Chad

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 15, 2011
Flag of Chad
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Chad
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Map of Chad
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OF CHAD
 

Introduction

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Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant rebel threat in early 2008.
 
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Geography

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Central Africa, south of Libya
 
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15 00 N, 19 00 E
 
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total: 1.284 million sq km
country comparison to the world: 21
land: 1,259,200 sq km
water: 24,800 sq km
 
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slightly more than three times the size of California
 
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total: 5,968 km
border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
 
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0 km (landlocked)
 
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none (landlocked)
 
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tropical in south, desert in north
 
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broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
 
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lowest point: Djourab 160 m
highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m
 
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petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
 
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arable land: 2.8%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 97.18% (2005)
 
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300 sq km (2008)
 
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43 cu km (1987)
 
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total: 0.23 cu km/yr (17%/0%/83%)
per capita: 24 cu m/yr (2000)
 
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hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
 
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inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
 
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
 
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landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel
 
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People and Society

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noun: Chadian(s)
adjective: Chadian
 
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Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3% (1993 census)
 
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French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
 
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Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1% (1993 census)
 
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10,758,945 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
 
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0-14 years: 46% (male 2,510,656/female 2,441,780)
15-64 years: 51% (male 2,531,896/female 2,960,406)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 131,805/female 182,402) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 16.8 years
male: 15.6 years
female: 17.9 years (2011 est.)
 
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2.009% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
 
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39.4 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
 
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15.47 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
 
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-3.84 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
 
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urban population: 28% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 4.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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N'DJAMENA (capital) 808,000 (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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1,200 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 3
 
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total: 95.31 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 9
male: 101.18 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 89.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 48.33 years
country comparison to the world: 219
male: 47.28 years
female: 49.43 years (2011 est.)
 
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5.05 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
 
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7% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 79
 
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0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
country comparison to the world: 180
 
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0.43 beds/1,000 population (2005)
country comparison to the world: 171
 
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improved:
urban: 67% of population
rural: 44% of population
total: 50% of population
unimproved:
urban: 33% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 50% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 23% of population
rural: 4% of population
total: 9% of population
unimproved:
urban: 77% of population
rural: 96% of population
total: 91% of population (2008)
 
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3.4% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
 
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210,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
 
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11,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
 
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degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies (2009)
 
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33.9% (2004)
country comparison to the world: 12
 
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3.2% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 124
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
total population: 25.7%
male: 40.8%
female: 12.8% (2000 est.)
 
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total: 7 years
male: 9 years
female: 5 years (2009)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Republic of Chad
conventional short form: Chad
local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
local short form: Tchad/Tshad
 
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republic
 
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name: N'Djamena
geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
 
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22 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
 
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11 August 1960 (from France)
 
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Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
 
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passed by referendum 31 March 1996; a June 2005 referendum removed constitutional term limits
 
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mixed legal system of civil and customary law
 
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has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno (since 4 December 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Emmanuel NADINGAR (since 5 March 2010)
cabinet: Council of State; members are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
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elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; if no candidate receives at least 50% of the total vote, the two candidates receiving the most votes must stand for a second round of voting; last election held on 25 April 2011 (next to be held by 2016); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY 83.6%, Albert Pahimi PADACKE 8.6%, Nadji Madou 7.8%
 
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unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February 2011 (next to be held by 2015); note - legislative elections, originally scheduled for 2006, were first delayed by National Assembly action and subsequently by an accord, signed in August 2007, between government and opposition parties
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ART 133, UNDR 11, others 44
 
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Supreme Court; Constitutional Council; High Court of Justice; Court of Appeal; Criminal Courts; Magistrate Courts
 
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Alliance for the Renaissance of Chad or ART, an alliance among the ruling MPS, RDP, and Viva-RNDP; Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]; National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Delwa Kassire KOUMAKOYE]; National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]; Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ibni Oumar Mahamat SALEH]; Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Mahamat Saleh AHMAT, chairman]; Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Lol Mahamat CHOUA]; Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Gen. Wadal Abdelkader KAMOUGUE]
 
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rebel groups
 
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ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamoud Adam BECHIR
chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Mark M. BOULWARE
embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
telephone: [235] 251-62-11, 251-70-09, 251-77-59
FAX: [235] 251-56-54
 
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three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; yellow represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice
note: similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of France
 
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goat (north); lion (south)
 
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name: "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)
lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD
note: adopted 1960
 
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Economy

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Chad's primarily agricultural economy will continue to be boosted by major foreign direct investment projects in the oil sector that began in 2000. At least 80% of Chad's population relies on subsistence farming and livestock raising for its livelihood. Chad's economy has long been handicapped by its landlocked position, high energy costs, and a history of instability. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment projects. A consortium led by two US companies has been investing $3.7 billion to develop oil reserves - estimated at 1 billion barrels - in southern Chad. Chinese companies are also expanding exploration efforts and are currently building a 300-km pipeline and the country's first refinery. The nation's total oil reserves are estimated at 1.5 billion barrels. Oil production came on stream in late 2003. Chad began to export oil in 2004. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings.
 
