Gibraltar

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 10, 2011
Flag of Gibraltar
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Gibraltar
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Map of Gibraltar
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Photos of Gibraltar
 
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OF GIBRALTAR
 

Introduction

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Strategically important, Gibraltar was reluctantly ceded to Great Britain by Spain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; the British garrison was formally declared a colony in 1830. In a referendum held in 1967, Gibraltarians voted overwhelmingly to remain a British dependency. The subsequent granting of autonomy in 1969 by the UK led to Spain closing the border and severing all communication links. A series of talks were held by the UK and Spain between 1997 and 2002 on establishing temporary joint sovereignty over Gibraltar. In response to these talks, the Gibraltar Government called a referendum in late 2002 in which the majority of citizens voted overwhelmingly against any sharing of sovereignty with Spain. Since late 2004, tripartite talks among Spain, the UK, and Gibraltar have been held with the aim of cooperatively resolving problems that affect the local population, and work continues on cooperation agreements in areas such as taxation and financial services; communications and maritime security; policy, legal and customs services; environmental protection; and education and visa services. Throughout 2009, a dispute over Gibraltar's claim to territorial waters extending out three miles gave rise to periodic non-violent maritime confrontations between Spanish and UK naval patrols. A new noncolonial constitution came into effect in 2007, and the European Court of First Instance recognized Gibraltar's right to regulate its own tax regime in December 2008, but the UK retains responsibility for defense, foreign relations, internal security, and financial stability.
 
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Geography

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Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain
 
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36 08 N, 5 21 W
 
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total: 6.5 sq km
country comparison to the world: 243
land: 6.5 sq km
water: 0 sq km
 
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more than 10 times the size of The National Mall in Washington, D.C.
 
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total: 1.2 km
border countries: Spain 1.2 km
 
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12 km
 
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territorial sea: 3 nm
 
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Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
 
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a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar
 
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lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m
 
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none
 
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arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2005)
 
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NA
 
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NA
 
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limited natural freshwater resources: large concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rainwater (no longer used for drinking water) and adequate desalination plant
 
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strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
 
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People and Society

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noun: Gibraltarian(s)
adjective: Gibraltar
 
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Spanish, Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, German, North Africans
 
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English (used in schools and for official purposes), Spanish, Italian, Portuguese
 
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Roman Catholic 78.1%, Church of England 7%, other Christian 3.2%, Muslim 4%, Jewish 2.1%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 0.9%, none 2.9% (2001 census)
 
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28,956 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 217
 
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0-14 years: 20.4% (male 3,040/female 2,862)
15-64 years: 65.8% (male 9,607/female 9,451)
65 years and over: 13.8% (male 1,934/female 2,062) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 33.3 years
male: 32.4 years
female: 34.3 years (2011 est.)
 
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0.273% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
 
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14.23 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
 
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8.18 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
 
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-3.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
 
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urban population: 100% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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total: 6.69 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 167
male: 7.44 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.87 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 78.68 years
country comparison to the world: 47
male: 75.84 years
female: 81.72 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.96 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 132
 
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NA
 
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NA
 
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NA
 
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NA
 
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definition: NA
total population: above 80%
male: NA
female: NA
 
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NA
 
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Government

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conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Gibraltar
 
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overseas territory of the UK
 
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NA
 
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name: Gibraltar
geographic coordinates: 36 08 N, 5 21 W
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
 
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none (overseas territory of the UK)
 
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none (overseas territory of the UK)
 
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National Day, 10 September (1967); note - day of the national referendum to decide whether to remain with the UK or join Spain
 
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5 June 2006; came into force 2 January 2007
 
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the laws of the UK, where applicable, apply
 
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18 years of age; universal; and British citizens who have been residents six months or more
 
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chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Vice Admiral Sir Adrian JOHNS (since 26 October 2009)
head of government: Chief Minister Peter CARUANA (since 17 May 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed from among the 17 elected members of the Parliament by the governor in consultation with the chief minister
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed chief minister by the governor
 
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unicameral Parliament (18 seats: 17 members elected by popular vote, 1 for the speaker appointed by Parliament; members serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 11 October 2007 (next to be held not later than 8 December 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - GSD 49.3%, GSLP 31.8%, Gibraltar Liberal Party 13.6%; seats by party - GSD 10, GSLP 4, Gibraltar Liberal Party 3
 
