was assassinated in March 2009. Malam Bacai SANHA was elected in an emergency election held in June 2009.
 
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Geography

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Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Senegal
 
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12 00 N, 15 00 W
 
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total: 36,125 sq km
country comparison to the world: 138
land: 28,120 sq km
water: 8,005 sq km
 
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slightly less than three times the size of Connecticut
 
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total: 724 km
border countries: Guinea 386 km, Senegal 338 km
 
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350 km
 
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territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 
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tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
 
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mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east
 
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lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in the eastern part of the country 300 m
 
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fish, timber, phosphates, bauxite, clay, granite, limestone, unexploited deposits of petroleum
 
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arable land: 8.31%
permanent crops: 6.92%
other: 84.77% (2005)
 
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250 sq km (2008)
 
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31 cu km (2003)
 
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total: 0.18 cu km/yr (13%/5%/82%)
per capita: 113 cu m/yr (2000)
 
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hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season; brush fires
 
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deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; overfishing
 
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
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this small country is swampy along its western coast and low-lying inland
 
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People and Society

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noun: Guinean(s)
adjective: Guinean
 
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African 99% (includes Balanta 30%, Fula 20%, Manjaca 14%, Mandinga 13%, Papel 7%), European and mulatto less than 1%
 
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Portuguese (official), Crioulo, African languages
 
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Muslim 50%, indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 10%
 
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1,596,677 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
 
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0-14 years: 40.4% (male 321,889/female 323,202)
15-64 years: 56.4% (male 435,986/female 465,117)
65 years and over: 3.2% (male 19,975/female 30,508) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 19.5 years
male: 18.9 years
female: 20 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.988% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
 
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35.15 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
 
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15.27 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
 
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0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
 
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urban population: 30% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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BISSAU (capital) 302,000 (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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1,000 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 4
 
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total: 96.23 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 8
male: 106.11 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 86.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 48.7 years
country comparison to the world: 217
male: 46.8 years
female: 50.67 years (2011 est.)
 
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4.51 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
 
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8.1% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 54
 
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0.045 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
country comparison to the world: 179
 
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0.96 beds/1,000 population (2009)
country comparison to the world: 149
 
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improved:
urban: 83% of population
rural: 51% of population
total: 61% of population
unimproved:
urban: 17% of population
rural: 49% of population
total: 39% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 49% of population
rural: 9% of population
total: 21% of population
unimproved:
urban: 51% of population
rural: 91% of population
total: 79% of population (2008)
 
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2.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
 
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22,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
 
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1,200 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
 
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degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
 
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17.2% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 44
 
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NA
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42.4%
male: 58.1%
female: 27.4% (2003 est.)
 
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total: 9 years (2006)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Republic of Guinea-Bissau
conventional short form: Guinea-Bissau
local long form: Republica da Guine-Bissau
local short form: Guine-Bissau
former: Portuguese Guinea
 
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republic
 
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name: Bissau
geographic coordinates: 11 51 N, 15 35 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
 
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9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali; note - Bolama may have been renamed Bolama/Bijagos
 
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24 September 1973 (declared); 10 September 1974 (from Portugal)
 
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Independence Day, 24 September (1973)
 
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16 May 1984; amended several times
 
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mixed legal system of civil law (influenced by the early French Civil Code) and customary law
 
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accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; non-party state to the ICCt
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: President Malam Bacai SANHA (since 8 September 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Carlos GOMES Junior (since 25 December 2008)
cabinet: NA
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 28 June 2009 with a runoff between the two leading candidates held on 26 July 2009 (next to be held by 2014); prime minister appointed by the president after consultation with party leaders in the legislature
election results: Malam Bacai SANHA elected president; percent of vote, second ballot - Malam Bacai SANHA 63.5%, Kumba YALA 36.5%
 
