Bangladesh

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Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publicat...k/geos/bg.html

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON DECEMBER 5, 2011
Flag of Bangladesh
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Bangladesh
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Map of Bangladesh
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Photos of Bangladesh
 
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OF BANGLADESH
 

Introduction

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Europeans began to set up trading posts in the area of Bangladesh in the 16th century; eventually the British came to dominate the region and it became part of British India. In 1947, West Pakistan and East Bengal (both primarily Muslim) separated from India (largely Hindu) and jointly became the new country of Pakistan. East Bengal became East Pakistan in 1955, but the awkward arrangement of a two-part country with its territorial units separated by 1,600 km left the Bengalis marginalized and dissatisfied. East Pakistan seceded from its union with West Pakistan in 1971 and was renamed Bangladesh. A military-backed, emergency caretaker regime suspended parliamentary elections planned for January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption. In contrast to the strikes and violent street rallies that had marked Bangladeshi politics in previous years, the parliamentary elections finally held in late December 2008 were mostly peaceful and Sheikh HASINA Wajed was elected prime minister. About a third of this extremely poor country floods annually during the monsoon rainy season, hampering economic development.
 
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Geography

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Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
 
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24 00 N, 90 00 E
 
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total: 143,998 sq km
country comparison to the world: 95
land: 130,168 sq km
water: 13,830 sq km
 
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slightly smaller than Iowa
 
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total: 4,246 km
border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
 
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580 km
 
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territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
 
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tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
 
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mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
 
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lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m
 
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natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
 
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arable land: 55.39%
permanent crops: 3.08%
other: 41.53% (2005)
 
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50,500 sq km (2008)
 
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1,210.6 cu km (1999)
 
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total: 79.4 cu km/yr (3%/1%/96%)
per capita: 560 cu m/yr (2000)
 
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droughts; cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
 
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many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; waterborne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation
 
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
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most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal
 
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People and Society

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noun: Bangladeshi(s)
adjective: Bangladeshi
 
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Bengali 98%, other 2% (includes tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims) (1998)
 
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Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English
 
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Muslim 89.5%, Hindu 9.6%, other 0.9% (2004)
 
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158,570,535 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7
 
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0-14 years: 34.3% (male 27,551,594/female 26,776,647)
15-64 years: 61.1% (male 45,956,431/female 50,891,519)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 3,616,225/female 3,778,119) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 23.3 years
male: 22.7 years
female: 23.7 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.566% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
 
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22.98 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
 
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5.75 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
 
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-1.57 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
 
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urban population: 28% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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DHAKA (capital) 14.251 million; Chittagong 4.816 million; Khulna 1.636 million; Rajshahi 853,000 (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.93 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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340 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 42
 
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total: 50.73 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 48
male: 53.23 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.13 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 69.75 years
country comparison to the world: 149
male: 67.93 years
female: 71.65 years (2011 est.)
 
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2.6 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
 
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3.4% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 172
 
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0.295 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
country comparison to the world: 139
 
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0.4 beds/1,000 population (2005)
country comparison to the world: 172
 
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improved:
urban: 85% of population
rural: 78% of population
total: 80% of population
unimproved:
urban: 15% of population
rural: 22% of population
total: 20% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 56% of population
rural: 52% of population
total: 53% of population
unimproved:
urban: 44% of population
rural: 48% of population
total: 47% of population (2008)
 
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less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 113
 
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6,300 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
 
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fewer than 200 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
 
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degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: leptospirosis
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)
 
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41.3% (2007)
country comparison to the world: 3
 
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2.4% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 148
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 47.9%
male: 54%
female: 41.4% (2001 Census)
 
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total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 8 years (2007)
 
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total: 9.3%
country comparison to the world: 106
male: 8%
female: 13.6% (2006)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
conventional short form: Bangladesh
local long form: Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh
local short form:
former: East Bengal, East Pakistan
 
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parliamentary democracy
 
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name: Dhaka
geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 24 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
 
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7 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet
 
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16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
 
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Independence Day, 26 March (1971); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
 
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enacted 4 November 1972; effective 16 December 1972; suspended following coup of 24 March 1982; restored 10 November 1986; amended many times
 
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mixed legal system of mostly English common law and Islamic law
 
