Argentina

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Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publicat...k/geos/ar.html

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PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 15, 2011
Flag of Argentina
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Location of Argentina
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OF ARGENTINA
 

Introduction

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In 1816, the United Provinces of the Rio Plata declared their independence from Spain. After Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay went their separate ways, the area that remained became Argentina. The country's population and culture were heavily shaped by immigrants from throughout Europe, but most particularly Italy and Spain, which provided the largest percentage of newcomers from 1860 to 1930. Up until about the mid-20th century, much of Argentina's history was dominated by periods of internal political conflict between Federalists and Unitarians and between civilian and military factions. After World War II, an era of Peronist populism and direct and indirect military interference in subsequent governments was followed by a military junta that took power in 1976. Democracy returned in 1983 after a failed bid to seize the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands by force, and has persisted despite numerous challenges, the most formidable of which was a severe economic crisis in 2001-02 that led to violent public protests and the successive resignations of several presidents.
 
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Geography

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Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay
 
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34 00 S, 64 00 W
 
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total: 2,780,400 sq km
country comparison to the world: 8
land: 2,736,690 sq km
water: 43,710 sq km
 
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slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US
 
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total: 9,861 km
border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,261 km, Chile 5,308 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 580 km
 
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4,989 km
 
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territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 
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mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
 
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rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
 
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lowest point: Laguna del Carbon -105 m (located between Puerto San Julian and Comandante Luis Piedra Buena in the province of Santa Cruz)
highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,960 m (located in the northwestern corner of the province of Mendoza)
 
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fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium
 
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arable land: 10.03%
permanent crops: 0.36%
other: 89.61% (2005)
 
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15,500 sq km (2008)
 
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814 cu km (2000)
 
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total: 29.19 cu km/yr (17%/9%/74%)
per capita: 753 cu m/yr (2000)
 
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San Miguel de Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the pampas and northeast; heavy flooding in some areas
volcanism: Argentina experiences volcanic activity in the Andes Mountains along the Chilean border; Copahue (elev. 2,997 m) last erupted in 2000; other historically active volcanoes include Llullaillaco, Maipo, Planchon-Peteroa, San Jose, Tromen, Tupungatito, and Viedma
 
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environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrializing economy such as deforestation, soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution
note: Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets
 
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party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
 
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second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between the South Atlantic and the South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); diverse geophysical landscapes range from tropical climates in the north to tundra in the far south; Cerro Aconcagua is the Western Hemisphere's tallest mountain, while Laguna del Carbon is the lowest point in the Western Hemisphere
 
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People and Society

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noun: Argentine(s)
adjective: Argentine
 
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white (mostly Spanish and Italian) 97%, mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry), Amerindian, or other non-white groups 3%
 
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Spanish (official), Italian, English, German, French
 
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nominally Roman Catholic 92% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 4%
 
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41,769,726 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
 
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0-14 years: 25.4% (male 5,429,488/female 5,181,289)
15-64 years: 63.6% (male 13,253,468/female 13,301,530)
65 years and over: 11% (male 1,897,144/female 2,706,807) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 30.5 years
male: 29.5 years
female: 31.6 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.017% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
 
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17.54 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
 
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7.38 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
 
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0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
 
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urban population: 92% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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BUENOS AIRES (capital) 12.988 million; Cordoba 1.493 million; Rosario 1.231 million; Mendoza 917,000; San Miguel de Tucuman 831,000 (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.052 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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70 deaths/100,000 live births (2008)
country comparison to the world: 85
 
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total: 10.81 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 145
male: 12.08 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 76.95 years
country comparison to the world: 69
male: 73.71 years
female: 80.36 years (2011 est.)
 
