Fiji

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 14, 2011
Flag of Fiji
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Fiji
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Map of Fiji
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Photos of Fiji
 
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OF FIJI
 

Introduction

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Fiji became independent in 1970 after nearly a century as a British colony. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987 caused by concern over a government perceived as dominated by the Indian community (descendants of contract laborers brought to the islands by the British in the 19th century). The coups and a 1990 constitution that cemented native Melanesian control of Fiji led to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic difficulties, but ensured that Melanesians became the majority. A new constitution enacted in 1997 was more equitable. Free and peaceful elections in 1999 resulted in a government led by an Indo-Fijian, but a civilian-led coup in May 2000 ushered in a prolonged period of political turmoil. Parliamentary elections held in August 2001 provided Fiji with a democratically elected government led by Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE. Re-elected in May 2006, QARASE was ousted in a December 2006 military coup led by Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA, who initially appointed himself acting president but in January 2007 became interim prime minister. Since taking power BAINIMARAMA has neutralized his opponents, crippled Fiji's democratic institutions, and refused to hold elections.
 
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Geography

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Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
 
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18 00 S, 175 00 E
 
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total: 18,274 sq km
country comparison to the world: 157
land: 18,274 sq km
water: 0 sq km
 
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slightly smaller than New Jersey
 
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0 km
 
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1,129 km
 
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measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added
 
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tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
 
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mostly mountains of volcanic origin
 
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lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m
 
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timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower
 
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arable land: 10.95%
permanent crops: 4.65%
other: 84.4% (2005)
 
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30 sq km (2008)
 
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28.6 cu km (1987)
 
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total: 0.07 cu km/yr (14%/14%/71%)
per capita: 82 cu m/yr (2000)
 
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cyclonic storms can occur from November to January
 
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deforestation; soil erosion
 
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
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includes 332 islands; approximately 110 are inhabited
 
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People and Society

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noun: Fijian(s)
adjective: Fijian
 
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Fijian 57.3% (predominantly Melanesian with a Polynesian admixture), Indian 37.6%, Rotuman 1.2%, other 3.9% (European, other Pacific Islanders, Chinese) (2007 census)
 
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English (official), Fijian (official), Hindustani
 
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Protestant 55.4% (Methodist 34.6%, Assembly of God 5.7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3.9%, Anglican 0.8%, other 10.4%), Hindu 27.9%, Roman Catholic 9.1%, Muslim 6.3%, Sikh 0.3%, other or unspecified 0.3%, none 0.7% (2007 census)
 
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883,125 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
 
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0-14 years: 28.9% (male 130,409/female 124,870)
15-64 years: 65.9% (male 297,071/female 284,643)
65 years and over: 5.2% (male 21,187/female 24,945) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 26.9 years
male: 26.7 years
female: 27.1 years (2011 est.)
 
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0.798% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135
 
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21.11 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
 
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5.9 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
 
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-7.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 205
 
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urban population: 52% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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SUVA (capital) 174,000 (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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26 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 119
 
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total: 11 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 144
male: 12.12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 71.31 years
country comparison to the world: 139
male: 68.73 years
female: 74.03 years (2011 est.)
 
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2.61 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80
 
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9.7% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 32
 
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0.4529 physicians/1,000 population (2003)
country comparison to the world: 129
 
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2.08 beds/1,000 population (2008)
country comparison to the world: 100
 
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0.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
 
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fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
 
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fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
 
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23.9% (2004)
country comparison to the world: 12
 
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6.2% of GDP (2004)
country comparison to the world: 26
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.7%
male: 95.5%
female: 91.9% (2003 est.)
 
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total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2005)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Republic of Fiji
conventional short form: Fiji
local long form: Republic of Fiji/Matanitu ko Viti
local short form: Fiji/Viti
 
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republic
 
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name: Suva (on Viti Levu)
geographic coordinates: 18 08 S, 178 25 E
time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins fourth Sunday in October; ends first Sunday in March
 
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4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central, Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western
 
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10 October 1970 (from the UK)
 
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Independence Day, second Monday of October (1970)
 
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enacted 25 July 1997; effective 28 July 1998; note - constitution encourages multiculturalism and makes multiparty government mandatory
 
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common law system based on the English model
 
