Table of contents
  1. Cover Page
    1. AFRICA
    2. EAST & SOUTHEAST ASIA
    3. ANTARCTICA
    4. EUROPE
    5. AUSTRALIA-OCEANIA
    6. MIDDLE EAST
    7. CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN
    8. NORTH AMERICA
    9. CENTRAL ASIA
    10. SOUTH AMERICA
    11. SOUTH ASIA
    12. PAGE NOT FOUND
  2. About
    1. History
      1. A Brief History of Basic Intelligence and The World Factbook
      2. The Evolution of The World Factbook
        1. 1981
        2. 1983
        3. 1984
        4. 1987
        5. 1988
        6. 1989
        7. 1990
        8. 1991
        9. 1992
        10. 1993
        11. 1994
        12. 1995
        13. 1996
        14. 1997
        15. 1998
        16. 1999
        17. 2000
        18. 2001
        19. 2002
        20. 2003
        21. 2004
        22. 2005
        23. 2006
        24. 2007
        25. 2008
        26. 2009
        27. 2010
        28. 2011
      3. Copyright and Contributors
        1. Preface
        2. Citation model
        3. Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to
      4. Purchasing
      5. Did You Know?
        1. The World Factbook is one of the US Government's most accessed publications.
        2. Who uses The World Factbook?
        3. The World Factbook is a one-stop reference site.
        4. The World Factbook is a unique reference in that it is updated continuously - on average, every week.
  3. References
    1. Regional Maps
      1. AFRICA
      2. ANTARCTIC
      3. ARCTIC
      4. ASIA
      5. CENTRAL AMERICA
      6. CENTRAL BALKANS
      7. EUROPE
      8. MIDDLE EAST
      9. NORTH AMERICA
      10. OCEANIA
      11. PHYSICAL WORLD
      12. POLITICAL WORLD
      13. SOUTH AMERICA
      14. SOUTHEAST ASIA
      15. TIME ZONES
      16. UNITED STATES
    2. Flags of the World
      1. AFGHANISTAN
      2. AKROTIRI
      3. ALBANIA
      4. ALGERIA
      5. AMERICAN SAMOA
      6. ANDORRA
      7. ANGOLA
      8. ANGUILLA
      9. ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA
      10. ARGENTINA
      11. ARMENIA
      12. ARUBA
      13. ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS
      14. AUSTRALIA
      15. AUSTRIA
      16. AZERBAIJAN
      17. BAHAMAS, THE
      18. BAHRAIN
      19. BANGLADESH
      20. BARBADOS
      21. BELARUS
      22. BELGIUM
      23. BELIZE
      24. BENIN
      25. BERMUDA
      26. BHUTAN
      27. BOLIVIA
      28. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
      29. BOTSWANA
      30. BOUVET ISLAND
      31. BRAZIL
      32. BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY
      33. BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS
      34. BRUNEI
      35. BULGARIA
      36. BURKINA FASO
      37. BURMA
      38. BURUNDI
      39. CAMBODIA
      40. CAMEROON
      41. CANADA
      42. CAPE VERDE
      43. CAYMAN ISLANDS
      44. CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
      45. CHAD
      46. CHILE
      47. CHINA
      48. CHRISTMAS ISLAND
      49. CLIPPERTON ISLAND
      50. COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS
      51. COLOMBIA
      52. COMOROS
      53. CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE
      54. CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE
      55. COOK ISLANDS
      56. CORAL SEA ISLANDS
      57. COSTA RICA
      58. COTE D'IVOIRE
      59. CROATIA
      60. CUBA
      61. CURACAO
      62. CYPRUS
      63. CZECH REPUBLIC
      64. DENMARK
      65. DHEKELIA
      66. DJIBOUTI
      67. DOMINICA
      68. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
      69. ECUADOR
      70. EGYPT
      71. EL SALVADOR
      72. EQUATORIAL GUINEA
      73. ERITREA
      74. Add the Rest
    3. Gallery of Covers
    4. Definitions and Notes
      1. A
        1. Abbreviations
        2. Acronyms
        3. Administrative divisions
        4. Age structure
        5. Agriculture - products
        6. Airports
        7. Airports - with paved runways
        8. Airports - with unpaved runways
        9. Appendixes
        10. Area
        11. Area - comparative
      2. B
        1. Background
        2. Birth rate
        3. Broadcast media
        4. Budget
        5. Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
      3. C
        1. Capital
        2. Central bank discount rate
        3. Children under the age of 5 years underweight
        4. Climate
        5. Coastline
        6. Commercial bank prime lending rate
        7. Communications
        8. Communications - note
        9. Constitution
        10. Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
        11. Country map
        12. Country name
        13. Crude oil
        14. Current account balance
      4. D
        1. Data codes
        2. Date of information
        3. Daylight Saving Time (DST)
        4. Death rate
        5. Debt - external
        6. Dependency status
        7. Dependent areas
        8. Diplomatic representation
        9. Diplomatic representation from the US
        10. Diplomatic representation in the US
        11. Disputes - international
        12. Distribution of family income - Gini index
        13. Drinking water source
      5. E
        1. Economy
        2. Economy - overview
        3. Education expenditures
        4. Electricity - consumption
        5. Electricity - exports
        6. Electricity - imports
        7. Electricity - production
        8. Elevation extremes
        9. Entities
        10. Environment - current issues
        11. Environment - international agreements
        12. Environmental agreements
        13. Ethnic groups
        14. Exchange rates
        15. Executive branch
        16. Exports
        17. Exports - commodities
        18. Exports - partners
      6. F
        1. Flag description
        2. Flag graphic
        3. Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
      7. G
        1. GDP (official exchange rate)
        2. GDP (purchasing power parity)
        3. GDP - composition by sector
        4. GDP - per capita (PPP)
        5. GDP - real growth rate
        6. GDP methodology
        7. Geographic coordinates
        8. Geographic names
        9. Geography
        10. Geography - note
        11. Gini index
        12. GNP
        13. Government
        14. Government - note
        15. Government type
        16. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
        17. Gross domestic product
        18. Gross national product
        19. Gross world product
        20. GWP
      8. H
        1. Health expenditures
        2. Heliports
        3. HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
        4. HIV/AIDS - deaths
        5. HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
        6. Hospital bed density
        7. Household income or consumption by percentage share
        8. Hydrographic data codes
      9. I
        1. Illicit drugs
        2. Imports
        3. Imports - commodities
        4. Imports - partners
        5. Independence
        6. Industrial production growth rate
        7. Industries
        8. Infant mortality rate
        9. Inflation rate (consumer prices)
        10. International disputes
        11. International law organization participation
        12. International organization participation
        13. International organizations
        14. Internet country code
        15. Internet hosts
        16. Internet users
        17. Introduction
        18. Investment (gross fixed)
        19. Irrigated land
      10. J
        1. Judicial branch
      11. L
        1. Labor force
        2. Labor force - by occupation
        3. Land boundaries
        4. Land use
        5. Languages
        6. Legal system
        7. Legislative branch
        8. Life expectancy at birth
        9. Literacy
        10. Location
      12. M
        1. Major cities - population
        2. Major infectious diseases
        3. Manpower available for military service
        4. Manpower fit for military service
        5. Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
        6. Map references
        7. Maritime claims
        8. Market value of publicly traded shares
        9. Maternal mortality rate
        10. Median age
        11. Merchant marine
        12. Military
        13. Military - note
        14. Military branches
        15. Military expenditures
        16. Military service age and obligation
        17. Money figures
      13. N
        1. National anthem
        2. National holiday
        3. National symbol(s)
        4. Nationality
        5. Natural gas - consumption
        6. Natural gas - exports
        7. Natural gas - imports
        8. Natural gas - production
        9. Natural gas - proved reserves
        10. Natural hazards
        11. Natural resources
        12. Net migration rate
      14. O
        1. Obesity - adult prevalence rate
        2. Oil - consumption
        3. Oil - exports
        4. Oil - imports
        5. Oil - production
        6. Oil - proved reserves
      15. P
        1. People - note
        2. People and Society
        3. Personal Names - Capitalization
        4. Personal Names - Spelling
        5. Personal Names - Titles
        6. Petroleum
        7. Petroleum products
        8. Physicians density
        9. Pipelines
        10. Piracy
        11. Political parties and leaders
        12. Political pressure groups and leaders
        13. Population
        14. Population below poverty line
        15. Population growth rate
        16. Ports and terminals
        17. Public debt
      16. R
        1. Railways
        2. Rare earth elements
        3. Reference maps
        4. Refugees and internally displaced persons
        5. Religions
        6. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
        7. Roadways
      17. S
        1. Sanitation facility access
        2. School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
        3. Sex ratio
        4. Stock of broad money
        5. Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
        6. Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
        7. Stock of domestic credit
        8. Stock of narrow money
        9. Suffrage
      18. T
        1. Taxes and other revenues
        2. Telephone numbers
        3. Telephone system
        4. Telephones - main lines in use
        5. Telephones - mobile cellular
        6. Terminology
        7. Terrain
        8. Time difference
        9. Time zones
        10. Total fertility rate
        11. Total renewable water resources
        12. Trafficking in persons
        13. Transnational issues
        14. Transportation
        15. Transportation - note
      19. U
        1. Unemployment rate
        2. Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
        3. Urbanization
        4. UTC (Coordinated Universal Time)
      20. W
        1. Waterways
        2. Weights and Measures
      21. Y
        1. Years
    5. Guide to Country Profiles
    6. Guide to Country Comparison
      1. Geography
      2. People and Society
      3. Economy
      4. Communications
      5. Transportation
      6. Military
      7. Download the World Factbook
      8. Geography
        1. Area
      9. People and Society
        1. Population
        2. Population growth rate
        3. Birth rate
        4. Death rate
        5. Net migration rate
        6. Maternal mortality rate
        7. Infant mortality rate
        8. Life expectancy at birth
        9. Total fertility rate
        10. Obesity - adult prevalence rate
        11. Children under the age of 5 underweight
        12. HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
        13. HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
        14. HIV/AIDS - deaths
        15. Health expenditures
        16. Education expenditures
        17. Unemployment youth ages 15-24
      10. Economy
        1. GDP (purchasing power parity)
        2. GDP real growth rate
        3. GDP - per capita (PPP)