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2.31 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
 
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9.5% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 37
 
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3.155 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
country comparison to the world: 34
 
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4 beds/1,000 population (2005)
country comparison to the world: 50
 
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improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 80% of population
total: 97% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 20% of population
total: 3% of population (2008)
 
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improved:
urban: 91% of population
rural: 77% of population
total: 90% of population
unimproved:
urban: 9% of population
rural: 23% of population
total: 10% of population (2008)
 
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0.5% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
 
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110,000 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
 
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2,900 (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46
 
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degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2009)
 
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2.3% (2005)
country comparison to the world: 106
 
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4.9% of GDP (2007)
country comparison to the world: 63
 
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definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.2%
male: 97.2%
female: 97.2% (2001 census)
 
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total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 17 years (2007)
 
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total: 21.2%
country comparison to the world: 50
male: 18.8%
female: 24.7% (2009)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: Argentine Republic
conventional short form: Argentina
local long form: Republica Argentina
local short form: Argentina
 
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republic
 
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name: Buenos Aires
geographic coordinates: 34 36 S, 58 40 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: none scheduled for 2011
 
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23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 autonomous city*; Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires*, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego - Antartida e Islas del Atlantico Sur (Tierra del Fuego), Tucuman
note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica
 
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9 July 1816 (from Spain)
 
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Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)
 
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1 May 1853; amended many times starting in 1860
 
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civil law system based on West European legal systems; note - efforts at civil code reform begun in the mid-1980s has stagnated
 
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has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
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18-70 years of age; universal and compulsory
 
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chief of state: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10 December 2007); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER (since 10 December 2007); Vice President Julio COBOS (since 10 December 2007)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 October 2011 (next election to be held in October 2015)
election results: Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER reelected president; percent of vote - Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER 54%, Hermes BINNER 16.9%, Ricardo ALFONSIN 11.1%, Alberto Rodriguez SAA 8%, Eduardo DUHALDE 5.9%, other 4.1%
 
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bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate (72 seats; members are elected by direct vote; presently one-third of the members elected every two years to serve six-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies (257 seats; members are elected by direct vote; one-half of the members elected every two years to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 28 June 2009 (next to be held in 2011); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 28 June 2009 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FpV 8, ACyS 14, PJ disidente 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by bloc or party - NA; seats by bloc or party - FpV 45, ACyS 42, PRO 20, PJ disidente 12, other 8; note - as of 1 February 2011, the composition of the entire legislature is as follows: Senate - seats by bloc or party - FpV 32, UCR 16, PJ disidente 14, other 10; Chamber of Deputies - seats by bloc or party - FpV 87, ACyS 43, PRO 11, PJ disidente 28, CC 19, PS 6, other 63
 
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Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (the Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president with approval of the Senate)
note: the Supreme Court has seven judges; the Argentine Congress in 2006 passed a bill to gradually reduce the number of Supreme Court judges to five
 
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Civic and Social Accord or ACyS (a now-defunct center-left alliance that included the CC, UCR, and Socialist parties-created ahead of the 2009 legislative elections); Civic Coalition or CC (a broad coalition loosely affiliated with Elisa CARRIO); Dissident Peronists or PJ Disidente (a sector of the Justicialist Party opposed to the Kirchners); Front for Victory or FpV (a broad coalition, including elements of the UCR and numerous provincial parties) [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER]; Justicialist Party or PJ [Daniel SCIOLI]; Radical Civic Union or UCR [Ernesto SANZ]; Republican Proposal or PRO [Mauricio MACRI] (including Federal Recreate Movement or RECREAR [Esteban BULLRICH]; Socialist Party or PS [Ruben GIUSTINIANI]; Union For All [Patricia BULLRICH] (associated with the Civic Coalition); numerous provincial parties
 
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Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association); Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association); Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical union for employed and unemployed workers); General Confederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); White and Blue CGT (dissident CGT labor confederation); Roman Catholic Church
other: business organizations; Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government); students
 
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AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (associate), FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, RG, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Alfredo Vicente CHIARADIA
chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 238-6400
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3171
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Vilma MARTINEZ
embassy: Avenida Colombia 4300, C1425GMN Buenos Aires
mailing address: international mail: use embassy street address; APO address: US Embassy Buenos Aires, Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
telephone: [54] (11) 5777-4533
FAX: [54] (11) 5777-4240
 
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three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May; the colors represent the clear skies and snow of the Andes; the sun symbol commemorates the appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on 25 May 1810 during the first mass demonstration in favor of independence; the sun features are those of Inti, the Inca god of the sun
 
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Sun of May (a sun-with-face symbol)
 