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has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
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21 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: President Ratu Epeli NAILATIKAU (since 30 July 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Laisenia QARASE (since 10 September 2000); note - although QARASE is still the legal prime minister, he has been confined to his home island; former President ILOILOVATU appointed Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA interim prime minister under the military regime
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister from among the members of Parliament and responsible to Parliament; note - coup leader Commodore Voreqe BAINIMARAMA has appointed an interim cabinet
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: under the constitution, president elected by the Great Council of Chiefs for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); in 2007 the Great Council of Chiefs was suspended from its role in electing the president; prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ratu Epeli NAILATIKAU was appointed by Chief Justice Anthony GATES
 
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bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (32 seats; 14 members appointed by the president on the advice of the Great Council of Chiefs, 9 appointed by the president on the advice of the Prime Minister, 8 on the advice of the opposition leader, and 1 appointed on the advice of the council of Rotuma) and the House of Representatives (71 seats; 23 members reserved for ethnic Fijians, 19 reserved for ethnic Indians, 3 reserved for other ethnic groups, 1 reserved for the council of Rotuma constituency encompassing the whole of Fiji, and 25 open seats; members serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 6-13 May 2006 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - SDL 44.6%, FLP 39.2%, UPP 0.8%, independents 4.9%, other 10.5%; seats by party - SDL 36, FLP 31, UPP 2, independents 2
 
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Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president); Court of Appeal; High Court; Magistrates' Courts
 
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Dodonu Ni Taukei Party or DNT [Fereti S. DEWA]; Fiji Democratic Party or FDP [Filipe BOLE] (a merger of the Christian Democrat Alliance or VLV [Poesci Waqalevu BUNE], Fijian Association Party or FAP, Fijian Political Party or SVT [Sitiveni RABUKA] (primarily Fijian), and New Labor Unity Party or NLUP [Ofa SWANN]); Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY]; General Voters Party or GVP (became part of United General Party); Girmit Heritage Party or GHP; Justice and Freedom Party or AIM; Lio 'On Famor Rotuma Party or LFR; National Federation Party or NFP [Pramond RAE] (primarily Indian); Nationalist Vanua Takolavo Party or NVTLP [Saula TELAWA]; Party of National Unity or PANU [Ponipate LESAVUA]; Party of the Truth or POTT; United Fiji Party/Sogosogo Duavata ni Lewenivanua or SDL [Laisenia QARASE]; United Peoples Party or UPP [Millis Mick BEDDOES]
 
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Group Against Racial Discrimination or GARD [Dr. Anirudk SINGH] (for restoration of a democratic government); Viti Landowners Association
 
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ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C (suspended), CP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, PIF, Sparteca (suspended), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Winston THOMPSON
chancery: 2000 M Street, NW, Suite 710, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 466-8320
FAX: [1] (202) 466-8325
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador C. Steven MCGANN
embassy: 31 Loftus Street, Suva
mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva
telephone: [679] 331-4466
FAX: [679] 330-0081
 
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light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the blue symbolizes the Pacific ocean and the Union Jack reflects the links with Great Britain; the shield - taken from Fiji's coat of arms - depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George; the four quarters depict stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove
 
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name: "God Bless Fiji"
lyrics/music: Michael Francis Alexander PRESCOTT/C. Austin MILES (adapted by Michael Francis Alexander PRESCOTT)
note: adopted 1970; the anthem is known in Fijian as "Meda Dau Doka" (Let Us Show Pride); adapted from the hymn, "Dwelling in Beulah Land," the anthem's English lyrics are generally sung, although they differ in meaning from the official Fijian lyrics
 
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Economy

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Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economies though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar exports, remittances from Fijians working abroad, and a growing tourist industry - with 400,000 to 500,000 tourists annually - are the major sources of foreign exchange. Fiji's sugar has special access to European Union markets but will be harmed by the EU's decision to cut sugar subsidies. Sugar processing makes up one-third of industrial activity but is not efficient. Fiji's tourism industry was damaged by the December 2006 coup and is facing an uncertain recovery time. In 2007 tourist arrivals were down almost 6%, with substantial job losses in the service sector, and GDP dipped. The coup has created a difficult business climate. The EU has suspended all aid until the interim government takes steps toward new elections. Long-term problems include low investment, uncertain land ownership rights, and the government's inability to manage its budget. Overseas remittances from Fijians working in Kuwait and Iraq have decreased significantly. Fiji's current account deficit reached 23% of GDP in 2006.
 
