El Salvador

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 15, 2011
Flag of El Salvador
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of El Salvador
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Map of El Salvador
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Photos of El Salvador
 
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OF EL SALVADOR
 

Introduction

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El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. A 12-year civil war, which cost about 75,000 lives, was brought to a close in 1992 when the government and leftist rebels signed a treaty that provided for military and political reforms.
 
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Geography

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Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras
 
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13 50 N, 88 55 W
 
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total: 21,041 sq km
country comparison to the world: 153
land: 20,721 sq km
water: 320 sq km
 
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slightly smaller than Massachusetts
 
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total: 545 km
border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km
 
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307 km
 
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territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 
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tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to April); tropical on coast; temperate in uplands
 
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mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau
 
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lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m
 
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hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land
 
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arable land: 31.37%
permanent crops: 11.88%
other: 56.75% (2005)
 
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450 sq km (2008)
 
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25.2 cu km (2001)
 
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total: 1.28 cu km/yr (25%/16%/59%)
per capita: 186 cu m/yr (2000)
 
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known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and sometimes destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity; extremely susceptible to hurricanes
volcanism: El Salvador experiences significant volcanic activity; San Salvador (elev. 1,893 m), which last erupted in 1917, has the potential to cause major harm to the country's capital, which lies just below the volcano's slopes; San Miguel (elev. 2,130 m), which last erupted in 2002, is one of the most active volcanoes in the country; other historically active volcanoes include Conchaguita, Ilopango, Izalco, and Santa Ana
 
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deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution; contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes
 
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
 
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smallest Central American country and only one without a coastline on Caribbean Sea
 
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People and Society

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noun: Salvadoran(s)
adjective: Salvadoran
 
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mestizo 90%, white 9%, Amerindian 1%
 
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Spanish (official), Nahua (among some Amerindians)
 
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Roman Catholic 57.1%, Protestant 21.2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.9%, Mormon 0.7%, other religions 2.3%, none 16.8% (2003 est.)
 
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6,071,774 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
 
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0-14 years: 30.6% (male 953,842/female 905,688)
15-64 years: 63% (male 1,802,113/female 2,021,191)
65 years and over: 6.4% (male 173,363/female 215,577) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 24.3 years
male: 22.9 years
female: 25.7 years (2011 est.)
 
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0.318% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
 
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17.75 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
 
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5.62 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
 
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-8.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
 
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urban population: 64% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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SAN SALVADOR (capital) 1.534 million (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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110 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 67
 
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total: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 97
male: 22.36 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 73.44 years
country comparison to the world: 118
male: 70.16 years
female: 76.87 years (2011 est.)
 
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2.08 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
 
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3.9% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 164
 
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1.596 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
country comparison to the world: 76
 
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1.1 beds/1,000 population (2009)
country comparison to the world: 145
 
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improved:
urban: 94% of population
rural: 76% of population
total: 87% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6% of population
rural: 24% of population
total: 13% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 89% of population
rural: 83% of population
total: 87% of population
unimproved:
urban: 89% of population
rural: 83% of population
total: 87% of population (2008)
 
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0.8% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
 
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34,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 67
 
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1,400 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
 
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degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)
 
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6.1% (2003)
country comparison to the world: 77
 
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3.6% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 115
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 81.1%
male: 82.8%
female: 79.6% (2007 census)
 
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total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2008)
 
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total: 11.4%
country comparison to the world: 94
male: 13%
female: 8.3% (2007)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
conventional short form: El Salvador
local long form: Republica de El Salvador
local short form: El Salvador
 
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republic
 
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name: San Salvador
geographic coordinates: 13 42 N, 89 12 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: none scheduled for 2011
 
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14 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, San Vicente, Santa Ana, Sonsonate, Usulutan
 
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15 September 1821 (from Spain)
 
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Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
 
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20 December 1983
 
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civil law system with minor common law influence; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
 
