Australia

Last modified

Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publicat...k/geos/as.html

Resources

PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 15, 2011
Flag of Australia
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Australia
CLICK FLAG OR MAP TO ENLARGE Opens in New Window
 
Map of Australia
CLICK MAP TO ENLARGE Opens in New Window
Photos of Australia
 
Navigation Arrow VIEW 44 PHOTOS Opens in New Window
OF AUSTRALIA
 

Introduction

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia about 40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in the 17th century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770, when Capt. James COOK took possession of the east coast in the name of Great Britain (all of Australia was claimed as British territory in 1829 with the creation of the colony of Western Australia). Six colonies were created in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they federated and became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The new country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II. In recent decades, Australia has transformed itself into an internationally competitive, advanced market economy. It boasted one of the OECD's fastest growing economies during the 1990s, a performance due in large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980s. Long-term concerns include ageing of the population, pressure on infrastructure, and environmental issues such as frequent droughts.
 
Back to Top

Geography

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
27 00 S, 133 00 E
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 7,741,220 sq km
country comparison to the world: 6
land: 7,682,300 sq km
water: 58,920 sq km
note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
slightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 km
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
25,760 km
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
highest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, rare earth elements, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum
note: Australia is the world's largest net exporter of coal accounting for 29% of global coal exports
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
arable land: 6.15% (includes about 27 million hectares of cultivated grassland)
permanent crops: 0.04%
other: 93.81% (2005)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
25,500 sq km (2008)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
398 cu km (1995)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 24.06 cu km/yr (15%/10%/75%)
per capita: 1,193 cu m/yr (2000)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires
volcanism: volcanic activity occurs on the Heard and McDonald Islands
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural freshwater resources
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; the invigorating sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor" affects the city of Perth on the west coast and is one of the most consistent winds in the world
 
Back to Top

People and Society

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
noun: Australian(s)
adjective: Australian
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
white 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
English 78.5%, Chinese 2.5%, Italian 1.6%, Greek 1.3%, Arabic 1.2%, Vietnamese 1%, other 8.2%, unspecified 5.7% (2006 Census)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Protestant 27.4% (Anglican 18.7%, Uniting Church 5.7%, Presbyterian and Reformed 3%), Catholic 25.8%, Eastern Orthodox 2.7%, other Christian 7.9%, Buddhist 2.1%, Muslim 1.7%, other 2.4%, unspecified 11.3%, none 18.7% (2006 Census)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
21,766,711 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0-14 years: 18.3% (male 2,040,848/female 1,937,544)
15-64 years: 67.7% (male 7,469,092/female 7,266,143)
65 years and over: 14% (male 1,398,576/female 1,654,508) (2011 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 37.7 years
male: 37 years
female: 38.4 years (2011 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1.148% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
12.33 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
6.88 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
6.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
urban population: 89% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Sydney 4.429 million; Melbourne 3.853 million; Brisbane 1.97 million; Perth 1.599 million; CANBERRA (capital) 384,000 (2009)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
at birth: 1.055 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
8 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 156
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 4.61 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 191
male: 4.93 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total population: 81.81 years
country comparison to the world: 9
male: 79.4 years
female: 84.35 years (2011 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1.78 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
8.5% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 47
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2.991 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
country comparison to the world: 39
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
3.82 beds/1,000 population (2009)
country comparison to the world: 53
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2008)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2008)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0.1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
20,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
16.4% (2005)
country comparison to the world: 27
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
4.5% of GDP (2007)
country comparison to the world: 81
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 21 years
male: 20 years
female: 21 years (2008)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 11.6%
country comparison to the world: 93
male: 12.6%
female: 10.4% (2009)
 