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has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: President Zillur RAHMAN (since 12 February 2009)
head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA Wajed (since 6 January 2009)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); last election held on 11 February 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: Zillur RAHMAN declared president-elect by the Election Commission on 11 February 2009 (sworn in on 12 February); he ran unopposed as president; percent of National Parliament vote - NA
 
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unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats (45 reserved for women) elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies; members serve five-year terms
elections: last held on 29 December 2008 (next to be held in 2013)
election results: percent of vote by party - AL 49%, BNP 33.2%, JP 7%, JIB 4.6%, other 6.2%; seats by party - AL 230, BNP 30, JP 27, JIB 2, other 11
 
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Supreme Court (the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president)
 
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Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA]; Communist Party of Bangladesh or CPB [Manjurul A. KHAN]; Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA]; Bikalpa Dhara Bangladesh or BDB [Badrudozza CHOWDHURY]; Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [multiple leaders]; Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh or JIB [Matiur Rahman NIZAMI]; Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Oli AHMED]
 
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Advocacy to End Gender-based Violence through the MoWCA (Ministry of Women's and Children's Affairs)
other: environmentalists; Islamist groups; religious leaders; teachers; union leaders
 
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ADB, ARF, BIMSTEC, C, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Akramul QADER
chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
FAX: [1] (202) 244-7830/2771
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador James F. MORIARTY
embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
telephone: [880] (2) 885-5500
FAX: [880] (2) 882-3744
 
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green field with a large red disk shifted slightly to the hoist side of center; the red disk represents the rising sun and the sacrifice to achieve independence; the green field symbolizes the lush vegetation of Bangladesh
 
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Bengal tiger
 
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name: "Amar Shonar Bangla" (My Golden Bengal)
lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE
note: adopted 1971; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote India's national anthem
 
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Economy

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The economy has grown 5-6% per year since 1996 despite political instability, poor infrastructure, corruption, insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Bangladesh remains a poor, overpopulated, and inefficiently-governed nation. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the service sector, 45% of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single-most-important product. Bangladesh's growth was resilient during the 2008-09 global financial crisis and recession. Garment exports, totaling $12.3 billion in FY09 and remittances from overseas Bangladeshis, totaling $11 billion in FY10, accounted for almost 25% of GDP.
 
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$258.6 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
$243.9 billion (2009 est.)
$230.6 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$104.9 billion (2010 est.)
 
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6% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
5.8% (2009 est.)
6% (2008 est.)
 
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$1,700 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 197
$1,600 (2009 est.)
$1,500 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 18.6%
industry: 28.5%
services: 53% (2010 est.)
 
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73.86 million
country comparison to the world: 8
note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances were $10.9 billion in FY09/10 (2010 est.)
 
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agriculture: 45%
industry: 30%
services: 25% (2008)
 
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5.1% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
5.1% (2009 est.)
note: about 40% of the population is underemployed; many participants in the labor force work only a few hours a week, at low wages
 
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40% (2010 est.)
 
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lowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: 26.6% (2008 est.)
 
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33.2 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 100
33.6 (1996)
 
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23.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
 
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revenues: $11.41 billion
expenditures: $15.87 billion (2010 est.)
 
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10.9% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 204
 
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-4.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
 
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35.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
35.4% of GDP (2009 est.)
 
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8.1% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 191
5.4% (2009 est.)
 
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5% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74
5% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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13% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
14.6% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$14.12 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
$10.88 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$56.44 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
$47.38 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$64.71 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
$53.59 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$47 billion (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 74
$7.068 billion (31 December 2009)
$6.671 billion (31 December 2008)
 
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rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
 
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cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical fertilizer, light engineering, sugar
 
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7% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
 
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25.62 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
 
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23.94 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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5,724 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
 
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98,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
 
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2,770 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
 
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77,340 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
 
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28 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83
 
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19.75 billion cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
 
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20.1 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
 
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195.4 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
 
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$3.734 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
$3.556 billion (2009 est.)
 
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$19.24 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
$15.07 billion (2009 est.)
 
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garments, frozen fish and seafood, jute and jute goods, leather
 
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US 22.1%, Germany 14.1%, UK 8.5%, France 6.8%, Netherlands 6.1% (2010)
 
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$24.72 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65
$19.68 billion (2009 est.)
 