        4. Labor force
        5. Unemployment rate
        6. Distribution of family income - Gini Index
        7. Investment (gross fixed)
        8. Public debt
        9. Inflation rate (consumer prices)
        10. Central bank discount rate
        11. Commercial bank prime lending rate
        12. Stock of money
        13. Stock of quasi money
        14. Stock of domestic credit
        15. Market value of publicly traded shares
        16. Industrial production growth rate
        17. Electricity - production
        18. Electricity - consumption
        19. Oil - production
        20. Oil - consumption
        21. Oil - exports
        22. Oil - imports
        23. Oil - proved reserves
        24. Natural gas - production
        25. Natural gas - consumption
        26. Natural gas - exports
        27. Natural gas - imports
        28. Natural gas - proved reserves
        29. Current account balance
        30. Exports
        31. Imports
        32. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
        33. Debt - external
        34. Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
        35. Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
      11. Communications
        1. Telephones - main lines in use
        2. Telephones - mobile cellular
        3. Internet hosts
        4. Internet users
      12. Transportation
        1. Airports
        2. Railways
        3. Roadways
        4. Waterways
        5. Merchant marine
      13. Military
        1. Military expenditures - percent of GDP
  4. Appendices
    1. A Abbreviations
      1. A
        1. ABEDA
        2. ACP Group
        3. ADB
        4. AfDB
        5. AFESD
        6. AG
        7. Air Pollution
        8. Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides
        9. Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
        10. Air Pollution-Sulphur 85
        11. Air Pollution-Sulphur 94
        12. Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
        13. AMF
        14. AMU
        15. Antarctic Marine Living Resources
        16. Antarctic Seals
        17. Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
        18. ANZUS
        19. AOSIS
        20. APEC
        21. Arabsat
        22. ARF
        23. ASEAN
        24. AU
        25. Autodin
      2. B
        1. BA
        2. bbl/day
        3. BCIE
        4. BDEAC
        5. Benelux
        6. BGN
        7. BIMSTEC
        8. Biodiversity
        9. BIS
        10. BSEC
      3. C
        1. C
        2. c.i.f.
        3. CACM
        4. CAEU
        5. CAN
        6. Caricom
        7. CB
        8. CBSS
        9. CCC
        10. CD
        11. CDB
        12. CE
        13. CEI
        14. CEMA
        15. CEMAC
        16. CEPGL
        17. CEPT
        18. CERN
        19. CIA
        20. CICA
        21. CIS
        22. CITES
        23. Climate Change
        24. Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
        25. COCOM
        26. COMESA
        27. Comsat
        28. CP
        29. CPLP
        30. CSN
        31. CSN
        32. CSTO
        33. CTBTO
        34. CY
      4. D
        1. D-8
        2. DC
        3. DDT
        4. Desertification
        5. DIA
        6. DSN
        7. DST
        8. DWT
      5. E
        1. EAC
        2. EADB
        3. EAEC
        4. EAPC
        5. EAS
        6. EBRD
        7. EC
        8. ECA
        9. ECE
        10. ECLAC
        11. ECO
        12. ECOSOC
        13. ECOWAS
        14. ECSC
        15. EE
        16. EEC
        17. EEZ
        18. EFTA
        19. EIB
        20. EMU
        21. Endangered Species
        22. Entente
        23. Environmental Modification
        24. ESA
        25. ESCAP
        26. ESCWA
        27. est.
        28. EU
        29. Euratom
        30. Eutelsat
        31. Ex-Im
      6. F
        1. f.o.b.
        2. FAO
        3. FATF
        4. FAX
        5. FLS
        6. FOC
        7. FSU
        8. FY
        9. FZ
      7. G
        1. G-2
        2. G-3
        3. G-5
        4. G-6
        5. G-7
        6. G-8
        7. G-9
        8. G-10
        9. G-15
        10. G-11
        11. G-24
        12. G-77
        13. GATT
        14. GCC
        15. GCTU
        16. GDP
        17. GMT
        18. GNP
        19. GRT
        20. GSM
        21. GUAM
        22. GWP
      8. H
        1. Hazardous Wastes
        2. HF
        3. HIV/AIDS
      9. I
        1. IADB
        2. IAEA
        3. IANA
        4. IBRD
        5. ICAO
        6. ICC
        7. ICCt
        8. ICJ
        9. ICRC
        10. ICRM
        11. ICSID
        12. ICTR
        13. ICTY
        14. IDA
        15. IDB
        16. IDP
        17. IEA
        18. IFAD
        19. IFC
        20. IFRCS
        21. IGAD
        22. IHO
        23. ILO
        24. IMF
        25. IMO
        26. IMSO
        27. Inmarsat
        28. InOC
        29. INSTRAW
        30. Intelsat
        31. Interpol
        32. Intersputnik
        33. IOC
        34. IOM
        35. IPU
        36. ISO
        37. ISP
        38. ITSO
        39. ITU
        40. ITUC
      10. K
        1. kHz
        2. km
        3. kW
        4. kWh
      11. L
        1. LAES
        2. LAIA
        3. LAS
        4. Law of the Sea
        5. LDC
        6. LLDC
        7. London Convention
        8. LOS
      12. M
        1. m
        2. Marecs
        3. Marine Dumping
        4. Marine Life Conservation
        5. MARPOL
        6. Medarabtel
        7. Mercosur
        8. MHz
        9. MICAH
        10. MIGA
        11. MINURSO
        12. MINUSTAH
        13. MONUSCO
      13. N
        1. NA
        2. NAFTA
        3. NAM
        4. NATO
        5. NC
        6. NEA
        7. NEGL
        8. NGA
        9. NGO
        10. NIB
        11. NIC
        12. NIE
        13. NIS
        14. nm
        15. NMT
        16. NSG
        17. Nuclear Test Ban
        18. NZ
      14. O
        1. OAPEC
        2. OAS
        3. OAU
        4. ODA
        5. OECD
        6. OECS
        7. OHCHR
        8. OIC
        9. OIF
        10. OOF
        11. OPANAL
        12. OPCW
        13. OPEC
        14. OSCE
        15. Ozone Layer Protection
      15. P
        1. PCA
        2. PFP
        3. PIF
        4. PPP
      16. R
        1. Ramsar
        2. RG
      17. S
        1. SAARC
        2. SACEP
        3. SACU
        4. SADC
        5. SAFE
        6. SCO
        7. SECI
        8. SHF
        9. Ship Pollution
        10. SICA
        11. Sparteca
        12. SPC
        13. SPF
        14. sq km
        15. sq mi
      18. T
        1. TAT
        2. TEU
        3. Tropical Timber 83
        4. Tropical Timber 94
      19. U
        1. UAE
        2. UDEAC
        3. UHF
        4. UK
        5. UN
        6. UN-AIDS
        7. UNAMID
        8. UNASUR
        9. UNCLOS
        10. UNCTAD
        11. UNDCP
        12. UNDEF
        13. UNDOF
        14. UNDP
        15. UNEP
        16. UNESCO
        17. UNFICYP
        18. UNFIP
        19. UNFPA
        20. UN-Habitat
        21. UNHCR
        22. UNICEF
        23. UNICRI
        24. UNIDIR
        25. UNIDO
        26. UNIFIL
        27. UN-INSTRAW
        28. UNITAR
        29. UNMIK
        30. UNMIL
        31. UNMIS
        32. UNMIT
        33. UNMOGIP
        34. UNOCI
        35. UNOPS
        36. UNRISD
        37. UNRWA
        38. UNSC
        39. UNSSC
        40. UNTSO
        41. UNU
        42. UNWTO
        43. UPU
        44. US
        45. USSR
        46. UTC
        47. UV
      20. V
        1. VHF
        2. VSAT
      21. W
        1. WADB
        2. WAEMU
        3. WCL
        4. WCO
        5. Wetlands
        6. WEU
        7. WFP
        8. WFTU
        9. Whaling
        10. WHO
        11. WIPO
        12. WMO
        13. WP
        14. WTO
      22. Z
        1. ZC
    2. B International Organizations and Groups
      1. A
        1. advanced developing countries
        2. African Development Bank Group (AfDB)
        3. African Union (AU)
        4. African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID)
        5. African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States (ACP Group)
        6. Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)
        7. Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS)
        8. Andean Community (CAN)
        9. Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)
        10. Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD)
        11. Arab Maghreb Union (AMU)
        12. Arab Monetary Fund (AMF)
        13. Arctic Council
        14. ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)
        15. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
        16. Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        17. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
        18. Australia Group (AG)
      2. B
        1. Baltic Assembly (BA)
        2. Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
        3. Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)
        4. Benelux Union (Benelux)
        5. Big Seven
        6. Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone (BSEC)
      3. C
        1. Caribbean Community and Common Market (Caricom)
        2. Caribbean Development Bank (CDB)
        3. Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)
        4. Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)
        5. Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)
        6. Central American Common Market (CACM)
        7. Central American Integration System (SICA)
        8. Central European Initiative (CEI)
        9. centrally planned economies
        10. Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
        11. Colombo Plan (CP)
        12. Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
        13. Commonwealth (C)
        14. Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
        15. Communist countries
        16. Community of Democracies (CD)
        17. Comuinidade dos Paises de Lingua Portuguesa (CPLP)
        18. Conference of Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA)
        19. Coordinating Committee on Export Controls (COCOM)
        20. Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA)
        21. Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU)
        22. Council of Europe (CE)
        23. Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS)
        24. Council of the Entente (Entente)
        25. Customs Cooperation Council (CCC)
      4. D
        1. developed countries (DCs)
        2. developing countries
        3. Developing Eight (D-8)
      5. E
        1. East African Community (EAC)
        2. East African Development Bank (EADB)
        3. East Asia Summit (EAS)
        4. Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC)
        5. Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)
        6. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
        7. Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)
        8. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
        9. Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)
        10. Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC or EurasEC)
        11. Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)
        12. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
        13. European Central Bank (ECB)
        14. European Community (or European Communities, EC)
        15. European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
        16. European Investment Bank (EIB)
        17. European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
        18. European Space Agency (ESA)
        19. European Union (EU)
      6. F
        1. Financial Action Task Force (FATF)
        2. First World
        3. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
        4. former Soviet Union (FSU)
        5. former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE)
        6. Four Dragons
