Burundi

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 29, 2011
Flag of Brunei
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Location of Brunei
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Map of Brunei
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Photos of Brunei
 
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OF BRUNEI
 

Introduction

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The Sultanate of Brunei's influence peaked between the 15th and 17th centuries when its control extended over coastal areas of northwest Borneo and the southern Philippines. Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by internal strife over royal succession, colonial expansion of European powers, and piracy. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate; independence was achieved in 1984. The same family has ruled Brunei for over six centuries. Brunei benefits from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields, the source of one of the highest per capita GDPs in Asia.
 
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Geography

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Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia
 
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4 30 N, 114 40 E
 
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total: 5,765 sq km
country comparison to the world: 173
land: 5,265 sq km
water: 500 sq km
 
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slightly smaller than Delaware
 
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total: 381 km
border countries: Malaysia 381 km
 
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161 km
 
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territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
 
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tropical; hot, humid, rainy
 
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flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
 
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lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m
 
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petroleum, natural gas, timber
 
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arable land: 2.08%
permanent crops: 0.87%
other: 97.05% (2005)
 
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10 sq km (2008)
 
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8.5 cu km (1999)
 
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total: 0.09
per capita: 243 cu m/yr (1994)
 
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typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
 
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seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
 
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
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close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave within Malaysia
 
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People and Society

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noun: Bruneian(s)
adjective: Bruneian
 
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Malay 66.3%, Chinese 11.2%, indigenous 3.4%, other 19.1% (2004 est.)
 
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Malay (official), English, Chinese
 
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Muslim (official) 67%, Buddhist 13%, Christian 10%, other (includes indigenous beliefs) 10%
 
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401,890 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
 
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0-14 years: 25.5% (male 52,944/female 49,729)
15-64 years: 70.9% (male 141,121/female 143,977)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 6,881/female 7,238) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 28.4 years
male: 28.3 years
female: 28.6 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.712% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
 
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17.87 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
 
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3.35 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 214
 
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2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
 
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urban population: 76% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN (capital) 22,000 (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.047 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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21 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 124
 
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total: 11.51 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 140
male: 13.74 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 76.17 years
country comparison to the world: 76
male: 73.91 years
female: 78.53 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.86 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
 
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3% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 177
 
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1.417 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
country comparison to the world: 85
 
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2.71 beds/1,000 population (2008)
country comparison to the world: 82
 
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less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
 
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fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
 
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fewer than 200 (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
 
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NA
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.7%
male: 95.2%
female: 90.2% (2001 census)
 
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total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2009)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Brunei Darussalam
conventional short form: Brunei
local long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
local short form: Brunei
 
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constitutional sultanate (locally known as Malay Islamic Monarchy)
 
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name: Bandar Seri Begawan
geographic coordinates: 4 53 N, 114 56 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
 
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4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei-Muara, Temburong, Tutong
 
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1 January 1984 (from the UK)
 
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National Day, 23 February (1984); note - 1 January 1984 was the date of independence from the UK, 23 February 1984 was the date of independence from British protection
 
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29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
 
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mixed legal system based on English common law and Islamic law
 
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has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
 
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18 years of age for village elections; universal
 
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chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967); note - the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister Sir HASSANAL Bolkiah (since 5 October 1967)
cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers appointed and presided over by the monarch; deals with executive matters; note - there is also a Religious Council (members appointed by the monarch) that advises on religious matters, a Privy Council (members appointed by the monarch) that deals with constitutional matters, and the Council of Succession (members appointed by the monarch) that determines the succession to the throne if the need arises
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary
 
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the Sultan appointed a Legislative Council with 29 members in September 2005; he increased the size of the council to 33 members in June 2011; the council meets annually in March
elections: last held in March 1962 (date of next election NA)
note: the Legislative Council met on 25 September 2004 for first time in 20 years with 21 members appointed by the Sultan; it passed constitutional amendments calling for a 45-seat council with 15 elected members; no timeframe for an election was announced
 
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Supreme Court - chief justice and judges are sworn in by monarch for three-year terms; Judicial Committee of Privy Council in London is final court of appeal for civil cases; Sharia courts deal with Islamic laws (2006)
 
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National Development Party or NDP [YASSIN Affendi]
note: Brunei National Solidarity Party or PPKB [Abdul LATIF bin Chuchu] and People's Awareness Party or PAKAR [Awang Haji MAIDIN bin Haji Ahmad] were deregistered in 2007; parties are small and have limited activity
 
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NA
 
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ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, C, CP, EAS, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Yusoff Abd HAMID
chancery: 3520 International Court NW #300, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1838
FAX: [1] (202) 885-0560
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel L. SHIELDS III
embassy: Simpang 336-52-16-9, Jalan Kebangsaan, Bandar Seri Begawan, BC4115
mailing address: Unit 4280, Box 40, FPO AP 96507; P.O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan BS8675, Negara Brunei Darussalam
telephone: [673] 238-4616
FAX: [673] 238-4604
 
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yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; yellow is the color of royalty and symbolizes the sultanate; the white and black bands denote Brunei's chief ministers; the emblem includes five main components: a swallow-tailed flag, the royal umbrella representing the monarchy, the wings of four feathers symbolizing justice, tranquility, prosperity, and peace, the two upraised hands signifying the government's pledge to preserve and promote the welfare of the people, and the crescent moon denoting Islam, the state religion; the state motto "Always render service with God's guidance" appears in yellow Arabic script on the crescent; a ribbon below the crescent reads "Brunei, the Abode of Peace"
 
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name: "Allah Peliharakan Sultan" (God Bless His Majesty)
lyrics/music: Pengiran Haji Mohamed YUSUF bin Abdul Rahim/Awang Haji BESAR bin Sagap
note: adopted 1951
 
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Economy

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Brunei has a small well-to-do economy that encompasses a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition. Crude oil and natural gas production account for just over half of GDP and more than 90% of exports. Per capita GDP is among the highest in Asia, and substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. The government provides for all medical services and free education through the university level and subsidizes rice and housing. A new monetary authority was established in January 2011 with responsibilities that include monetary policy, monitoring of financial institutions, and currency trading activities.
 
