Antigua and Barbuda

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Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publicat...k/geos/ac.html

PAGE LAST UPDATED ON NOVEMBER 9, 2011
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda
(CONTAINS DESCRIPTION)
Location of Antigua and Barbuda
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Map of Antigua and Barbuda
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OF ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA
 

Introduction

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The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.
 
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Geography

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Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico
 
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17 03 N, 61 48 W
 
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total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
country comparison to the world: 201
land: 442.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km
 
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2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
 
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0 km
 
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153 km
 
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territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
 
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tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation
 
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mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas
 
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lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m
 
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NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism
 
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arable land: 18.18%
permanent crops: 4.55%
other: 77.27% (2005)
 
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1.3 sq km (2008)
 
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0.1 cu km (2000)
 
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total: 0.005 cu km/yr (60%/20%/20%)
per capita: 63 cu m/yr (1990)
 
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hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts
 
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water management - a major concern because of limited natural freshwater resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly
 
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party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
 
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Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor
 
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People and Society

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noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan
 
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black 91%, mixed 4.4%, white 1.7%, other 2.9% (2001 census)
 
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English (official), local dialects
 
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Protestant 76.4% (Anglican 25.7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%, Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%), Roman Catholic 10.4%, other Christian 5.4%, other 2%, none or unspecified 5.8% (2001 census)
 
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87,884 (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 198
 
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0-14 years: 25.8% (male 11,530/female 11,174)
15-64 years: 67.4% (male 27,599/female 31,592)
65 years and over: 6.8% (male 2,592/female 3,397) (2011 est.)
 
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total: 30.3 years
male: 28.7 years
female: 31.7 years (2011 est.)
 
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1.289% (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
 
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16.31 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
 
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5.73 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 172
 
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2.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
 
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urban population: 30% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
 
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SAINT JOHN'S (capital) 27,000 (2009)
 
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at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2011 est.)
 
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total: 14.63 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 121
male: 16.85 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)
 
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total population: 75.48 years
country comparison to the world: 86
male: 73.47 years
female: 77.59 years (2011 est.)
 
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2.05 children born/woman (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
 
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5.1% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 135
 
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0.17 physicians/1,000 population (1999)
country comparison to the world: 153
 
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2.2 beds/1,000 population (2009)
country comparison to the world: 92
 
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improved:
urban: 95% of population
rural: 89% of population
total: 91% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5% of population
rural: 11% of population
total: 9% of population (2000)
 
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improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 94% of population
total: 95% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 6% of population
total: 5% of population (2000)
 
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NA
 
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NA
 
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NA
 
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2.7% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 141
 
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definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
total population: 85.8%
male: NA
female: NA (2003 est.)
 
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total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2009)
 
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total: 19.9%
country comparison to the world: 59
male: 18.4%
female: 21.6% (2001)
 
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Government

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conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda
 
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constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government and a Commonwealth realm
 
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name: Saint John's
geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
 
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6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip
 
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1 November 1981 (from the UK)
 
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Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)
 
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1 November 1981
 
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common law based on the English model
 
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has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
 
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18 years of age; universal
 
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chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 July 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 March 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
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elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
 
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bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 12 March 2009 (next to be held in 2014)
election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 50.9%, ALP 47.2%, BPM 1.1%; seats by party - UPP 9, ALP 7, BPM 1
 
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Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court consisting of a High Court of Justice and a Court of Appeal (based in Saint Lucia; two judges of the Supreme Court are residents of the islands and preside over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction); Magistrates' Courts; member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
 
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Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]; Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)
 
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Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
 
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ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, PetroCaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
 
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chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York
 
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the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda
 
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red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band; the sun symbolizes the dawn of a new era, black represents the African heritage of most of the population, blue is for hope, and red is for the dynamism of the people; the "V" stands for victory; the successive yellow, blue, and white coloring is also meant to evoke the country's tourist attractions of sun, sea, and sand
 
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name: "Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee"
lyrics/music: Novelle Hamilton RICHARDS/Walter Garnet Picart CHAMBERS
note: adopted 1967; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)
 
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Economy

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Tourism continues to dominate Antigua and Barbuda's economy, accounting for nearly 60% of GDP and 40% of investment. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on tourist arrivals from the US, Canada, and Europe and potential damages from natural disasters. After taking office in 2004, the SPENCER government adopted an ambitious fiscal reform program, and was successful in reducing its public debt-to-GDP ratio from 120% to about 90% in 2008. However, the global financial crisis that began in 2008, has led to a significant increase in the national debt, which topped 130% at the end of 2010. The Antiguan economy experienced solid growth from 2003 to 2007, reaching over 12% in 2006 driven by a construction boom in hotels and housing associated with the Cricket World Cup, but growth dropped off in 2008 with the end of the boom. In 2009, Antigua's economy was severely hit by the global economic crisis, suffering from the collapse of its largest financial institution and a steep decline in tourism. This decline continued in 2010 as the country struggled with a yawning budget deficit.
 