        7. Franc Zone (FZ)
        8. Front Line States (FLS)
      7. G
        1. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
        2. General Confederation of Trade Unions (GCTU)
        3. Group of 10 (G-10)
        4. Group of 11 (G-11)
        5. Group of 15 (G-15)
        6. Group of 20 (G-20)
        7. Group of 24 (G-24)
        8. Group of 3 (G-3)
        9. Group of 5 (G-5)
        10. Group of 6 (G-6)
        11. Group of 7 (G-7)
        12. Group of 77 (G-77)
        13. Group of 8 (G-8)
        14. Group of 9 (G-9)
        15. Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
      8. H
        1. high income countries
      9. I
        1. Indian Ocean Commission (InOC)
        2. industrial countries
        3. Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
        4. Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)
        5. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
        6. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
        7. International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
        8. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
        9. International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH)
        10. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
        11. International Court of Justice (ICJ)
        12. International Criminal Court (ICCt)
        13. International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)
        14. International Development Association (IDA)
        15. International Energy Agency (IEA)
        16. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS)
        17. International Finance Corporation (IFC)
        18. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
        19. International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)
        20. International Labor Organization (ILO)
        21. International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO)
        22. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
        23. International Olympic Committee (IOC)
        24. International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        25. International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
        26. International Organization of the French-speaking World (OIF)
        27. International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRM)
        28. International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
        29. International Telecommunications Satellites Organization (ITSO)
        30. International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)
        31. Islamic Development Bank (IDB)
      10. L
        1. Latin American Economic System (LAES)
        2. Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
        3. League of Arab States (LAS)
        4. least developed countries (LLDCs)
        5. less developed countries (LDCs)
      11. M
        1. middle-income countries
        2. Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)
      12. N
        1. Near Abroad
        2. new independent states (NIS)
        3. newly industrializing countries (NICs)
        4. newly industrializing economies (NIEs)
        5. Nonaligned Movement (NAM)
        6. Nordic Council (NC)
        7. Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)
        8. North
        9. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
        10. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
        11. Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)
        12. Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
      13. O
        1. Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (GUAM)
        2. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
        3. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
        4. Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
        5. Organization of African Unity (OAU)
        6. Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC)
        7. Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)
        8. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
        9. Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)
      14. P
        1. Pacific Community (SPC)
        2. Pacific Islands Forum (PIF)
        3. Paris Club
        4. Partnership for Peace (PFP)
        5. Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)
        6. PetroCaribe
      15. R
        1. Rio Group (RG)
      16. S
        1. Schengen Convention
        2. Second World
        3. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC)
        4. Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)
        5. socialist countries
        6. South
        7. South American Community of Nations (CSN)
        8. South Asia Co-operative Environment Program (SACEP)
        9. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
        10. South Pacific Forum (SPF)
        11. Southern African Customs Union (SACU)
        12. Southern African Development Community (SADC)
        13. Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) or Southern Common Market
        14. T
        15. Third World
      17. U
        1. underdeveloped countries
        2. undeveloped countries
        3. Union Latina
        4. Union of South American Nations (UNASUR - Spanish; UNASUL - Portuguese)
        5. United Nations (UN)
        6. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
        7. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
        8. United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
        9. United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)
        10. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
        11. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)
        12. United Nations General Assembly
        13. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
        14. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
        15. United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)
        16. United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT)
        17. United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)
        18. United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
        19. United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA)
        20. United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)
        21. United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
        22. United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)
        23. United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT)
        24. United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS)
        25. United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS)
        26. United Nations Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (UNOCI)
        27. United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO)
        28. United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)
        29. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
        30. United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)
        31. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
        32. United Nations Secretariat
        33. United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
        34. United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)
        35. United Nations Trusteeship Council
        36. United Nations University (UNU)
        37. Universal Postal Union (UPU)
      18. W
        1. Warsaw Pact (WP)
        2. West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)
        3. Western European Union (WEU)
        4. World Bank Group
        5. World Confederation of Labor (WCL)
        6. World Customs Organization (WCO)
        7. World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)
        8. World Food Program (WFP)
        9. World Health Organization (WHO)
        10. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
        11. World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
        12. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
        13. World Trade Organization (WTO)
      19. Z
        1. Zangger Committee (ZC)
    3. C Selected International Environmental Agreements
      1. A
        1. Air Pollution
        2. Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides
        3. Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
        4. Air Pollution-Sulphur 85
        5. Air Pollution-Sulphur 94
        6. Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
        7. Antarctic - Environmental Protocol
        8. Antarctic Treaty
      2. B
        1. Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal
        2. Biodiversity
      3. C
        1. Climate Change
        2. Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
        3. Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals
        4. Convention on Biological Diversity
        5. Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas
        6. Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
        7. Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar)
        8. Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
        9. Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)
        10. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention)
        11. Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques
      4. D
        1. Desertification
      5. E
        1. Endangered Species
        2. Environmental Modification
      6. H
        1. Hazardous Wastes
      7. I
        1. International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling
        2. International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983
        3. International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994
      8. K
        1. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
      9. L
        1. Law of the Sea
      10. M
        1. Marine Dumping
        2. Marine Life Conservation
        3. Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer
      11. N
        1. Nuclear Test Ban
      12. O
        1. Ozone Layer Protection
      13. P
        1. Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL)
        2. Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty
        3. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes
        4. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or Their Transboundary Fluxes
        5. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions
        6. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants
        7. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or Their Transboundary Fluxes by at Least 30%
      14. S
        1. Ship Pollution
      15. T
        1. Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water
        2. Tropical Timber 83
        3. Tropical Timber 94
      16. U
        1. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS)
        2. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa
        3. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
      17. W
        1. Wetlands
        2. Whaling
    4. D Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes
      1. FIPS 10
      2. ISO 3166
      3. STANAG 1059
      4. Internet
      5. Table Cross-Reference List of Country Codes
    5. E Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes
      1. IHO 23-4th
      2. IHO 23-3rd
      3. ACIC M 49-1
      4. DIAM 65-18
      5. Table Principal Oceans and Seas of the World With Hydrographic Codes by Institution
    6. F Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names
      1. Table Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names
    7. G Weights and Measures
      1. Table Mathematical Notation
      2. Table Metric Interrelationships
      3. Table Conversion Factors
  5. FAQs
    1. General
    2. Geography
    3. Photos
    4. Spelling and Pronunciation
    5. Policies and Procedures
    6. Technical

CIA World Factbook