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name: "Himno Nacional Argentino" (Argentine National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Vicente LOPEZ y PLANES/Jose Blas PARERA
note: adopted 1813; Vicente LOPEZ was inspired to write the anthem after watching a play about the 1810 May Revolution against Spain
 
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Economy

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Argentina benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base. Although one of the world's wealthiest countries 100 years ago, Argentina suffered during most of the 20th century from recurring economic crises, persistent fiscal and current account deficits, high inflation, mounting external debt, and capital flight. A severe depression, growing public and external indebtedness, and a bank run culminated in 2001 in the most serious economic, social, and political crisis in the country's turbulent history. Interim President Adolfo RODRIGUEZ SAA declared a default - the largest in history - on the government's foreign debt in December of that year, and abruptly resigned only a few days after taking office. His successor, Eduardo DUHALDE, announced an end to the peso's decade-long 1-to-1 peg to the US dollar in early 2002. The economy bottomed out that year, with real GDP 18% smaller than in 1998 and almost 60% of Argentines under the poverty line. Real GDP rebounded to grow by an average 8.5% annually over the subsequent six years, taking advantage of previously idled industrial capacity and labor, an audacious debt restructuring and reduced debt burden, excellent international financial conditions, and expansionary monetary and fiscal policies. Inflation also increased, however, during the administration of President Nestor KIRCHNER, which responded with price restraints on businesses, as well as export taxes and restraints, and beginning in early 2007, with understating inflation data. Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER succeeded her husband as President in late 2007, and the rapid economic growth of previous years began to slow sharply the following year as government policies held back exports and the world economy fell into recession. The economy has rebounded strongly from the 2009 recession, but the government's continued reliance on expansionary fiscal and monetary policies risks exacerbating already high inflation.
 
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$596 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
$554.5 billion (2009 est.)
$571.6 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$370.3 billion (2010 est.)
 
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7.5% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
-3% (2009 est.)
5% (2008 est.)
 
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$14,700 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
$13,700 (2009 est.)
$14,100 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 8.5%
industry: 31.6%
services: 59.8% (2010 est.)
 
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16.54 million
country comparison to the world: 36
note: urban areas only (2010 est.)
 
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agriculture: 5%
industry: 23%
services: 72% (2009 est.)
 
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7.8% (2010)
country comparison to the world: 86
8.7% (2009 est.)
 
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30%
note: data are based on private estimates (2010)
 
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lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 29.5% (3rd Quarter, 2010)
 
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45.8 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 35
 
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22% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
 
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revenues: $89.95 billion
expenditures: $89.17 billion (2010 est.)
 
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24.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
 
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0.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
 
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45.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
48.6% of GDP (2009 est.)
note: official data
 
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22% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 221
16% (2009 est.)
note: data are derived from private estimates
 
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NA%
 
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10.558% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
15.655% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$56.32 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43
$43.44 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$112.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
$85.18 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$104.9 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
$83.35 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$63.91 billion (31 December 2010)
country comparison to the world: 53
$48.93 billion (31 December 2009)
$52.31 billion (31 December 2008)
 
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sunflower seeds, lemons, soybeans, grapes, corn, tobacco, peanuts, tea, wheat; livestock
 
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food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
 
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8.9%
country comparison to the world: 35
note: based on private estimates (2010 est.)
 
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115.4 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
 
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104.7 billion kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30
 
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3 billion kWh (2009 est.)
 
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5.53 billion kWh (2009 est.)
 
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763,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
 
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618,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
 
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238,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51
 
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19,380 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
 
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2.505 billion bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32
 
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40.1 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
 
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43.46 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
 
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880 million cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
 
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3.78 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
 
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378.8 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
 
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$3.573 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
$11.06 billion (2009 est.)
 
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$68.13 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
$55.67 billion (2009 est.)
 
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soybeans and derivatives, petroleum and gas, vehicles, corn, wheat
 
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Brazil 21.2%, China 9.1%, Chile 7%, US 5.4% (2010)
 
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$53.87 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
$37.15 billion (2009 est.)
 