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has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: President Mauricio FUNES Cartagena (since 1 June 2009); Vice President Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN (since 1 June 2009); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Mauricio FUNES Cartagena (since 1 June 2009); Vice President Salvador SANCHEZ CEREN (since 1 June 2009)
cabinet: Council of Ministers selected by the president
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single five-year term; election last held on 15 March 2009 (next to be held in March 2014)
election results: Mauricio FUNES Cartagena elected president; percent of vote - Mauricio FUNES Cartagena 51.3%, Rodrigo AVILA 48.7%
 
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unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (84 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held on 18 January 2009 (next to be held in March 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FMLN 35, ARENA 32, PCN 11, PDC 5, CD 1; note - as of 1 January 2011, the current composition of the legislature by seats is as follows: FMLN 35, ARENA 19, GANA 16, PCN 10, PDC 2, CD 1, independent 1
 
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Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (15 judges are selected by the Legislative Assembly; the 15 judges are assigned to four Supreme Court chambers - constitutional, civil, penal, and administrative conflict)
 
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Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Rodolfo PARKER]; Democratic Convergence or CD [Oscar KATTAN] (formerly United Democratic Center or CDU); Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Medardo GONZALEZ]; National Conciliation Party or PCN [Ciro CRUZ ZEPEDA]; Nationalist Republican Alliance or ARENA [Alfredo CRISTIANI]; Great Alliance for National Unity or GANA [Andres ROVIRA]
 
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labor organizations - Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES; Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other activities, or FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran Workers or CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers Central or CTS; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL; business organizations - National Association of Small Enterprise or ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran Industrial Association or ASI
 
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BCIE, CACM, CD, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Francisco Robert ALTSCHUL Fuentes
chancery: Suite 100, 1400 16th Street, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9671
FAX: [1] (202) 234-3763
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Dallas, Duluth (Georgia), Houston, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, New York (2), Nogales (Arizona), Santa Ana (California), San Francisco, Washington (DC), Woodbridge (Virginia)
consulate(s): Boston, Elizabeth (New Jersey)
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Robert BLAU
embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena Sur, Antiguo Cuscatlan, La Libertad, San Salvador
mailing address: Unit 3450, APO AA 34023; 3450 San Salvador Place, Washington, DC 20521-3450
telephone: [503] 2501-2999
FAX: [503] 2501-2150
 
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three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; the banner is based on the former blue-white-blue flag of the Federal Republic of Central America; the blue bands symbolize the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, while the white band represents the land between the two bodies of water, as well as peace and prosperity
note: similar to the flag of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band
 
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turquoise-browed motmot (bird)
 
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name: "Himno Nacional de El Salvador" (National Anthem of El Salvador)
lyrics/music: Juan Jose CANAS/Juan ABERLE
note: officially adopted 1953, in use since 1879; the anthem of El Salvador is one of the world's longest
 
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Economy

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Despite being the smallest country geographically in Central America, El Salvador has the third largest economy in the region. The economy took a hit from the global recession and real GDP contracted by 3.5% in 2009. The economy began a slow recovery in 2010 on the back of improved export and remittances figures. Remittances accounted for 16% of GDP in 2009, and about a third of all households receive these transfers. In 2006 El Salvador was the first country to ratify the Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), which has bolstered the export of processed foods, sugar, and ethanol, and supported investment in the apparel sector amid increased Asian competition and the expiration of the Multi-Fiber Agreement in 2005. El Salvador has promoted an open trade and investment environment, and has embarked on a wave of privatizations extending to telecom, electricity distribution, banking, and pension funds. In late 2006, the government and the Millennium Challenge Corporation signed a five-year, $461 million compact to stimulate economic growth and reduce poverty in the country's northern region, the primary conflict zone during the civil war, through investments in education, public services, enterprise development, and transportation infrastructure. With the adoption of the US dollar as its currency in 2001, El Salvador lost control over monetary policy. Any counter-cyclical policy response to the downturn must be through fiscal policy, which is constrained by legislative requirements for a two-thirds majority to approve any international financing, and by already high levels of debt.
 
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$43.57 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
$43.24 billion (2009 est.)
$44.83 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$21.7 billion (2010 est.)
 
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0.7% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178
-3.5% (2009 est.)
2.4% (2008 est.)
 
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$7,200 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
$7,200 (2009 est.)
$7,500 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 11.3%
industry: 30.7%
services: 57.9% (2010 est.)
 