Last modified
Table of contents
  1. Cover Page
    1. AFRICA
    2. EAST & SOUTHEAST ASIA
    3. ANTARCTICA
    4. EUROPE
    5. AUSTRALIA-OCEANIA
    6. MIDDLE EAST
    7. CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN
    8. NORTH AMERICA
    9. CENTRAL ASIA
    10. SOUTH AMERICA
    11. SOUTH ASIA
    12. PAGE NOT FOUND
  2. About
    1. History
      1. A Brief History of Basic Intelligence and The World Factbook
      2. The Evolution of The World Factbook
        1. 1981
        2. 1983
        3. 1984
        4. 1987
        5. 1988
        6. 1989
        7. 1990
        8. 1991
        9. 1992
        10. 1993
        11. 1994
        12. 1995
        13. 1996
        14. 1997
        15. 1998
        16. 1999
        17. 2000
        18. 2001
        19. 2002
        20. 2003
        21. 2004
        22. 2005
        23. 2006
        24. 2007
        25. 2008
        26. 2009
        27. 2010
        28. 2011
      3. Copyright and Contributors
        1. Preface
        2. Citation model
        3. Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to
      4. Purchasing
      5. Did You Know?
        1. The World Factbook is one of the US Government's most accessed publications.
        2. Who uses The World Factbook?
        3. The World Factbook is a one-stop reference site.
        4. The World Factbook is a unique reference in that it is updated continuously - on average, every week.
  3. References
    1. Regional Maps
      1. AFRICA
      2. ANTARCTIC
      3. ARCTIC
      4. ASIA
      5. CENTRAL AMERICA
      6. CENTRAL BALKANS
      7. EUROPE
      8. MIDDLE EAST
      9. NORTH AMERICA
      10. OCEANIA
      11. PHYSICAL WORLD
      12. POLITICAL WORLD
      13. SOUTH AMERICA
      14. SOUTHEAST ASIA
      15. TIME ZONES
      16. UNITED STATES
    2. Flags of the World
      1. AFGHANISTAN
      2. AKROTIRI
      3. ALBANIA
      4. ALGERIA
      5. AMERICAN SAMOA
      6. ANDORRA
      7. ANGOLA
      8. ANGUILLA
      9. ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA
      10. ARGENTINA
      11. ARMENIA
      12. ARUBA
      13. ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS
      14. AUSTRALIA
      15. AUSTRIA
      16. AZERBAIJAN
      17. BAHAMAS, THE
      18. BAHRAIN
      19. BANGLADESH
      20. BARBADOS
      21. BELARUS
      22. BELGIUM
      23. BELIZE
      24. BENIN
      25. BERMUDA
      26. BHUTAN
      27. BOLIVIA
      28. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
      29. BOTSWANA
      30. BOUVET ISLAND
      31. BRAZIL
      32. BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY
      33. BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS
      34. BRUNEI
      35. BULGARIA
      36. BURKINA FASO
      37. BURMA
      38. BURUNDI
      39. CAMBODIA
      40. CAMEROON
      41. CANADA
      42. CAPE VERDE
      43. CAYMAN ISLANDS
      44. CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
      45. CHAD
      46. CHILE
      47. CHINA
      48. CHRISTMAS ISLAND
      49. CLIPPERTON ISLAND
      50. COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS
      51. COLOMBIA
      52. COMOROS
      53. CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE
      54. CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE
      55. COOK ISLANDS
      56. CORAL SEA ISLANDS
      57. COSTA RICA
      58. COTE D'IVOIRE
      59. CROATIA
      60. CUBA
      61. CURACAO
      62. CYPRUS
      63. CZECH REPUBLIC
      64. DENMARK
      65. DHEKELIA
      66. DJIBOUTI
      67. DOMINICA
      68. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
      69. ECUADOR
      70. EGYPT
      71. EL SALVADOR
      72. EQUATORIAL GUINEA
      73. ERITREA
      74. Add the Rest
    3. Gallery of Covers
    4. Definitions and Notes
      1. A
        1. Abbreviations
        2. Acronyms
        3. Administrative divisions
        4. Age structure
        5. Agriculture - products
        6. Airports
        7. Airports - with paved runways
        8. Airports - with unpaved runways
        9. Appendixes
        10. Area
        11. Area - comparative
      2. B
        1. Background
        2. Birth rate
        3. Broadcast media
        4. Budget
        5. Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
      3. C
        1. Capital
        2. Central bank discount rate
        3. Children under the age of 5 years underweight
        4. Climate
        5. Coastline
        6. Commercial bank prime lending rate
        7. Communications
        8. Communications - note
        9. Constitution
        10. Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
        11. Country map
        12. Country name
        13. Crude oil
        14. Current account balance
      4. D
        1. Data codes
        2. Date of information
        3. Daylight Saving Time (DST)
        4. Death rate
        5. Debt - external
        6. Dependency status
        7. Dependent areas
        8. Diplomatic representation
        9. Diplomatic representation from the US
        10. Diplomatic representation in the US
        11. Disputes - international
        12. Distribution of family income - Gini index
        13. Drinking water source
      5. E
        1. Economy
        2. Economy - overview
        3. Education expenditures
        4. Electricity - consumption
        5. Electricity - exports
        6. Electricity - imports
        7. Electricity - production
        8. Elevation extremes
        9. Entities
        10. Environment - current issues
        11. Environment - international agreements
        12. Environmental agreements
        13. Ethnic groups
        14. Exchange rates
        15. Executive branch
        16. Exports
        17. Exports - commodities
        18. Exports - partners
      6. F
        1. Flag description
        2. Flag graphic
        3. Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
      7. G
        1. GDP (official exchange rate)
        2. GDP (purchasing power parity)
        3. GDP - composition by sector
        4. GDP - per capita (PPP)
        5. GDP - real growth rate
        6. GDP methodology
        7. Geographic coordinates
        8. Geographic names
        9. Geography
        10. Geography - note
        11. Gini index
        12. GNP
        13. Government
        14. Government - note
        15. Government type
        16. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
        17. Gross domestic product
        18. Gross national product
        19. Gross world product
        20. GWP
      8. H
        1. Health expenditures
        2. Heliports
        3. HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
        4. HIV/AIDS - deaths
        5. HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
        6. Hospital bed density
        7. Household income or consumption by percentage share
        8. Hydrographic data codes
      9. I
        1. Illicit drugs
        2. Imports
        3. Imports - commodities
        4. Imports - partners
        5. Independence
        6. Industrial production growth rate
        7. Industries
        8. Infant mortality rate
        9. Inflation rate (consumer prices)
        10. International disputes
        11. International law organization participation
        12. International organization participation
        13. International organizations
        14. Internet country code
        15. Internet hosts
        16. Internet users
        17. Introduction
        18. Investment (gross fixed)
        19. Irrigated land
      10. J
        1. Judicial branch
      11. L
        1. Labor force
        2. Labor force - by occupation
        3. Land boundaries
        4. Land use
        5. Languages
        6. Legal system
        7. Legislative branch
        8. Life expectancy at birth
        9. Literacy
        10. Location
      12. M
        1. Major cities - population
        2. Major infectious diseases
        3. Manpower available for military service
        4. Manpower fit for military service
        5. Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
        6. Map references
        7. Maritime claims
        8. Market value of publicly traded shares
        9. Maternal mortality rate
        10. Median age
        11. Merchant marine
        12. Military
        13. Military - note
        14. Military branches
        15. Military expenditures
        16. Military service age and obligation
        17. Money figures
      13. N
        1. National anthem
        2. National holiday
        3. National symbol(s)
        4. Nationality
        5. Natural gas - consumption
        6. Natural gas - exports
        7. Natural gas - imports
        8. Natural gas - production
        9. Natural gas - proved reserves
        10. Natural hazards
        11. Natural resources
        12. Net migration rate
      14. O
        1. Obesity - adult prevalence rate
        2. Oil - consumption
        3. Oil - exports
        4. Oil - imports
        5. Oil - production
        6. Oil - proved reserves
      15. P
        1. People - note
        2. People and Society
        3. Personal Names - Capitalization
        4. Personal Names - Spelling
        5. Personal Names - Titles
        6. Petroleum
        7. Petroleum products
        8. Physicians density
        9. Pipelines
        10. Piracy
        11. Political parties and leaders
        12. Political pressure groups and leaders
        13. Population
        14. Population below poverty line
        15. Population growth rate
        16. Ports and terminals
        17. Public debt
      16. R
        1. Railways
        2. Rare earth elements
        3. Reference maps
        4. Refugees and internally displaced persons
        5. Religions
        6. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
        7. Roadways
      17. S
        1. Sanitation facility access
        2. School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
        3. Sex ratio
        4. Stock of broad money
        5. Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
        6. Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
        7. Stock of domestic credit
        8. Stock of narrow money
        9. Suffrage
      18. T
        1. Taxes and other revenues
        2. Telephone numbers
        3. Telephone system
        4. Telephones - main lines in use
        5. Telephones - mobile cellular
        6. Terminology
        7. Terrain
        8. Time difference
        9. Time zones
        10. Total fertility rate
        11. Total renewable water resources
        12. Trafficking in persons
        13. Transnational issues
        14. Transportation
        15. Transportation - note
      19. U
        1. Unemployment rate
        2. Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
        3. Urbanization
        4. UTC (Coordinated Universal Time)
      20. W
        1. Waterways
        2. Weights and Measures
      21. Y
        1. Years
    5. Guide to Country Profiles
    6. Guide to Country Comparison
      1. Geography
      2. People and Society
      3. Economy
      4. Communications
      5. Transportation
      6. Military
      7. Download the World Factbook
      8. Geography
        1. Area
      9. People and Society
        1. Population
        2. Population growth rate
        3. Birth rate
        4. Death rate
        5. Net migration rate
        6. Maternal mortality rate
        7. Infant mortality rate
        8. Life expectancy at birth
        9. Total fertility rate
        10. Obesity - adult prevalence rate
        11. Children under the age of 5 underweight
        12. HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
        13. HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
        14. HIV/AIDS - deaths
        15. Health expenditures
        16. Education expenditures
        17. Unemployment youth ages 15-24
      10. Economy
        1. GDP (purchasing power parity)
        2. GDP real growth rate
        3. GDP - per capita (PPP)
        4. Labor force
        5. Unemployment rate
        6. Distribution of family income - Gini Index
        7. Investment (gross fixed)
        8. Public debt
        9. Inflation rate (consumer prices)