Back to Top

Government

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
conventional short form: Australia
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
name: Canberra
geographic coordinates: 35 17 S, 149 13 E
time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends first Sunday in April
note: Australia is divided into three time zones
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Macquarie Island, Norfolk Island
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1 January 1901 (from the federation of UK colonies)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Australia Day, 26 January (1788); ANZAC Day (commemorates the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April (1915)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
9 July 1900; effective 1 January 1901
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
common law system based on the English model
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
18 years of age; universal and compulsory
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of state: Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Quentin BRYCE (since 5 September 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Julia Eileen GILLARD (since 24 June 2010); Deputy Prime Minister Wayne Maxwell SWAN (since 24 June 2010)
cabinet: prime minister nominates, from among members of Parliament, candidates who are subsequently sworn in by the governor general to serve as government ministers
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats; 12 members from each of the six states and 2 from each of the two mainland territories; one-half of state members are elected every three years by popular vote to serve six-year terms while all territory members are elected every three years) and the House of Representatives (150 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve terms of up to three-years; no state can have fewer than 5 representatives)
elections: Senate - last held on 21 August 2010; House of Representatives - last held on 21 August 2010 (the latest a simultaneous half-Senate and House of Representative elections can be held is 30 November 2013)
election results: Senate (effective 1 July 2011) - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Liberal/National Party 34, Australian Labor Party 31, Greens 9, others 2; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - Australian Labor Party 38.1%, Liberal Party 30.4%, Greens 11.5%, Liberal National Party of Queensland 9.3%, independents 6.6%, The Nationals 3.7%, Country Liberals 0.3%; seats by party - Australian Labor Party 72, Liberal Party 44, Liberal National Party of Queensland 21, The Nationals 7, Country Liberals 1, Greens 1, independents 4
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
High Court (the chief justice and six other justices are appointed by the governor general acting on the advice of the government)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Australian Greens [Bob BROWN]; Australian Labor Party [Julia GILLARD]; Family First Party [Steve FIELDING]; Liberal Party [Tony ABBOTT]; The Nationals [Warren TRUSS]
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
other: business groups; environmental groups; social groups; trade unions
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
ADB, ANZUS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Paris Club, PCA, PIF, SAARC (observer), Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of mission: Ambassador Kim Christian BEAZLEY
chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000
FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
chief of mission: Ambassador Jeffrey L. BLEICH
embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600
mailing address: APO AP 96549
telephone: [61] (02) 6214-5600
FAX: [61] (02) 6214-5970
consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, Sydney
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as the Commonwealth or Federation Star, representing the federation of the colonies of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for each of the six original states and one representing all of Australia's internal and external territories; on the fly half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and four larger, seven-pointed stars
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Southern Cross constellation (five, seven-pointed stars); kangaroo; emu
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
name: "Advance Australia Fair"
lyrics/music: Peter Dodds McCORMICK
note: adopted 1984; although originally written in the late 19th century, the anthem did not become used for all official occasions until 1984; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" is also played at Royal functions (see United Kingdom)
 
Back to Top

Economy

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Australia's abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal, iron ore, copper, gold, natural gas, uranium, and renewable energy sources. A series of major investments, such as the US$40 billion Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas project, will significantly expand the resources sector. Australia also has a large services sector and is a significant exporter of natural resources, energy, and food. Key tenets of Australia's trade policy include support for open trade and the successful culmination of the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, particularly for agriculture and services. The Australian economy grew for 17 consecutive years before the global financial crisis. Subsequently, the Rudd government introduced a fiscal stimulus package worth over US$50 billion to offset the effect of the slowing world economy, while the Reserve Bank of Australia cut interest rates to historic lows. These policies - and continued demand for commodities, especially from China - helped the Australian economy rebound after just one quarter of negative growth. The economy grew by 1.2% during 2009 - the best performance in the OECD - and by 3.3% in 2010. Unemployment, originally expected to reach 8-10%, peaked at 5.7% in late 2009 and fell to 5.1% in 2010. As a result of an improved economy, the budget deficit is expected to peak below 4.2% of GDP and the government could return to budget surpluses as early as 2015. Australia was one of the first advanced economies to raise interest rates, with seven rate hikes between October 2009 and November 2010. The GILLARD government is focused on raising Australia's economic productivity to ensure the sustainability of growth, and continues to manage the symbiotic, but sometimes tense, economic relationship with China. Australia is engaged in the Trans-Pacific Partnership talks and ongoing free trade agreement negotiations with China, Japan, and Korea.
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$882.4 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
$858.8 billion (2009 est.)
$847.5 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$1.236 trillion (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2.7% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
1.3% (2009 est.)
2.6% (2008 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$41,000 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
$40,400 (2009 est.)
$40,300 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
agriculture: 3.9%
industry: 25.5%
services: 70.6% (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
11.87 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
agriculture: 3.6%
industry: 21.1%
services: 75% (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
5.2% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
5.6% (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
NA%
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 25.4% (1994)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
30.5 (2006)
country comparison to the world: 115
35.2 (1994)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
27.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
revenues: $399 billion
expenditures: $441.2 billion (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
32.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
-3.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
28.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
22.6% of GDP (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2.8% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
1.8% (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
4.35% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
3.28% (31 December 2009 est.)
note: this is the Reserve Bank of Australia's "cash rate target," or policy rate
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
7.279% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
6.021% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$421.8 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
$334.5 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$1.392 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
$1.123 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$1.927 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$1.618 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$1.455 trillion (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 11
$1.258 trillion (31 December 2009)
$675.6 billion (31 December 2008)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
4.5% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
232 billion kWh (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
225.4 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
549,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
960,800 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
312,600 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
731,400 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
3.318 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
45.11 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
26.41 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
24.7 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
5.99 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
3.115 trillion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
-$30.4 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
-$43.89 billion (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$212.9 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
$154.8 billion (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
coal, iron ore, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and transport equipment
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
China 25.1%, Japan 18.9%, South Korea 8.9%, India 7.1%, US 4% (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$194.7 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
$159 billion (2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
China 18.7%, US 11.1%, Japan 8.7%, Thailand 5.2%, Singapore 5.1%, Germany 5%, Malaysia 4.3% (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$42.27 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
$41.74 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$1.302 trillion (30 June 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$1.265 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$514.4 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
$425.8 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
$400.7 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$338.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar -
1.0902 (2010)
1.2822 (2009)
1.2059 (2008)
1.2137 (2007)
1.3285 (2006)
 