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$1.425 billion (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 195
$1.486 billion (2009 est.)
$1.631 billion (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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$1.105 billion (2010 est.)
 
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-4.1% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
-8.9% (2009 est.)
1.8% (2008 est.)
 
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$16,400 (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68
$17,400 (2009 est.)
$19,300 (2008 est.)
note: data are in 2010 US dollars
 
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agriculture: 3.9%
industry: 33.2%
services: 62.9% (2010 est.)
 
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30,000 (1991)
country comparison to the world: 204
 
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agriculture: 7%
industry: 11%
services: 82% (1983)
 
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11% (2001 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
 
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NA%
 
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lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
 
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79% of GDP (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
 
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revenues: $229.5 million
expenditures: $293.4 million (2009 est.)
 
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20.8% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
 
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-5.8% of GDP (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
 
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2.9% (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
-0.1% (2009 est.)
 
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6.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
6.5% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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11.025% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
10.05% (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$208.1 million (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
$233.5 million (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.299 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155
$1.194 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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$1.14 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
$1.19 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
 
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cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock
 
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tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)
 
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NA%
 
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115 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 192
 
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107 million kWh (2008 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 kWh (2009 est.)
 
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0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
 
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5,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171
 
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240 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
 
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4,548 bbl/day (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162
 
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0 bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 149
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
 
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0 cu m (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 146
 
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0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
 
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-$326.5 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95
-$261.6 million (2009 est.)
 
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$69.1 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 193
$71.53 million (2009 est.)
 
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petroleum products, bedding, handicrafts, electronic components, transport equipment, food and live animals
 
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$633.7 million (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
$589.4 million (2009 est.)
 
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food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
 
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$359.8 million (June 2006)
country comparison to the world: 170
 
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East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
2.7 (2010)
2.7 (2009)
2.7 (2005)
2.7 (2004)
2.7 (2003)
 
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Communications

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41,700 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 170
 
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163,900 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 183
 
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general assessment: good automatic telephone system
domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 50 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is some 190 per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-268; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cable systems with links to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands) and Guadeloupe (France) (2009)
 
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state-controlled Antigua and Barbuda Broadcasting Service (ABS) operates 1 TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; 1 radio station operated by ABS; roughly 15 radio stations, some broadcasting on multiple frequencies (2007)
 
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.ag
 
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9,795 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 122
 
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65,000 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 172
 
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Transportation

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3 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 193
 
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total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2010)
 
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total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2010)
 
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total: 1,165 km
country comparison to the world: 181
paved: 384 km
unpaved: 781 km (2002)
 
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total: 1,219
country comparison to the world: 9
by type: barge carrier 1, bulk carrier 53, cargo 703, carrier 6, chemical tanker 4, container 412, liquefied gas 12, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 16, vehicle carrier 2
foreign-owned: 1,186 (Albania 1, Colombia 1, Denmark 20, Estonia 20, Germany 1050, Greece 5, Iceland 9, Isle of Man 2, Latvia 16, Lithuania 4, Mexico 2, Netherlands 18, Norway 9, NZ 2, Poland 2, Russia 3, Slovenia 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 7, Turkey 7, US 6)
note: this country allows large numbers of ships owned by foreign entities to be registered in its national shipping registry and to fly its flag; these ships operate under the laws of the flag state (2010)
 
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Saint John's
 
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Military

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Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (includes Antigua and Barbuda Coast Guard) (2011)
 
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18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2010)
 
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males age 16-49: 21,141
females age 16-49: 24,056 (2010 est.)
 
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males age 16-49: 17,676
females age 16-49: 19,960 (2010 est.)
 
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male: 806
female: 799 (2010 est.)
 
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0.5% of GDP (2009)
country comparison to the world: 159
 
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Transnational Issues

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none
 
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considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center
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