        10. Central bank discount rate
        11. Commercial bank prime lending rate
        12. Stock of money
        13. Stock of quasi money
        14. Stock of domestic credit
        15. Market value of publicly traded shares
        16. Industrial production growth rate
        17. Electricity - production
        18. Electricity - consumption
        19. Oil - production
        20. Oil - consumption
        21. Oil - exports
        22. Oil - imports
        23. Oil - proved reserves
        24. Natural gas - production
        25. Natural gas - consumption
        26. Natural gas - exports
        27. Natural gas - imports
        28. Natural gas - proved reserves
        29. Current account balance
        30. Exports
        31. Imports
        32. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
        33. Debt - external
        34. Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
        35. Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
      11. Communications
        1. Telephones - main lines in use
        2. Telephones - mobile cellular
        3. Internet hosts
        4. Internet users
      12. Transportation
        1. Airports
        2. Railways
        3. Roadways
        4. Waterways
        5. Merchant marine
      13. Military
        1. Military expenditures - percent of GDP
  4. Appendices
    1. A Abbreviations
      1. A
        1. ABEDA
        2. ACP Group
        3. ADB
        4. AfDB
        5. AFESD
        6. AG
        7. Air Pollution
        8. Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides
        9. Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
        10. Air Pollution-Sulphur 85
        11. Air Pollution-Sulphur 94
        12. Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
        13. AMF
        14. AMU
        15. Antarctic Marine Living Resources
        16. Antarctic Seals
        17. Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
        18. ANZUS
        19. AOSIS
        20. APEC
        21. Arabsat
        22. ARF
        23. ASEAN
        24. AU
        25. Autodin
      2. B
        1. BA
        2. bbl/day
        3. BCIE
        4. BDEAC
        5. Benelux
        6. BGN
        7. BIMSTEC
        8. Biodiversity
        9. BIS
        10. BSEC
      3. C
        1. C
        2. c.i.f.
        3. CACM
        4. CAEU
        5. CAN
        6. Caricom
        7. CB
        8. CBSS
        9. CCC
        10. CD
        11. CDB
        12. CE
        13. CEI
        14. CEMA
        15. CEMAC
        16. CEPGL
        17. CEPT
        18. CERN
        19. CIA
        20. CICA
        21. CIS
        22. CITES
        23. Climate Change
        24. Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
        25. COCOM
        26. COMESA
        27. Comsat
        28. CP
        29. CPLP
        30. CSN
        31. CSN
        32. CSTO
        33. CTBTO
        34. CY
      4. D
        1. D-8
        2. DC
        3. DDT
        4. Desertification
        5. DIA
        6. DSN
        7. DST
        8. DWT
      5. E
        1. EAC
        2. EADB
        3. EAEC
        4. EAPC
        5. EAS
        6. EBRD
        7. EC
        8. ECA
        9. ECE
        10. ECLAC
        11. ECO
        12. ECOSOC
        13. ECOWAS
        14. ECSC
        15. EE
        16. EEC
        17. EEZ
        18. EFTA
        19. EIB
        20. EMU
        21. Endangered Species
        22. Entente
        23. Environmental Modification
        24. ESA
        25. ESCAP
        26. ESCWA
        27. est.
        28. EU
        29. Euratom
        30. Eutelsat
        31. Ex-Im
      6. F
        1. f.o.b.
        2. FAO
        3. FATF
        4. FAX
        5. FLS
        6. FOC
        7. FSU
        8. FY
        9. FZ
      7. G
        1. G-2
        2. G-3
        3. G-5
        4. G-6
        5. G-7
        6. G-8
        7. G-9
        8. G-10
        9. G-15
        10. G-11
        11. G-24
        12. G-77
        13. GATT
        14. GCC
        15. GCTU
        16. GDP
        17. GMT
        18. GNP
        19. GRT
        20. GSM
        21. GUAM
        22. GWP
      8. H
        1. Hazardous Wastes
        2. HF
        3. HIV/AIDS
      9. I
        1. IADB
        2. IAEA
        3. IANA
        4. IBRD
        5. ICAO
        6. ICC
        7. ICCt
        8. ICJ
        9. ICRC
        10. ICRM
        11. ICSID
        12. ICTR
        13. ICTY
        14. IDA
        15. IDB
        16. IDP
        17. IEA
        18. IFAD
        19. IFC
        20. IFRCS
        21. IGAD
        22. IHO
        23. ILO
        24. IMF
        25. IMO
        26. IMSO
        27. Inmarsat
        28. InOC
        29. INSTRAW
        30. Intelsat
        31. Interpol
        32. Intersputnik
        33. IOC
        34. IOM
        35. IPU
        36. ISO
        37. ISP
        38. ITSO
        39. ITU
        40. ITUC
      10. K
        1. kHz
        2. km
        3. kW
        4. kWh
      11. L
        1. LAES
        2. LAIA
        3. LAS
        4. Law of the Sea
        5. LDC
        6. LLDC
        7. London Convention
        8. LOS
      12. M
        1. m
        2. Marecs
        3. Marine Dumping
        4. Marine Life Conservation
        5. MARPOL
        6. Medarabtel
        7. Mercosur
        8. MHz
        9. MICAH
        10. MIGA
        11. MINURSO
        12. MINUSTAH
        13. MONUSCO
      13. N
        1. NA
        2. NAFTA
        3. NAM
        4. NATO
        5. NC
        6. NEA
        7. NEGL
        8. NGA
        9. NGO
        10. NIB
        11. NIC
        12. NIE
        13. NIS
        14. nm
        15. NMT
        16. NSG
        17. Nuclear Test Ban
        18. NZ
      14. O
        1. OAPEC
        2. OAS
        3. OAU
        4. ODA
        5. OECD
        6. OECS
        7. OHCHR
        8. OIC
        9. OIF
        10. OOF
        11. OPANAL
        12. OPCW
        13. OPEC
        14. OSCE
        15. Ozone Layer Protection
      15. P
        1. PCA
        2. PFP
        3. PIF
        4. PPP
      16. R
        1. Ramsar
        2. RG
      17. S
        1. SAARC
        2. SACEP
        3. SACU
        4. SADC
        5. SAFE
        6. SCO
        7. SECI
        8. SHF
        9. Ship Pollution
        10. SICA
        11. Sparteca
        12. SPC
        13. SPF
        14. sq km
        15. sq mi
      18. T
        1. TAT
        2. TEU
        3. Tropical Timber 83
        4. Tropical Timber 94
      19. U
        1. UAE
        2. UDEAC
        3. UHF
        4. UK
        5. UN
        6. UN-AIDS
        7. UNAMID
        8. UNASUR
        9. UNCLOS
        10. UNCTAD
        11. UNDCP
        12. UNDEF
        13. UNDOF
        14. UNDP
        15. UNEP
        16. UNESCO
        17. UNFICYP
        18. UNFIP
        19. UNFPA
        20. UN-Habitat
        21. UNHCR
        22. UNICEF
        23. UNICRI
        24. UNIDIR
        25. UNIDO
        26. UNIFIL
        27. UN-INSTRAW
        28. UNITAR
        29. UNMIK
        30. UNMIL
        31. UNMIS
        32. UNMIT
        33. UNMOGIP
        34. UNOCI
        35. UNOPS
        36. UNRISD
        37. UNRWA
        38. UNSC
        39. UNSSC
        40. UNTSO
        41. UNU
        42. UNWTO
        43. UPU
        44. US
        45. USSR
        46. UTC
        47. UV
      20. V
        1. VHF
        2. VSAT
      21. W
        1. WADB
        2. WAEMU
        3. WCL
        4. WCO
        5. Wetlands
        6. WEU
        7. WFP
        8. WFTU
        9. Whaling
        10. WHO
        11. WIPO
        12. WMO
        13. WP
        14. WTO
      22. Z
        1. ZC
    2. B International Organizations and Groups
      1. A
        1. advanced developing countries
        2. African Development Bank Group (AfDB)
        3. African Union (AU)
        4. African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID)
        5. African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States (ACP Group)
        6. Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)
        7. Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS)
        8. Andean Community (CAN)
        9. Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)
        10. Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD)
        11. Arab Maghreb Union (AMU)
        12. Arab Monetary Fund (AMF)
        13. Arctic Council
        14. ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)
        15. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
        16. Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        17. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
        18. Australia Group (AG)
      2. B
        1. Baltic Assembly (BA)
        2. Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
        3. Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)
        4. Benelux Union (Benelux)
        5. Big Seven
        6. Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone (BSEC)
      3. C
        1. Caribbean Community and Common Market (Caricom)
        2. Caribbean Development Bank (CDB)
        3. Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)
        4. Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)
        5. Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)
        6. Central American Common Market (CACM)
        7. Central American Integration System (SICA)
        8. Central European Initiative (CEI)
        9. centrally planned economies
        10. Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
        11. Colombo Plan (CP)
        12. Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
        13. Commonwealth (C)
        14. Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
        15. Communist countries
        16. Community of Democracies (CD)
        17. Comuinidade dos Paises de Lingua Portuguesa (CPLP)
        18. Conference of Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA)
        19. Coordinating Committee on Export Controls (COCOM)
        20. Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA)
        21. Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU)
        22. Council of Europe (CE)
        23. Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS)
        24. Council of the Entente (Entente)
        25. Customs Cooperation Council (CCC)
      4. D
        1. developed countries (DCs)
        2. developing countries
        3. Developing Eight (D-8)
      5. E
        1. East African Community (EAC)
        2. East African Development Bank (EADB)
        3. East Asia Summit (EAS)
        4. Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC)
        5. Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)
        6. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
        7. Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)
        8. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
        9. Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)
        10. Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC or EurasEC)
        11. Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)
        12. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
        13. European Central Bank (ECB)
        14. European Community (or European Communities, EC)
        15. European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
        16. European Investment Bank (EIB)
        17. European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
        18. European Space Agency (ESA)
        19. European Union (EU)
      6. F
        1. Financial Action Task Force (FATF)
        2. First World
        3. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
        4. former Soviet Union (FSU)
        5. former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE)
        6. Four Dragons
        7. Franc Zone (FZ)
        8. Front Line States (FLS)
      7. G
        1. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
        2. General Confederation of Trade Unions (GCTU)
        3. Group of 10 (G-10)
        4. Group of 11 (G-11)
        5. Group of 15 (G-15)
        6. Group of 20 (G-20)
        7. Group of 24 (G-24)
        8. Group of 3 (G-3)
        9. Group of 5 (G-5)
        10. Group of 6 (G-6)
        11. Group of 7 (G-7)