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$20.38 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123
$19.58 billion (2009 est.)
$19.93 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$13.02 billion (2010 est.)
 
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4.1% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
-1.8% (2009 est.)
-1.9% (2008 est.)
 
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$51,600 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
$50,400 (2009 est.)
$52,300 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 0.9%
industry: 72.1%
services: 27% (2010 est.)
 
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188,800 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 172
 
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agriculture: 4.2%
industry: 62.8%
services: 33% (2008 est.)
 
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3.7% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 30
3.4% (2007)
 
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NA%
 
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lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
 
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16.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
 
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revenues: $4.689 billion
expenditures: $4.869 billion (2010 est.)
 
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36% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
 
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-1.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64
 
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0.4% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
1.1% (2009 est.)
 
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5.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
5.5% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$2.954 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
$3.841 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$9.731 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
$8.548 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$3.019 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
$2.209 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$NA
 
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rice, vegetables, fruits; chickens, water buffalo, cattle, goats, eggs
 
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petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
 
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-5.4% (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 164
 
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3.218 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
 
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3.054 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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159,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
 
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17,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137
 
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153,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
 
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138 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
 
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1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
 
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11.5 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
 
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2.69 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
 
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8.81 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
 
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390.8 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
 
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$3.977 billion (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
$3.977 billion (2008 est.)
 
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$10.67 billion (2008)
country comparison to the world: 84
$8.25 billion (2007)
 
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crude oil, natural gas, garments
 
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Japan 45.6%, South Korea 12%, Australia 11.9%, Indonesia 7.4%, China 7.1%, India 5.8%, NZ 5.1% (2010)
 
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$2.61 billion (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
$2.055 billion (2007 est.)
 
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machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
 
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Singapore 33.5%, Malaysia 19.9%, China 13%, UK 6.9%, Japan 5.3%, Thailand 4.6%, US 4.4% (2010)
 
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$1.563 billion (2010)
country comparison to the world: 126
$1.357 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$0 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 199
 
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Bruneian dollars (BND) per US dollar -
1.36 (2010)
1.45 (2009)
2 (2006)
2 (2005)
2 (2004)
 
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Communications

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79,900 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 152
 
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435,100 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 166
 
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general assessment: service throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US
domestic: every service available
international: country code - 673; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network, scheduled for completion by late 2008, will provide new links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2009)
 
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state-controlled Radio Television Brunei (RTB) operates 4 channels; 3 Malaysian TV stations are available; foreign TV broadcasts are available via satellite and cable systems; RTB operates 5 radio networks broadcasting on multiple frequencies; British Forces Broadcast Service (BFBS) provides radio broadcasts on 2 FM stations; some radio broadcast stations from Malaysia are available via repeaters (2009)
 
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.bn
 
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50,997 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 88
 
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314,900 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 128
 
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Transportation

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2 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 203
 
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total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2010)
 
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3 (2010)
 
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condensate 33 km; gas 37 km; oil 18 km (2010)
 
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total: 2,971 km
country comparison to the world: 167
paved: 2,411 km
unpaved: 560 km (2008)
 
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209 km (navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m; the Belait, Brunei, and Tutong rivers are major transport links) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 97
 
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total: 9
country comparison to the world: 117
by type: chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas 8 (2010)
 
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Lumut, Muara, Seria
 
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Military

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Royal Brunei Armed Forces: Royal Brunei Land Forces, Royal Brunei Navy, Royal Brunei Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Brunei) (2011)
 
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18 years of age (est.) for voluntary military service; non-Malays are ineligible to serve (2007)
 
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males age 16-49: 112,688
females age 16-49: 117,536 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 95,141
females age 16-49: 99,386 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 3,572
female: 3,465 (2010 est.)
 
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4.5% of GDP (2006)
country comparison to the world: 21
 
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Transnational Issues

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per Letters of Exchange signed in 2009, Malaysia in 2010 ceded two hydrocarbon concession blocks to Brunei in exchange for Brunei's sultan dropping claims to the Limbang corridor, which divides Brunei; nonetheless, Brunei claims a maritime boundary extending as far as a median with Vietnam, thus asserting an implicit claim to Lousia Reef
 
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current situation: Brunei is a destination, and to a lesser extent, a source and transit country for men and women who are subjected to forced labor and forced prostitution; men and women from Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, China, and Thailand migrate to Brunei for domestic work or other low-skilled employment, but sometimes face conditions of involuntary servitude after arrival
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - the government has yet to prosecute a human-trafficking case using its 2004 anti-trafficking law, has not shown evidence of increased efforts to address human trafficking over the previous year, and has not identified or assisted any trafficking victims (2011)
 
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drug trafficking and illegally importing controlled substances are serious offenses in Brunei and carry a mandatory death penalty
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