Barbados

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Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publicat...k/geos/bb.html

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 9, 2011
Flag of Barbados
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Barbados
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Map of Barbados
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Introduction

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The island was uninhabited when first settled by the British in 1627. Slaves worked the sugar plantations established on the island until 1834 when slavery was abolished. The economy remained heavily dependent on sugar, rum, and molasses production through most of the 20th century. The gradual introduction of social and political reforms in the 1940s and 1950s led to complete independence from the UK in 1966. In the 1990s, tourism and manufacturing surpassed the sugar industry in economic importance.
 
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Geography

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Caribbean, island in the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela
 
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13 10 N, 59 32 W
 
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total: 430 sq km
country comparison to the world: 202
land: 430 sq km
water: 0 sq km
 
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2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
 
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0 km
 
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97 km
 
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territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
 
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tropical; rainy season (June to October)
 
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relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region
 
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lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m
 
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petroleum, fish, natural gas
 
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arable land: 37.21%
permanent crops: 2.33%
other: 60.46% (2005)
 
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50 sq km (2008)
 
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0.1 cu km (2003)
 
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total: 0.09 cu km/yr (33%/44%/22%)
per capita: 333 cu m/yr (2000)
 
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infrequent hurricanes; periodic landslides
 
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pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens contamination of aquifers
 
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
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easternmost Caribbean island
 
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People and Society

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noun: Barbadian(s) or Bajan (colloquial)
adjective: Barbadian or Bajan (colloquial)
 
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black 93%, white 3.2%, mixed 2.6%, East Indian 1%, other 0.2% (2000 census)
 
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English
 
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Protestant 63.4% (Anglican 28.3%, Pentecostal 18.7%, Methodist 5.1%, other 11.3%), Roman Catholic 4.2%, other Christian 7%, other 4.8%, none or unspecified 20.6% (2008 est.)
 
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286,705 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181
 
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0-14 years: 18.9% (male 27,127/female 27,127)
15-64 years: 71.3% (male 100,594/female 103,751)
65 years and over: 9.8% (male 10,982/female 17,124) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 36.5 years
male: 35.4 years
female: 37.6 years (2011 est.)
 
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0.366% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
 
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12.35 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
 
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8.39 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88
 
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-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
 
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urban population: 44% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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BRIDGETOWN (capital) 112,000 (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.013 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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64 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 89
 
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total: 11.86 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 136
male: 13.48 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.22 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 74.34 years
country comparison to the world: 102
male: 72.07 years
female: 76.64 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.68 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170
 
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6.8% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 86
 
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1.811 physicians/1,000 population (2005)
country comparison to the world: 73
 
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7.6 beds/1,000 population (2008)
country comparison to the world: 10
 
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improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2008)
 
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1.4% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
 
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2,100 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
 
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fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148
 
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6.7% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 19
 
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definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.7% (2002 est.)
 
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total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2001)
 
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total: 26.2%
country comparison to the world: 23
male: 24.1%
female: 28.7% (2003)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Barbados
 
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parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm
 
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name: Bridgetown
geographic coordinates: 13 06 N, 59 37 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
 
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11 parishes and 1 city*; Bridgetown*, Christ Church, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas
 
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30 November 1966 (from the UK)
 
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Independence Day, 30 November (1966)
 
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30 November 1966
 
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English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts
 
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accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by acting Governor General Elliot BELGRAVE (since 1 November 2011)
head of government: Prime Minister Fruendel STUART (since 23 October 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
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elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; the prime minister recommends the deputy prime minister
 
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bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (21 seats; members appointed by the governor general - 12 on the advice of the Prime Minister, 2 on the advice of the opposition leader, and 7 at his discretion) and the House of Assembly (30 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Assembly - last held on 15 January 2008 (next to be called in 2012)
election results: House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - DLP 52.5%, BLP 47.3%; seats by party - DLP 20, BLP 10
 
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Supreme Court of Judicature consists of a High Court and a Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Services); Caribbean Court of Justice or CCJ is the highest court of appeal; based in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
 
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Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR]; Democratic Labor Party or DLP [Freundel STUART]; People's Empowerment Party or PEP [David COMISSIONG]
 
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Barbados Secondary Teachers' Union or BSTU [Patrick FROST]; Barbados Union of Teachers or BUT [Herbert GITTENS]; Congress of Trade Unions and Staff Associations of Barbados or CTUSAB, (includes the BWU, NUPW, BUT, and BSTU) [Leroy TROTMAN]; Barbados Workers Union or BWU [Leroy TROTMAN]; Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMISSIONG]; National Union of Public Workers [Joseph GODDARD]
 
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ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador John BEALE
chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 939-9200
FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
consulate(s): Los Angeles
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d' Affaires D. Brent HARDT
embassy: U.S. Embassy, Wildey Business Park, Wildey, St. Michael BB 14006
mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown BB 11000; CMR 1014, APO AA 34055
telephone: [1] (246) 227-4399
FAX: [1] (246) 431-0179
 
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three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the band colors represent the blue of the sea and sky and the gold of the beaches; the trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)
 
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Neptune's trident
 
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name: "The National Anthem of Barbados"
lyrics/music: Irving BURGIE/C. Van Roland EDWARDS
note: adopted 1966; the anthem is also known as "In Plenty and In Time of Need"
 
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Economy

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Historically, the Barbadian economy was dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities. However, in recent years the economy has diversified into light industry and tourism with about three-quarters of GDP and 80% of exports being attributed to services. Growth has rebounded since 2003, bolstered by increases in construction projects and tourism revenues, reflecting its success in the higher-end segment, but the sector faced declining revenues in 2009 with the global economic downturn. The country enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the region. Offshore finance and information services are important foreign exchange earners and thrive from having the same time zone as eastern US financial centers and a relatively highly educated workforce. The government continues its efforts to reduce unemployment, to encourage direct foreign investment, and to privatize remaining state-owned enterprises. The public debt-to-GDP ratio rose to over 100% in 2009, largely because a sharp slowdown in tourism and financial services led to a wide budget deficit.
 