        12. Group of 77 (G-77)
        13. Group of 8 (G-8)
        14. Group of 9 (G-9)
        15. Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
      8. H
        1. high income countries
      9. I
        1. Indian Ocean Commission (InOC)
        2. industrial countries
        3. Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
        4. Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)
        5. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
        6. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
        7. International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
        8. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
        9. International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH)
        10. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
        11. International Court of Justice (ICJ)
        12. International Criminal Court (ICCt)
        13. International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)
        14. International Development Association (IDA)
        15. International Energy Agency (IEA)
        16. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS)
        17. International Finance Corporation (IFC)
        18. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
        19. International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)
        20. International Labor Organization (ILO)
        21. International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO)
        22. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
        23. International Olympic Committee (IOC)
        24. International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        25. International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
        26. International Organization of the French-speaking World (OIF)
        27. International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRM)
        28. International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
        29. International Telecommunications Satellites Organization (ITSO)
        30. International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)
        31. Islamic Development Bank (IDB)
      10. L
        1. Latin American Economic System (LAES)
        2. Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
        3. League of Arab States (LAS)
        4. least developed countries (LLDCs)
        5. less developed countries (LDCs)
      11. M
        1. middle-income countries
        2. Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)
      12. N
        1. Near Abroad
        2. new independent states (NIS)
        3. newly industrializing countries (NICs)
        4. newly industrializing economies (NIEs)
        5. Nonaligned Movement (NAM)
        6. Nordic Council (NC)
        7. Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)
        8. North
        9. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
        10. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
        11. Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)
        12. Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
      13. O
        1. Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (GUAM)
        2. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
        3. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
        4. Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
        5. Organization of African Unity (OAU)
        6. Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC)
        7. Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)
        8. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
        9. Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)
      14. P
        1. Pacific Community (SPC)
        2. Pacific Islands Forum (PIF)
        3. Paris Club
        4. Partnership for Peace (PFP)
        5. Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)
        6. PetroCaribe
      15. R
        1. Rio Group (RG)
      16. S
        1. Schengen Convention
        2. Second World
        3. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC)
        4. Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)
        5. socialist countries
        6. South
        7. South American Community of Nations (CSN)
        8. South Asia Co-operative Environment Program (SACEP)
        9. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
        10. South Pacific Forum (SPF)
        11. Southern African Customs Union (SACU)
        12. Southern African Development Community (SADC)
        13. Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) or Southern Common Market
        14. T
        15. Third World
      17. U
        1. underdeveloped countries
        2. undeveloped countries
        3. Union Latina
        4. Union of South American Nations (UNASUR - Spanish; UNASUL - Portuguese)
        5. United Nations (UN)
        6. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
        7. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
        8. United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
        9. United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)
        10. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
        11. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)
        12. United Nations General Assembly
        13. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
        14. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
        15. United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)
        16. United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT)
        17. United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)
        18. United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
        19. United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA)
        20. United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)
        21. United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
        22. United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)
        23. United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT)
        24. United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS)
        25. United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS)
        26. United Nations Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (UNOCI)
        27. United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO)
        28. United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)
        29. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
        30. United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)
        31. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
        32. United Nations Secretariat
        33. United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
        34. United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)
        35. United Nations Trusteeship Council
        36. United Nations University (UNU)
        37. Universal Postal Union (UPU)
      18. W
        1. Warsaw Pact (WP)
        2. West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)
        3. Western European Union (WEU)
        4. World Bank Group
        5. World Confederation of Labor (WCL)
        6. World Customs Organization (WCO)
        7. World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)
        8. World Food Program (WFP)
        9. World Health Organization (WHO)
        10. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
        11. World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
        12. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
        13. World Trade Organization (WTO)
      19. Z
        1. Zangger Committee (ZC)
    3. C Selected International Environmental Agreements
      1. A
        1. Air Pollution
        2. Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides
        3. Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
        4. Air Pollution-Sulphur 85
        5. Air Pollution-Sulphur 94
        6. Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
        7. Antarctic - Environmental Protocol
        8. Antarctic Treaty
      2. B
        1. Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal
        2. Biodiversity
      3. C
        1. Climate Change
        2. Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
        3. Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals
        4. Convention on Biological Diversity
        5. Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas
        6. Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
        7. Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar)
        8. Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
        9. Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)
        10. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention)
        11. Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques
      4. D
        1. Desertification
      5. E
        1. Endangered Species
        2. Environmental Modification
      6. H
        1. Hazardous Wastes
      7. I
        1. International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling
        2. International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983
        3. International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994
      8. K
        1. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
      9. L
        1. Law of the Sea
      10. M
        1. Marine Dumping
        2. Marine Life Conservation
        3. Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer
      11. N
        1. Nuclear Test Ban
      12. O
        1. Ozone Layer Protection
      13. P
        1. Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL)
        2. Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty
        3. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes
        4. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or Their Transboundary Fluxes
        5. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions
        6. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants
        7. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or Their Transboundary Fluxes by at Least 30%
      14. S
        1. Ship Pollution
      15. T
        1. Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water
        2. Tropical Timber 83
        3. Tropical Timber 94
      16. U
        1. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS)
        2. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa
        3. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
      17. W
        1. Wetlands
        2. Whaling
    4. D Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes
      1. FIPS 10
      2. ISO 3166
      3. STANAG 1059
      4. Internet
      5. Table Cross-Reference List of Country Codes
    5. E Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes
      1. IHO 23-4th
      2. IHO 23-3rd
      3. ACIC M 49-1
      4. DIAM 65-18
      5. Table Principal Oceans and Seas of the World With Hydrographic Codes by Institution
    6. F Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names
      1. Table Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names
    7. G Weights and Measures
      1. Table Mathematical Notation
      2. Table Metric Interrelationships
      3. Table Conversion Factors
  5. FAQs
    1. General
    2. Geography
    3. Photos
    4. Spelling and Pronunciation
    5. Policies and Procedures
    6. Technical

Note: Edit Notes and Definitions

Note: I had an interesting experience buidling this - I first started to build this from first to last and had a problem saving the Flags of the World (too big), so I started over by just building the complete framework to get an overview of the relative size and work for each section (more the data science approach). When I saved the latter, I discovered the former had saved afterall so I had not lost all of my work (and regreted I did not save sooner before trying to copy something big and then save). So then I had to merge the two and I decided the second framework should be added to the bottom of the original. MindTouch is a great tool!