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unicameral National People's Assembly or Assembleia Nacional Popular (100 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 16 November 2008 (next to be held in 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - PAIGC 49.8%, PRS 25.3%, PRID 7.5%, PND 2.4%, AD 1.4%, other parties 13.6%; seats by party - PAIGC 67, PRS 28, PRID 3, PND 1, AD 1
 
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Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal da Justica (consists of nine justices appointed by the president and serve at his pleasure; final court of appeals in criminal and civil cases); Regional Courts (one in each of nine regions; first court of appeals for Sectoral Court decisions; hear all felony cases and civil cases valued at more than $1,000); 24 Sectoral Courts (judges are not necessarily trained lawyers; they hear civil cases valued at less than $1,000 and misdemeanor criminal cases)
 
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African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde or PAIGC [Carlos GOMES Junior]; Democratic Alliance or AD [Victor MANDINGA]; Democratic Social Front or FDS [Rafael BARBOSA]; Electoral Union or UE [Joaquim BALDE]; Guinea-Bissau Civic Forum/Social Democracy or FCGSD [Antonieta Rosa GOMES]; Guinea-Bissau Democratic Party or PDG; Guinea-Bissau Socialist Democratic Party or PDSG [Serifo BALDE]; Labor and Solidarity Party or PST [Lancuba INDJAI]; New Democracy Party or PND; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Victor MANDINGA]; Party for Renewal and Progress or PRP; Party for Social Renewal or PRS [Kumba YALA]; Progress Party or PP; Republican Party for Independence and Development or PRID [Aristides GOMES]; Union of Guinean Patriots or UPG [Francisca VAZ]; Union for Change or UM [Amine SAAD]; United Platform or UP (coalition formed by PCD, FDS, FLING, and RGB-MB); United Popular Alliance or APU; United Social Democratic Party or PUSD [Francisco FADUL]
 
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NA
 
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ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, CPLP, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
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chief of mission: none; note - Guinea-Bissau does not have official representation in Washington, DC
 
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the US Embassy suspended operations on 14 June 1998 in the midst of violent conflict between forces loyal to then President VIEIRA and military-led junta; the US Ambassador to Senegal is accredited to Guinea-Bissau
 
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two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the red band; yellow symbolizes the sun; green denotes hope; red represents blood shed during the struggle for independence; the black star stands for African unity
note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the flag design was heavily influenced by the Ghanaian flag
 
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name: "Esta e a Nossa Patria Bem Amada" (This Is Our Beloved Country)
lyrics/music: Amilcar Lopes CABRAL/XIAO He
note: adopted 1974; a delegation from Portuguese Guinea visited China in 1963 and heard music by XIAO He; Amilcar Lopes CABRA, the leader of Guinea-Bissau's independence movement, asked the composer to create a piece that would inspire his people to struggle for independence
 
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Economy

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One of the poorest countries in the world, Guinea-Bissau's legal economy depends mainly on farming and fishing, but trafficking narcotics is probably the most lucrative trade. Cashew crops have increased remarkably in recent years. Guinea-Bissau exports fish and seafood along with small amounts of peanuts, palm kernels, and timber. Rice is the major crop and staple food. However, intermittent fighting between Senegalese-backed government troops and a military junta destroyed much of the country's infrastructure and caused widespread damage to the economy in 1998; the civil war led to a 28% drop in GDP that year, with partial recovery in 1999-2002. In December 2003, the World Bank, IMF, and UNDP were forced to step in to provide emergency budgetary support in the amount of $107 million for 2004, representing over 80% of the total national budget. The combination of limited economic prospects, a weak and faction-ridden government, and favorable geography have made this West African country a way station for drugs bound for Europe.
 
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$1.784 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
$1.724 billion (2009 est.)
$1.674 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$837 million (2010 est.)
 
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3.5% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
3% (2009 est.)
3.2% (2008 est.)
 
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$1,100 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
$1,100 (2009 est.)
$1,100 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 55.2%
industry: 12.8%
services: 32% (2010 est.)
 