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$3.869 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
$3.864 billion (2009 est.)
$3.983 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$3.131 billion (2010 est.)
 
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0.1% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
-3% (2009 est.)
-0.1% (2008 est.)
 
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$4,400 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
$4,400 (2009 est.)
$4,600 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 16.1%
industry: 24.4%
services: 59.5% (2010 est.)
 
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335,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
 
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agriculture: 70%
industry and services: 30% (2001 est.)
 
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7.6% (1999)
country comparison to the world: 82
 
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25.5% (FY90/91)
 
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lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
 
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21.8% of GDP (2020 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
 
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revenues: $781.7 million
expenditures: $885.9 million (2010 est.)
 
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25% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 126
 
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-3.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
 
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5.5% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
3.7% (2009 est.)
 
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1.75% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
3% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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7.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
7.9% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$788.9 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
$663.2 million (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.911 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
$1.741 billion
 
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$1.778 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133
$1.737 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.404 billion (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 98
$1.607 billion (31 December 2009)
$568.2 million (31 December 2008)
 
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sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), rice, sweet potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish
 
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tourism, sugar, clothing, copra, gold, silver, lumber, small cottage industries
 
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NA%
 
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970 million kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
 
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865.8 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
 
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15,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
 
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1,857 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
 
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18,850 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
 
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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 177
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
 
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0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
 
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-$507 million (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
-$237.8 million (2009 est.)
 
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$625.3 million (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
$625.3 million (2006)
 
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sugar, garments, gold, timber, fish, molasses, coconut oil
 
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US 15.7%, Australia 14.6%, Japan 6.1%, Samoa 5.7%, Tonga 5% (2010)
 
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$1.3 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
$1.3 billion (2006)
 
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manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products, food, chemicals
 
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Singapore 31.1%, Australia 19.1%, NZ 15.1%, China 8.6% (2010)
 
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$567.3 million (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$127 million (2004 est.)
country comparison to the world: 183
 
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$NA
 
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$NA
 
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Fijian dollars (FJD) per US dollar -
NA (2007)
1.7313 (2006)
1.691 (2005)
1.7331 (2004)
1.8958 (2003)
 
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Communications

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137,000 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 140
 
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1 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 153
 
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general assessment: modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications center
domestic: telephone or radio telephone links to almost all inhabited islands; most towns and large villages have automatic telephone exchanges and direct dialing; combined fixed and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 80 per 100 persons
international: country code - 679; access to important cable links between US and Canada as well as between NZ and Australia; satellite earth stations - 2 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean) (2009)
 
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Fiji TV, a publicly-traded company, operates a free-to-air channel as well as the Sky Fiji and Sky Pacific multi-channel pay-TV services; state-owned commercial company, Fiji Broadcasting Corporation, Ltd, operates 6 radio stations - 2 public broadcasters and 4 commercial broadcasters with multiple repeaters; 5 radio stations with repeaters operated by Communications Fiji, Ltd; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2009)
 
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.fj
 
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17,088 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 113
 
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114,200 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 157
 
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Transportation

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28 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 119
 
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total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2010)
 
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total: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 19 (2010)
 
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total: 597 km
country comparison to the world: 108
narrow gauge: 597 km 0.600-m gauge
note: belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation; used to haul sugarcane during the harvest season, which runs from May to December (2008)
 
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total: 3,440 km
country comparison to the world: 162
paved: 1,692 km
unpaved: 1,748 km (2000)
 
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203 km (122 km are navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 98
 
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total: 10
country comparison to the world: 112
by type: passenger 4, passenger/cargo 4, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 2 (Australia 2) (2010)
 
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Lautoka, Levuka, Suva
 
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Military

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Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF): Land Forces, Naval Forces (2011)
 
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18 years of age for voluntary military service (2010)
 
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males age 16-49: 233,240
females age 16-49: 222,587 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 183,730
females age 16-49: 188,325 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 8,403
female: 8,039 (2010 est.)
 
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1.9% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 73
 
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Transnational Issues

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none
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