 
Technical FAQ: Is The World Factbook country data available in machine-readable format? All I can find is HTML, but I’m looking for simple tabular data. The Factbook Web site now features Country Comparison pages for selected Factbook entries. All of the Country Comparison pages can be downloaded as tab-delimited data files that can be opened in other applications such as spreadsheets and databases.
 
Note: I have done the above FAQ in Excel and Spotfire and I have given the CIA World Factbook additional hierarchcical (tree-like) structure that provides a list of the Country Comparison pages in the side bar for navigation. I also have a long history of working with the CIA World Factbook content in several tools (Folio Views, Live Publish, NXT4, and now MindTouch) for the US EPA, Fedstats.Net (see www.sdi.gov and web-services.gov) and the Federal CIO Council and Enterprise Architecture Data Reference Model.

Note: Finish Flags of the World

Steps in Creating Country Sub-Pages:

Copy: wiki.toc(page.path) embedded inside double braces
Source: Add URL
Go to: http://semanticommunity.info/CIA_World_Factbook
Click on New Page
Select Blank Page
Paste: wiki.toc(page.path) embedded inside double braces
Source: Add URL
Click on Expand All
Copy Nauru to Page Title
Save Page
Copy Nauru Page (carefully)
Edit Nauru Page
Delete Line Space at Top
Paste Nauru Page Below Source
Delete First and Expand All/Collapse All Rows
Delete Editing Icon (Yellow) and Text After :: and Make Header 1
Do the Same for the Eight Additional Editing Icons
Save the Page and Check to Make Sure there are Nine Items in the Table of Contents at the Top (there are a few Countires that have less than Nine)
Repeat the Process 277 More Times
Note: Some Have Missing Information - I marked Them with An * and Some Will Not Copy and I Marked Them with a # To Go Back To Later

  1. Cover Page
    1. AFRICA
    2. EAST & SOUTHEAST ASIA
    3. ANTARCTICA
    4. EUROPE
    5. AUSTRALIA-OCEANIA
    6. MIDDLE EAST
    7. CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN
    8. NORTH AMERICA
    9. CENTRAL ASIA
    10. SOUTH AMERICA
    11. SOUTH ASIA
    12. PAGE NOT FOUND
  2. About
    1. History
      1. A Brief History of Basic Intelligence and The World Factbook
      2. The Evolution of The World Factbook
        1. 1981
        2. 1983
        3. 1984
        4. 1987
        5. 1988
        6. 1989
        7. 1990
        8. 1991
        9. 1992
        10. 1993
        11. 1994
        12. 1995
        13. 1996
        14. 1997
        15. 1998
        16. 1999
        17. 2000
        18. 2001
        19. 2002
        20. 2003
        21. 2004
        22. 2005
        23. 2006
        24. 2007
        25. 2008
        26. 2009
        27. 2010
        28. 2011
      3. Copyright and Contributors
        1. Preface
        2. Citation model
        3. Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to
      4. Purchasing
      5. Did You Know?
        1. The World Factbook is one of the US Government's most accessed publications.
        2. Who uses The World Factbook?
        3. The World Factbook is a one-stop reference site.
        4. The World Factbook is a unique reference in that it is updated continuously - on average, every week.
  3. References
    1. Regional Maps
      1. AFRICA
      2. ANTARCTIC
      3. ARCTIC
      4. ASIA
      5. CENTRAL AMERICA
      6. CENTRAL BALKANS
      7. EUROPE
      8. MIDDLE EAST
      9. NORTH AMERICA
      10. OCEANIA
      11. PHYSICAL WORLD
      12. POLITICAL WORLD
      13. SOUTH AMERICA
      14. SOUTHEAST ASIA
      15. TIME ZONES
      16. UNITED STATES
    2. Flags of the World
      1. AFGHANISTAN
      2. AKROTIRI
      3. ALBANIA
      4. ALGERIA
      5. AMERICAN SAMOA
      6. ANDORRA
      7. ANGOLA
      8. ANGUILLA
      9. ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA
      10. ARGENTINA
      11. ARMENIA
      12. ARUBA
      13. ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS
      14. AUSTRALIA
      15. AUSTRIA
      16. AZERBAIJAN
      17. BAHAMAS, THE
      18. BAHRAIN
      19. BANGLADESH
      20. BARBADOS
      21. BELARUS
      22. BELGIUM
      23. BELIZE
      24. BENIN
      25. BERMUDA
      26. BHUTAN
      27. BOLIVIA
      28. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
      29. BOTSWANA
      30. BOUVET ISLAND
      31. BRAZIL
      32. BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY
      33. BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS
      34. BRUNEI
      35. BULGARIA
      36. BURKINA FASO
      37. BURMA
      38. BURUNDI
      39. CAMBODIA
      40. CAMEROON
      41. CANADA
      42. CAPE VERDE
      43. CAYMAN ISLANDS
      44. CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
      45. CHAD
      46. CHILE
      47. CHINA
      48. CHRISTMAS ISLAND
      49. CLIPPERTON ISLAND
      50. COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS
      51. COLOMBIA
      52. COMOROS
      53. CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE
      54. CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE
      55. COOK ISLANDS
      56. CORAL SEA ISLANDS
      57. COSTA RICA
      58. COTE D'IVOIRE
      59. CROATIA
      60. CUBA
      61. CURACAO
      62. CYPRUS
      63. CZECH REPUBLIC
      64. DENMARK
      65. DHEKELIA
      66. DJIBOUTI
      67. DOMINICA
      68. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
      69. ECUADOR
      70. EGYPT
      71. EL SALVADOR
      72. EQUATORIAL GUINEA
      73. ERITREA
      74. Add the Rest
    3. Gallery of Covers
    4. Definitions and Notes
      1. A
        1. Abbreviations
        2. Acronyms
        3. Administrative divisions
        4. Age structure
        5. Agriculture - products
        6. Airports
        7. Airports - with paved runways
        8. Airports - with unpaved runways
        9. Appendixes
        10. Area
        11. Area - comparative
      2. B
        1. Background
        2. Birth rate
        3. Broadcast media
        4. Budget
        5. Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
      3. C
        1. Capital
        2. Central bank discount rate
        3. Children under the age of 5 years underweight
        4. Climate
        5. Coastline
        6. Commercial bank prime lending rate
        7. Communications
        8. Communications - note
        9. Constitution
        10. Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
        11. Country map
        12. Country name
        13. Crude oil
        14. Current account balance
      4. D
        1. Data codes
        2. Date of information
        3. Daylight Saving Time (DST)
        4. Death rate
        5. Debt - external
        6. Dependency status
        7. Dependent areas
        8. Diplomatic representation
        9. Diplomatic representation from the US
        10. Diplomatic representation in the US
        11. Disputes - international
        12. Distribution of family income - Gini index
        13. Drinking water source
      5. E
        1. Economy
        2. Economy - overview
        3. Education expenditures
        4. Electricity - consumption
        5. Electricity - exports
        6. Electricity - imports
        7. Electricity - production
        8. Elevation extremes
        9. Entities
        10. Environment - current issues
        11. Environment - international agreements
        12. Environmental agreements
        13. Ethnic groups
        14. Exchange rates
        15. Executive branch
        16. Exports
        17. Exports - commodities
        18. Exports - partners
      6. F
        1. Flag description
        2. Flag graphic
        3. Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
      7. G
        1. GDP (official exchange rate)
        2. GDP (purchasing power parity)
        3. GDP - composition by sector
        4. GDP - per capita (PPP)
        5. GDP - real growth rate
        6. GDP methodology
        7. Geographic coordinates
        8. Geographic names
        9. Geography
        10. Geography - note
        11. Gini index
        12. GNP
        13. Government
        14. Government - note
        15. Government type
        16. Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
        17. Gross domestic product
        18. Gross national product
        19. Gross world product
        20. GWP
      8. H
        1. Health expenditures
        2. Heliports
        3. HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
        4. HIV/AIDS - deaths
        5. HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
        6. Hospital bed density
        7. Household income or consumption by percentage share
        8. Hydrographic data codes
      9. I
        1. Illicit drugs
        2. Imports
        3. Imports - commodities
        4. Imports - partners
        5. Independence
        6. Industrial production growth rate
        7. Industries
        8. Infant mortality rate
        9. Inflation rate (consumer prices)
        10. International disputes
        11. International law organization participation
        12. International organization participation
        13. International organizations
        14. Internet country code
        15. Internet hosts
        16. Internet users
        17. Introduction
        18. Investment (gross fixed)
        19. Irrigated land
      10. J
        1. Judicial branch
      11. L
        1. Labor force
        2. Labor force - by occupation
        3. Land boundaries
        4. Land use
        5. Languages
        6. Legal system
        7. Legislative branch
        8. Life expectancy at birth
        9. Literacy
        10. Location
      12. M
        1. Major cities - population
        2. Major infectious diseases
        3. Manpower available for military service
        4. Manpower fit for military service
        5. Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