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632,700 (2007)
country comparison to the world: 153
 
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agriculture: 82%
industry and services: 18% (2000 est.)
 
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NA%
 
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NA%
 
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lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 28% (2002)
 
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12.7% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
 
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revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA
 
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19.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
 
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-2.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
 
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2.5% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
-1.7% (2009 est.)
 
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4.25% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 76
4.75% (31 December 2008)
 
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15% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56
15% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$238.5 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
$192.1 million (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$258.1 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
$209.3 million (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$95.33 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184
$42.56 million (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$NA
 
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rice, corn, beans, cassava (tapioca), cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, cotton; timber; fish
 
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agricultural products processing, beer, soft drinks
 
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4.7% (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
 
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70 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
 
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65.1 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 200
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
 
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3,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
 
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0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179
 
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2,565 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
 
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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
 
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0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
 
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-$82.6 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
-$120.1 million (2009 est.)
 
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$126 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
$117.5 million (2009 est.)
 
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fish, shrimp; cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, sawn lumber
 
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India 76.9%, Nigeria 16.6% (2010)
 
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$206.1 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 203
$202.3 million (2009 est.)
 
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foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products
 
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Senegal 21.8%, Portugal 20.5%, Brazil 5.6%, Cuba 4.1% (2010)
 
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$NA (31 December 2010 est.)
$168.6 million (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$941.5 million (2000 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
 
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Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
495.28 (2010)
472.19 (2009)
493.51 (2007)
522.59 (2006)
 
 
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Communications

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5,000 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 214
 
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594,100 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 160
 
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general assessment: small system including a combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and mobile-cellular communications
domestic: fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity reached 35 per 100 in 2009
international: country code - 245 (2008)
 
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1 state-owned TV station and a second station, RTP Africa, is operated by Portuguese public broadcaster Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP); 1 state-owned radio station, several private radio stations, and some community radio stations; multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
 
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.gw
 
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82 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 206
 
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37,100 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 177
 
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Transportation

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9 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 159
 
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total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2010)
 
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total: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2010)
 
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total: 3,455 km
country comparison to the world: 161
paved: 965 km
unpaved: 2,490 km (2002)
 
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(rivers are navigable for some distance; many inlets and creeks give shallow-water access to much of interior) (2009)
 
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Bissau, Buba, Cacheu, Farim
 
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Military

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People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP): Army, Navy, National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional); Presidential Guard (2011)
 
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18-25 years of age for selective compulsory military service (Air Force service is voluntary); 16 years of age or younger with parental consent, for voluntary service (2010)
 
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males age 16-49: 370,790
females age 16-49: 372,171 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 205,460
females age 16-49: 212,277 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 17,639
female: 17,865 (2010 est.)
 
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3.1% of GDP (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
 
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Transnational Issues

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in 2006, political instability within Senegal's Casamance region resulted in thousands of Senegalese refugees, cross-border raids, and arms smuggling into Guinea-Bissau
 
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refugees (country of origin): 7,454 (Senegal) (2007)
 
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current situation: Guinea-Bissau is a country of origin for children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the scope of the problem of trafficking women or men for forced labor or forced prostitution is unknown; boys reportedly were transported to southern Senegal for forced manual and agricultural labor; girls may be subjected to forced domestic service and child prostitution in Senegal
tier rating: Tier 3 - Guinea-Bissau is not making significant efforts to comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the government acknowledged that human trafficking is a problem in the country and took steps to enact legislation outlawing all forms of trafficking; Guinea-Bissau did not increase efforts to prosecute and punish trafficking offenders; the government did not take steps to proactively identify victims and lacked resources to provide victim services directly, but provided some resources to NGOs that care for victims (2011)
 
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increasingly important transit country for South American cocaine enroute to Europe; enabling environment for trafficker operations thanks to pervasive corruption; archipelago-like geography around the capital facilitates drug smuggling
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