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$17.36 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
$16.52 billion (2009 est.)
$16.48 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$7.848 billion (2010 est.)
 
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5.1% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
0.3% (2009 est.)
-0.4% (2008 est.)
 
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$1,600 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
$1,600 (2009 est.)
$1,600 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 52%
industry: 7%
services: 41.1% (2010 est.)
 
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4.293 million (2007)
country comparison to the world: 83
 
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agriculture: 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)
industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)
 
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NA%
 
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80% (2001 est.)
 
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lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 30.8% (2003)
 
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33.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
 
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revenues: $2.019 billion
expenditures: $2.928 billion (2010 est.)
 
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25.7% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122
 
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-11.6% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 199
 
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-2% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
10% (2009 est.)
 
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4.25% (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 77
4.75% (31 December 2008)
 
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14% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
15% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.15 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
$972.5 million (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.222 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
$1.045 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$710.9 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
$587.8 million (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$NA
 
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cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels
 
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oil, cotton textiles, meatpacking, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
 
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3% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
 
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100 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
 
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93 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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126,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
 
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2,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
 
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115,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
 
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1,837 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182
 
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1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
 
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0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
 
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-$2.512 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
-$2.305 billion (2009 est.)
 
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$3.16 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
$2.709 billion (2009 est.)
 
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oil, cattle, cotton, gum arabic
 
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US 71.9%, China 16.9%, Netherlands 4.6% (2010)
 
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$2.94 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 141
$2.539 billion (2009 est.)
 
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machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
 
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China 29.4%, France 14.3%, Cameroon 12.2%, US 8.1% (2010)
 
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$638.6 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
$616.7 million (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.743 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142
$1.743 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$NA (31 December 2010)
$4.5 billion (2006 est.)
 
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$NA
 
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Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
495.28 (2010)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)
480.1 (2007)
522.59 (2006)
 
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Communications

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51,200 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 162
 
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2.614 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 127
 
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general assessment: inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high costs and low telephone density
domestic: fixed-line connections for only about 1 per 1000 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of only about 25 per 100 persons
international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2009)
 
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1 state-owned TV broadcast station; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; about 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2007)
 
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.td
 
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5 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 227
 
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168,100 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 145
 
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Transportation

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56 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 83
 
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total: 8
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2010)
 
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total: 48
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 10 (2010)
 
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oil 265 km (2010)
 
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total: 40,000 km (2006)
country comparison to the world: 90
 
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(Chari and Legone rivers are navigable only in wet season) (2010)
 
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Military

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Armed Forces: Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT), Chadian Air Force (Force Aerienne Tchadienne, FAT), Gendarmerie (2008)
 
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20 years of age for conscripts, with 3-year service obligation; 18 years of age for volunteers; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a parent or guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age of 21 (2004)
 
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males age 16-49: 2,090,244
females age 16-49: 2,441,321 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 1,183,242
females age 16-49: 1,395,811 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 128,723
female: 128,244 (2010 est.)
 
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1.7% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 86
 
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Transnational Issues

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since 2003, Janjawid armed militia and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad remains an important mediator in the Sudanese civil conflict, reducing tensions with Sudan arising from cross-border banditry; Chadian Aozou rebels reside in southern Libya; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
 
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refugees (country of origin): 234,000 (Sudan); 54,200 (Central African Republic)
IDPs: 178,918 (2007)
 
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current situation: Chad is a source, transit, and destination country for children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; the majority of children are trafficked within Chad for involuntary domestic servitude, forced cattle herding, forced begging, involuntary agricultural labor, or for commercial sexual exploitation; to a lesser extent, Chadian children are also trafficked to Cameroon, the Central African Republic, and Nigeria for cattle herding
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - the Government of Chad does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the Government of Chad reportedly ended all child conscription into its national army and continued to engage in efforts to demobilize remaining child soldiers from rebel forces; fewer efforts were made to address the forced labor of children in cattle herding, domestic service, and begging, or to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of Chadian children; the government did not enact legislation prohibiting trafficking in persons and undertook limited anti-trafficking law enforcement and victim protection activities (2011)
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