Back to Top

Communications

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
8.66 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 24
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
22.5 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 40
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
general assessment: excellent domestic and international service
domestic: domestic satellite system; significant use of radiotelephone in areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile telephones
international: country code - 61; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable with links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Southern Cross fiber optic submarine cable provides links to New Zealand and the United States; satellite earth stations - 19 (10 Intelsat - 4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean, 2 Inmarsat - Indian and Pacific Ocean regions, 2 Globalstar, 5 other) (2007)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) runs multiple national and local radio networks and TV stations, as well as Australia Network, a TV service that broadcasts throughout the Asia-Pacific region and is the main public broadcaster; Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), a second large public broadcaster, operates radio and TV networks broadcasting in multiple languages; several large national commercial TV networks, a large number of local commercial TV stations, and hundreds of commercial radio stations are accessible; cable and satellite systems are available (2008)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
.au
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
13.361 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 8
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
15.81 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 25
 
Back to Top

Transportation

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
465 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 17
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 326
over 3,047 m: 11
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 148
914 to 1,523 m: 140
under 914 m: 14 (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 139
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 110
under 914 m: 12 (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
1 (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
gas 27,900 km; liquid petroleum gas 240 km; oil 3,257 km; oil/gas/water 1 km (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 38,445 km
country comparison to the world: 7
broad gauge: 3,355 km 1.600-m gauge
standard gauge: 21,674 km 1.435-m gauge (650 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 9,539 km 1.067-m gauge (2,067 km electrified); 3,877 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 818,356 km (2008)
country comparison to the world: 9
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
2,000 km (mainly used for recreation on Murray and Murray-Darling river systems) (2006)
country comparison to the world: 44
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 45
country comparison to the world: 73
by type: bulk carrier 10, cargo 8, liquefied gas 4, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 5
foreign-owned: 20 (Canada 7, Germany 2, Netherlands 1, Norway 1, Singapore 2, UK 5, US 2)
registered in other countries: 29 (Dominica 1, Fiji 2, Liberia 2, Marshall Islands 1, Netherlands 1, NZ 1, Panama 5, Singapore 11, Tonga 1, UK 1, US 1, Vanuatu 2) (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Brisbane, Cairns, Dampier, Darwin, Fremantle, Gladstone, Geelong, Hay Point, Hobart, Jervis Bay, Melbourne, Newcastle, Port Adelaide, Port Dalrymple, Port Hedland, Port Kembla, Port Lincoln, Port Walcott, Sydney
 
Back to Top

Military

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Australian Defense Force (ADF): Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force, Special Operations Command (2006)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
17 years of age for voluntary military service (with parental consent); no conscription; women allowed to serve in Army combat units in non-combat support roles (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
males age 16-49: 5,316,464
females age 16-49: 5,116,722 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
males age 16-49: 4,411,958
females age 16-49: 4,239,985 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
male: 143,565
female: 135,800 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
3% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 44
 
Back to Top

Transnational Issues

Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
In 2007, Australia and Timor-Leste signed agreed to a 50-year development zone and revenue sharing arrangement and deferred a maritime boundary; Australia asserts land and maritime claims to Antarctica; Australia's 2004 submission to Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) extends its continental margins over 3.37 million square kilometers, expanding its seabed roughly 30 percent beyond its claimed exclusive economic zone; a 1997 treaty between Indonesia and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but some outstanding issues, especially around Timor Leste, remain; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate; major consumer of cocaine and amphetamines
Page statistics
636 view(s) and 4 edit(s)
Social share
Share this page?

Tags

This page has no custom tags.
This page has no classifications.

Comments

You must to post a comment.

Attachments