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Supreme Court; Court of Appeal
 
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Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA]; Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Peter CARUANA]; Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Joseph John BOSSANO]
 
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Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization; Women's Association
 
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Interpol (subbureau), UPU
 
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none (overseas territory of the UK)
 
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none (overseas territory of the UK)
 
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two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band; the design is that of Gibraltar's coat of arms granted on 10 July 1502 by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain; the castle symbolizes Gibraltar as a fortress, while the key represents Gibraltar's strategic importance - the key to the Mediterranean
 
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Barbary macaque
 
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name: "Gibraltar Anthem"
lyrics/music: Peter EMBERLEY
note: adopted 1994; serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" remains official (see United Kingdom)
 
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Economy

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Self-sufficient Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping trade, offshore banking, and its position as an international conference center. Tax rates are low to attract foreign investment. The British military presence has been sharply reduced and now contributes about 7% to the local economy, compared with 60% in 1984. The financial sector, tourism (almost 5 million visitors in 1998), gaming revenues, shipping services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue. The financial sector, tourism, and the shipping sector contribute 30%, 30%, and 25%, respectively, of GDP. Telecommunications, e-commerce, and e-gaming account for the remaining 15%. In recent years, Gibraltar has seen major structural change from a public to a private sector economy, but changes in government spending still have a major impact on the level of employment.
 
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$1.275 billion (2008)
country comparison to the world: 196
$1.203 billion (2007 est.)
$1.106 billion (2006 est.)
 
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$1.106 billion (2006 est.)
 
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6% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 53
8.8% (2007)
0% (2006 est.)
 
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$43,000 (2006 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$41,200 (2007 est.)
$38,400 (2006 est.)
 
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agriculture: 0%
industry: 0%
services: 100% (2008 est.)
 
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12,690 (including non-Gibraltar laborers) (2001)
country comparison to the world: 214
 
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agriculture: negligible
industry: 40%
services: 60% (2001)
 
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3% (2005 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
 
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NA%
 
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lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
 
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revenues: $475.8 million
expenditures: $452.3 million (2008 est.)
 
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43% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
 
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2.1% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
 
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7.5% of GDP (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
13.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
 
 
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2.8% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 95
2.6% (2006)
 
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none
 
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tourism, banking and finance, ship repairing, tobacco
 
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NA%
 
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156 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
 
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156 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
 
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25,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
 
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0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
 
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26,400 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
 
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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
 
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0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
 
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$271 million (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
 
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(principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods
 
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$2.967 billion (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 140
 
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fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
 
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$NA
 
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Gibraltar pounds (GIP) per US dollar -
0.6388 (2010)
0.6175 (2009)
0.4993 (2007)
0.5418 (2006)
 
 
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Communications

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24,000 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 186
 
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30,000 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 202
 
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general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities
domestic: automatic exchange facilities
international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
 
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Gibraltar Broadcasting Corporation (GBC) provides television and radio broadcasting services via 1 television station and 4 radio stations; British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) operates 1 radio station; broadcasts from Spanish radio and TV stations are accessible (2008)
 
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.gi
 
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2,053 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 154
 
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20,200 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 193
 
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Transportation

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1 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 226
 
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total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2010)
 
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total: 29 km
country comparison to the world: 219
paved: 29 km (2007)
 
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total: 265
country comparison to the world: 32
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 139, chemical tanker 65, container 35, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 8
foreign-owned: 250 (Belgium 2, Cyprus 1, Denmark 6, Finland 2, Germany 125, Greece 7, Iceland 1, Italy 4, Jersey 1, Morocco 4, Netherlands 33, Norway 42, Singapore 1, Sweden 12, UAE 5, UK 4)
note: this country allows large numbers of ships owned by foreign entities to be registered in its national shipping registry and to fly its flag; these ships operate under the laws of the flag state
registered in other countries: 6 (Liberia 5, Panama 1) (2010)
 
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Gibraltar
 
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Military

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Royal Gibraltar Regiment (2009)
 
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males age 16-49: 7,037 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 6,017
females age 16-49: 5,706 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 228
female: 220 (2010 est.)
 
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defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Gibraltar Regiment replaced the last British regular infantry forces in 1992
 
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Transnational Issues

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in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any "shared sovereignty" arrangement; the government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar even greater autonomy
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