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2.564 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
 
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agriculture: 19%
industry: 23%
services: 58% (2006 est.)
 
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7.2% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
7.3% (2009 est.)
note: data are official rates; but the economy has much underemployment
 
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37.8% (2009 est.)
 
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lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 36.3% (2007)
 
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46.9 (2007)
country comparison to the world: 32
52.5 (2001)
 
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13.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173
 
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revenues: $3.97 billion
expenditures: $4.89 billion (2010 est.)
 
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18.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167
 
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-4.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
 
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54.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
52.1% of GDP (2009 est.)
 
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1.2% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
1.1% (2009 est.)
 
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7.62% (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 114
9.32% (31 December 2009)
 
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$2.527 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
$2.153 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$9.388 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
$9.011 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$10.04 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
$9.867 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$4.227 billion (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 84
$4.432 billion (31 December 2009)
$4.656 billion (31 December 2008)
 
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coffee, sugar, corn, rice, beans, oilseed, cotton, sorghum; beef, dairy products
 
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food processing, beverages, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, light metals
 
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1.2% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
 
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5.445 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
 
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4.524 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
 
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78.7 million kWh (2009 est.)
 
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208.4 million kWh (2009 est.)
 
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443 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
 
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47,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
 
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3,825 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
 
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45,570 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91
 
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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
 
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0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
 
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-$491.5 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
-$304.2 million (2009 est.)
 
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$4.577 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
$3.93 billion (2009 est.)
 
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offshore assembly exports, coffee, sugar, textiles and apparel, gold, ethanol, chemicals, electricity, iron and steel manufactures
 
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US 43.5%, Guatemala 14.2%, Honduras 13.6%, Nicaragua 5.6% (2010)
 
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$8.189 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
$7.038 billion (2009 est.)
 
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raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods, fuels, foodstuffs, petroleum, electricity
 
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US 32.1%, Guatemala 11.5%, Mexico 8.2%, Honduras 5.2%, China 4.8% (2010)
 
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$2.883 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
$2.986 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$11.92 billion (30 June 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
$12.06 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
 
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$7.76 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
$7.132 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$333 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
$333 million (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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Communications

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1 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 78
 
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7.7 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 83
 
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general assessment: multiple mobile-cellular providers are expanding services rapidly and in 2009 teledensity exceeded 100 per 100 persons; growth in fixed-line services has slowed in the face of mobile-cellular competition
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system
international: country code - 503; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2009)
 
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multiple privately-owned national terrestrial television networks, supplemented by cable TV networks that carry international channels; hundreds of commercial radio broadcast stations and 1 government-owned radio broadcast station (2007)
 
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.sv
 
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13,849 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 119
 
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746,000 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 107
 
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Transportation

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65 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 76
 
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total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2010)
 
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total: 61
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 47 (2010)
 
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1 (2010)
 
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total: 283 km
country comparison to the world: 121
narrow gauge: 283 km 0.600-m gauge
note: railways have been inoperable since 2005 because of disuse and high costs that led to a lack of maintenance (2010)
 
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total: 10,886 km
country comparison to the world: 134
paved: 2,827 km (includes 327 km of expressways)
unpaved: 8,059 km (2000)
 
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(Rio Lempa is partially navigable for small craft) (2010)
 
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Puerto Cutuco
oil terminals: Acajutla offshore terminal
 
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Military

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Salvadoran Army (ES), Salvadoran Navy (FNES), Salvadoran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Salvadorena, FAS) (2011)
 
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18 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 16-22 years of age for voluntary male or female service; service obligation - 12 months, with 11 months for officers and NCOs (2009)
 
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males age 16-49: 1,449,214
females age 16-49: 1,611,248 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 1,079,038
females age 16-49: 1,373,368 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 71,530
female: 68,971 (2010 est.)
 
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0.6% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 156
 
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Transnational Issues

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International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras boundary, in 1992, with final agreement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States (OAS) survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca advocating Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not identified in the ICJ decision, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca
 
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transshipment point for cocaine; small amounts of marijuana produced for local consumption; significant use of cocaine
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