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machinery, motor vehicles, petroleum and natural gas, organic chemicals, plastics
 
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Brazil 34.5%, US 13.8%, China 11.4%, Germany 5% (2010)
 
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$52.23 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
$48.03 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$132.5 billion (30 June 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 35
$128 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
 
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$86.35 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
$80.15 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$30.39 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
$29.45 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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Argentine pesos (ARS) per US dollar -
3.8983 (2010)
3.7101 (2009)
3.1636 (2008)
3.1105 (2007)
3.0543 (2006)
 
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Communications

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10 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 21
 
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57.3 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 22
 
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general assessment: the "Telecommunications Liberalization Plan of 1998" opened the telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment encouraging the growth of modern telecommunications technology; fiber-optic cable trunk lines are being installed between all major cities; major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service is improving
domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; fixed-line teledensity is increasing gradually and mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; broadband Internet services are gaining ground
international: country code - 54; landing point for the Atlantis-2, UNISUR, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112; 2 international gateways near Buenos Aires (2009)
 
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government owns a TV station and a radio network; more than 2 dozen TV stations and hundreds of privately-owned radio stations; high rate of cable TV subscription usage (2007)
 
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.ar
 
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6.025 million (2010)
country comparison to the world: 16
 
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13.694 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 28
 
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Transportation

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1,141 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 6
 
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total: 156
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 65
914 to 1,523 m: 51
under 914 m: 9 (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 985
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 43
914 to 1,523 m: 530
under 914 m: 410 (2010)
 
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2 (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
gas 29,401 km; liquid petroleum gas 41 km; oil 6,166 km; refined products 3,631 km (2010)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 36,966 km
country comparison to the world: 8
broad gauge: 26,475 km 1.676-m gauge (94 km electrified)
standard gauge: 2,780 km 1.435-m gauge (42 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 7,711 km 1.000-m gauge (2010)
 
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total: 231,374 km
country comparison to the world: 22
paved: 69,412 km (includes 734 km of expressways)
unpaved: 161,962 km (2004)
 
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11,000 km (2007)
country comparison to the world: 12
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
total: 43
country comparison to the world: 74
by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 7, chemical tanker 4, container 1, passenger/cargo 3, petroleum tanker 23, refrigerated cargo 2
foreign-owned: 12 (Brazil 1, Chile 6, Spain 3, UK 2)
registered in other countries: 17 (Liberia 3, Panama 7, Paraguay 5, Uruguay 2) (2010)
 
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Arroyo Seco, Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, La Plata, Punta Colorada, Rosario, San Lorenzo-San Martin, Ushuaia
 
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Military

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Argentine Army (Ejercito Argentino), Navy of the Argentine Republic (Armada Republica; includes naval aviation and naval infantry), Argentine Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Argentina, FAA) (2011)
 
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18-24 years of age for voluntary military service (18-21 requires parental consent); no conscription (2001)
 
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males age 16-49: 10,038,967
females age 16-49: 9,959,134 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
males age 16-49: 8,458,362
females age 16-49: 8,414,460 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
male: 339,503
female: 323,170 (2010 est.)
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
0.8% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 146
 
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
the Argentine military is a well-organized force constrained by the country's prolonged economic hardship; the country has recently experienced a strong recovery, and the military is implementing a modernization plan aimed at making the ground forces lighter and more responsive (2008)
 
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Transnational Issues

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Argentina continues to assert its claims to the UK-administered Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands in its constitution, forcibly occupying the Falklands in 1982, but in 1995 agreed no longer to seek settlement by force; UK continues to reject Argentine requests for sovereignty talks; territorial claim in Antarctica partially overlaps UK and Chilean claims; uncontested dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; in 2010, the ICJ ruled in favor of Uruguay's operation of two paper mills on the Uruguay River, which forms the border with Argentina; the two countries formed a joint pollution monitoring regime; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001 has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur); contraband smuggling, human trafficking, and illegal narcotic trafficking are problems in the porous areas of the border with Bolivia
 
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a transshipment country for cocaine headed for Europe, heroin headed for the US, and ephedrine and pseudoephedrine headed for Mexico; some money-laundering activity, especially in the Tri-Border Area; law enforcement corruption; a source for precursor chemicals; increasing domestic consumption of drugs in urban centers, especially cocaine base and synthetic drugs (2008)
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