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$6.227 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
$6.258 billion (2009 est.)
$6.568 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$3.963 billion (2010 est.)
 
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-0.5% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
-4.7% (2009 est.)
-0.2% (2008 est.)
 
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$21,800 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
$22,000 (2009 est.)
$23,200 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 3.4%
industry: 14%
services: 82.6% (2010 est.)
 
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175,000 (2007 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
 
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agriculture: 10%
industry: 15%
services: 75% (1996 est.)
 
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10.7% (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
 
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NA%
 
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lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
 
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27.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
 
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revenues: $1.18 billion (including grants)
expenditures: $1.502 billion (2010 est.)
 
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29.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
 
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-8.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 189
 
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102.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
96.5% of GDP (2009 est.)
 
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5.4% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
4.4% (2009 est.)
 
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7% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
7% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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8.7% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
9.204% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.785 billion (31 December 2009)
country comparison to the world: 123
$1.68 billion (31 December 2008)
 
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$5.501 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
$5.474 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$4.975 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
$4.656 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$4.366 billion (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 85
$4.39 billion (31 December 2009)
$4.964 billion (31 December 2008)
 
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sugarcane, vegetables, cotton
 
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tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly for export
 
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-3.2% (2000 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
 
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1.011 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
 
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945 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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739 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
 
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9,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
 
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0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
 
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8,684 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144
 
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1.79 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154
 
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113.3 million cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
 
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-$364.6 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100
-$244.3 million (2009 est.)
 
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$424.5 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
$343.8 million (2009 est.)
 
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manufactures, sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages, chemicals, electrical components
 
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Brazil 16.8%, Trinidad and Tobago 16.8%, US 8.8%, St. Lucia 7.8%, Venezuela 5.4%, St. Vincent and the Grenadines 4.8% (2010)
 
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$1.39 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
$1.294 billion (2009 est.)
 
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consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components
 
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Trinidad and Tobago 32.5%, US 24.7%, Colombia 5.8%, China 4.4% (2010)
 
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$620 million (2007)
country comparison to the world: 147
 
 
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$668 million (2003)
country comparison to the world: 158
 
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Barbadian dollars (BBD) per US dollar -
NA (2007)
2 (2006)
2 (2005)
2 (2004)
2 (2003)
 
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Communications

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137,500 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 138
 
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350,100 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 172
 
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general assessment: island-wide automatic telephone system
domestic: fixed-line teledensity of roughly 50 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density approaching 125 per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-246; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 1 (Intelsat -Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia (2010)
 
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government-owned Caribbean Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) operates the lone terrestrial television station; CBC also operates a multi-channel cable TV subscription service; roughly a dozen radio stations, consisting of a CBC-operated network alongside privately-owned radio stations, in operation (2007)
 
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.bb
 
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1,508 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 159
 
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188,000 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 143
 
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Transportation

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1 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 217
 
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total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2010)
 
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gas 33 km; oil 62 km; refined products 4 km
 
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total: 1,600 km
country comparison to the world: 176
paved: 1,600 km (2004)
 
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total: 95
country comparison to the world: 52
by type: bulk carrier 19, cargo 55, chemical tanker 9, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 5, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 89 (Canada 13, Greece 14, Iran 4, Lebanon 2, Norway 41, Sweden 6, Syria 1, Turkey 1, UK 7)
registered in other countries: 1 (unknown 1) (2010)
 
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Bridgetown
 
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Military

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Royal Barbados Defense Force: Troops Command, Barbados Coast Guard (2011)
 
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18 years of age for voluntary military service (younger volunteers require parental consent); no conscription (2009)
 
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males age 16-49: 73,820
females age 16-49: 73,835 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 58,125
females age 16-49: 58,016 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 1,842
female: 1,849 (2010 est.)
 
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0.8% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 144
 
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the Royal Barbados Defense Force includes a land-based Troop Command and a small Coast Guard; the primary role of the land element is to defend the island against external aggression; the Command consists of a single, part-time battalion with a small regular cadre that is deployed throughout the island; it increasingly supports the police in patrolling the coastline to prevent smuggling and other illicit activities (2007)
 
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Transnational Issues

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Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary and limiting catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's exclusive economic zone; joins other Caribbean states to counter Venezuela's claim that Aves Island sustains human habitation, a criterion under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which permits Venezuela to extend its EEZ/continental shelf over a large portion of the eastern Caribbean Sea
 
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current situation: Barbados is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - the Government of Barbados does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; the main obstacles to anti-trafficking progress in Barbados were the new legislation's failure to criminalize all forms of trafficking in persons, the government's absence of formal procedures to guide officials in victim identification and assistance, and the absence of a formal mechanism to coordinate government and NGO actions on trafficking issues (2011)
 
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one of many Caribbean transshipment points for narcotics bound for Europe and the US; offshore financial center
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