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machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement
 
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China 18.9%, India 12.7%, Singapore 6%, Malaysia 4.7%, Japan 4% (2010)
 
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$11.18 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
$10.34 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$24.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
$23.82 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$6.107 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
$5.139 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$91.2 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
$91 million (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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taka (BDT) per US dollar -
70.59 (2010)
69.04 (2009)
68.554 (2008)
69.893 (2007)
69.031 (2006)
 
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Communications

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900,000 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 83
 
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68.65 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 18
 
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general assessment: inadequate for a modern country; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities
domestic: fixed-line teledensity remains only about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and now exceeds 40 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 880; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2009)
 
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state-owned broadcaster (BTV) operates 1 terrestrial TV station, 3 radio networks, and about 10 local stations; 8 private satellite TV stations and 3 private radio stations also broadcasting; foreign satellite TV stations are gaining audience share in the large cities; several international radio broadcasters are available (2007)
 
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.bd
 
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68,224 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 81
 
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617,300 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 112
 
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Transportation

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17 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 142
 
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total: 15
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 4 (2010)
 
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total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2010)
 
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gas 2,714 km (2010)
 
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total: 2,622 km
country comparison to the world: 63
broad gauge: 946 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,676 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)
 
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total: 239,226 km
country comparison to the world: 21
paved: 22,726 km
unpaved: 216,500 km (2003)
 
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8,370 km (includes up to 3,060 km of main cargo routes; the network is reduced to 5,200 km in the dry season) (2007)
country comparison to the world: 17
 
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total: 50
country comparison to the world: 70
by type: bulk carrier 16, cargo 25, container 5, petroleum tanker 4
foreign-owned: 4 (China 1, Singapore 3)
registered in other countries: 9 (Comoros 1, Malta 1, Panama 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 1, Singapore 2) (2010)
 
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Chittagong, Mongla Port
 
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the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial waters of Bangladesh remain a high risk for armed robbery against ships; attacks against vessels increased in 2010 for the second consecutive year; 23 commercial vessels were attacked both at anchor and while underway; crews were robbed and stores or cargoes stolen
 
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Military

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Bangladesh Defense Force: Bangladesh Army (Sena Bahini), Bangladesh Navy (Noh Bahini, BN), Bangladesh Air Force (Biman Bahini, BAF) (2010)
 
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16 years of age for voluntary enlisted military service (Air Force); 17 years of age (Army and Navy); conscription is by law possible in times of emergency, but has never been implemented (2010)
 
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males age 16-49: 36,520,491 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 30,486,086
females age 16-49: 35,616,093 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 1,606,963
female: 1,689,442 (2010 est.)
 
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1.3% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 116
 
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Transnational Issues

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Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; discussions with India remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary, exchange territory for 51 small Bangladeshi exclaves in India and 111 small Indian exclaves in Bangladesh, allocate divided villages, and stop illegal cross-border trade, migration, violence, and transit of terrorists through the porous border; Bangladesh protests India's fencing and walling-off high-traffic sections of the porous boundary; a joint Bangladesh-India boundary commission agreed to fully demarcate the Bangladesh-India boundary in the Dhubri-Kruigram sector; the Naf river on the border with Burma serves as a smuggling and illegal transit route; Bangladesh struggles to accommodate 29,000 Rohingya, Burmese Muslim minority from Arakan State, living as refugees in Cox's Bazar; Burmese border authorities are constructing a 200 km (124 mi) wire fence designed to deter illegal cross-border transit and tensions from the military build-up along border
 
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refugees (country of origin): 26,268 (Burma)
IDPs: 65,000 (land conflicts, religious persecution) (2007)
 
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current situation: Bangladesh is a source and transit country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation; a significant share of Bangladesh's trafficking victims are men recruited for work overseas with fraudulent employment offers who are subsequently exploited under conditions of forced labor or debt bondage; children are trafficked within Bangladesh for commercial sexual exploitation, bonded labor, and forced labor; women and children from Bangladesh are also trafficked to India and Pakistan for sexual exploitation
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Bangladesh does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so, including some progress in addressing sex trafficking; the government did not demonstrate sufficient progress in criminally prosecuting and convicting labor trafficking offenders, particularly those responsible for the recruitment of Bangladeshi workers for the purpose of labor trafficking (2011)
 
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transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries
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