        6. Map references
        7. Maritime claims
        8. Market value of publicly traded shares
        9. Maternal mortality rate
        10. Median age
        11. Merchant marine
        12. Military
        13. Military - note
        14. Military branches
        15. Military expenditures
        16. Military service age and obligation
        17. Money figures
      13. N
        1. National anthem
        2. National holiday
        3. National symbol(s)
        4. Nationality
        5. Natural gas - consumption
        6. Natural gas - exports
        7. Natural gas - imports
        8. Natural gas - production
        9. Natural gas - proved reserves
        10. Natural hazards
        11. Natural resources
        12. Net migration rate
      14. O
        1. Obesity - adult prevalence rate
        2. Oil - consumption
        3. Oil - exports
        4. Oil - imports
        5. Oil - production
        6. Oil - proved reserves
      15. P
        1. People - note
        2. People and Society
        3. Personal Names - Capitalization
        4. Personal Names - Spelling
        5. Personal Names - Titles
        6. Petroleum
        7. Petroleum products
        8. Physicians density
        9. Pipelines
        10. Piracy
        11. Political parties and leaders
        12. Political pressure groups and leaders
        13. Population
        14. Population below poverty line
        15. Population growth rate
        16. Ports and terminals
        17. Public debt
      16. R
        1. Railways
        2. Rare earth elements
        3. Reference maps
        4. Refugees and internally displaced persons
        5. Religions
        6. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
        7. Roadways
      17. S
        1. Sanitation facility access
        2. School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
        3. Sex ratio
        4. Stock of broad money
        5. Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
        6. Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
        7. Stock of domestic credit
        8. Stock of narrow money
        9. Suffrage
      18. T
        1. Taxes and other revenues
        2. Telephone numbers
        3. Telephone system
        4. Telephones - main lines in use
        5. Telephones - mobile cellular
        6. Terminology
        7. Terrain
        8. Time difference
        9. Time zones
        10. Total fertility rate
        11. Total renewable water resources
        12. Trafficking in persons
        13. Transnational issues
        14. Transportation
        15. Transportation - note
      19. U
        1. Unemployment rate
        2. Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
        3. Urbanization
        4. UTC (Coordinated Universal Time)
      20. W
        1. Waterways
        2. Weights and Measures
      21. Y
        1. Years
    5. Guide to Country Profiles
    6. Guide to Country Comparison
      1. Geography
      2. People and Society
      3. Economy
      4. Communications
      5. Transportation
      6. Military
      7. Download the World Factbook
      8. Geography
        1. Area
      9. People and Society
        1. Population
        2. Population growth rate
        3. Birth rate
        4. Death rate
        5. Net migration rate
        6. Maternal mortality rate
        7. Infant mortality rate
        8. Life expectancy at birth
        9. Total fertility rate
        10. Obesity - adult prevalence rate
        11. Children under the age of 5 underweight
        12. HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
        13. HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
        14. HIV/AIDS - deaths
        15. Health expenditures
        16. Education expenditures
        17. Unemployment youth ages 15-24
      10. Economy
        1. GDP (purchasing power parity)
        2. GDP real growth rate
        3. GDP - per capita (PPP)
        4. Labor force
        5. Unemployment rate
        6. Distribution of family income - Gini Index
        7. Investment (gross fixed)
        8. Public debt
        9. Inflation rate (consumer prices)
        10. Central bank discount rate
        11. Commercial bank prime lending rate
        12. Stock of money
        13. Stock of quasi money
        14. Stock of domestic credit
        15. Market value of publicly traded shares
        16. Industrial production growth rate
        17. Electricity - production
        18. Electricity - consumption
        19. Oil - production
        20. Oil - consumption
        21. Oil - exports
        22. Oil - imports
        23. Oil - proved reserves
        24. Natural gas - production
        25. Natural gas - consumption
        26. Natural gas - exports
        27. Natural gas - imports
        28. Natural gas - proved reserves
        29. Current account balance
        30. Exports
        31. Imports
        32. Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
        33. Debt - external
        34. Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
        35. Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
      11. Communications
        1. Telephones - main lines in use
        2. Telephones - mobile cellular
        3. Internet hosts
        4. Internet users
      12. Transportation
        1. Airports
        2. Railways
        3. Roadways
        4. Waterways
        5. Merchant marine
      13. Military
        1. Military expenditures - percent of GDP
  4. Appendices
    1. A Abbreviations
      1. A
        1. ABEDA
        2. ACP Group
        3. ADB
        4. AfDB
        5. AFESD
        6. AG
        7. Air Pollution
        8. Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides
        9. Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
        10. Air Pollution-Sulphur 85
        11. Air Pollution-Sulphur 94
        12. Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
        13. AMF
        14. AMU
        15. Antarctic Marine Living Resources
        16. Antarctic Seals
        17. Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
        18. ANZUS
        19. AOSIS
        20. APEC
        21. Arabsat
        22. ARF
        23. ASEAN
        24. AU
        25. Autodin
      2. B
        1. BA
        2. bbl/day
        3. BCIE
        4. BDEAC
        5. Benelux
        6. BGN
        7. BIMSTEC
        8. Biodiversity
        9. BIS
        10. BSEC
      3. C
        1. C
        2. c.i.f.
        3. CACM
        4. CAEU
        5. CAN
        6. Caricom
        7. CB
        8. CBSS
        9. CCC
        10. CD
        11. CDB
        12. CE
        13. CEI
        14. CEMA
        15. CEMAC
        16. CEPGL
        17. CEPT
        18. CERN
        19. CIA
        20. CICA
        21. CIS
        22. CITES
        23. Climate Change
        24. Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
        25. COCOM
        26. COMESA
        27. Comsat
        28. CP
        29. CPLP
        30. CSN
        31. CSN
        32. CSTO
        33. CTBTO
        34. CY
      4. D
        1. D-8
        2. DC
        3. DDT
        4. Desertification
        5. DIA
        6. DSN
        7. DST
        8. DWT
      5. E
        1. EAC
        2. EADB
        3. EAEC
        4. EAPC
        5. EAS
        6. EBRD
        7. EC
        8. ECA
        9. ECE
        10. ECLAC
        11. ECO
        12. ECOSOC
        13. ECOWAS
        14. ECSC
        15. EE
        16. EEC
        17. EEZ
        18. EFTA
        19. EIB
        20. EMU
        21. Endangered Species
        22. Entente
        23. Environmental Modification
        24. ESA
        25. ESCAP
        26. ESCWA
        27. est.
        28. EU
        29. Euratom
        30. Eutelsat
        31. Ex-Im
      6. F
        1. f.o.b.
        2. FAO
        3. FATF
        4. FAX
        5. FLS
        6. FOC
        7. FSU
        8. FY
        9. FZ
      7. G
        1. G-2
        2. G-3
        3. G-5
        4. G-6
        5. G-7
        6. G-8
        7. G-9
        8. G-10
        9. G-15
        10. G-11
        11. G-24
        12. G-77
        13. GATT
        14. GCC
        15. GCTU
        16. GDP
        17. GMT
        18. GNP
        19. GRT
        20. GSM
        21. GUAM
        22. GWP
      8. H
        1. Hazardous Wastes
        2. HF
        3. HIV/AIDS
      9. I
        1. IADB
        2. IAEA
        3. IANA
        4. IBRD
        5. ICAO
        6. ICC
        7. ICCt
        8. ICJ
        9. ICRC
        10. ICRM
        11. ICSID
        12. ICTR
        13. ICTY
        14. IDA
        15. IDB
        16. IDP
        17. IEA
        18. IFAD
        19. IFC
        20. IFRCS
        21. IGAD
        22. IHO
        23. ILO
        24. IMF
        25. IMO
        26. IMSO
        27. Inmarsat
        28. InOC
        29. INSTRAW
        30. Intelsat
        31. Interpol
        32. Intersputnik
        33. IOC
        34. IOM
        35. IPU
        36. ISO
        37. ISP
        38. ITSO
        39. ITU
        40. ITUC
      10. K
        1. kHz
        2. km
        3. kW
        4. kWh
      11. L
        1. LAES
        2. LAIA
        3. LAS
        4. Law of the Sea
        5. LDC
        6. LLDC
        7. London Convention
        8. LOS
      12. M
        1. m
        2. Marecs
        3. Marine Dumping
        4. Marine Life Conservation
        5. MARPOL
        6. Medarabtel
        7. Mercosur
        8. MHz
        9. MICAH
        10. MIGA
        11. MINURSO
        12. MINUSTAH
        13. MONUSCO
      13. N
        1. NA
        2. NAFTA
        3. NAM
        4. NATO
        5. NC
        6. NEA
        7. NEGL
        8. NGA
        9. NGO
        10. NIB
        11. NIC
        12. NIE
        13. NIS
        14. nm
        15. NMT
        16. NSG
        17. Nuclear Test Ban
        18. NZ
      14. O
        1. OAPEC
        2. OAS
        3. OAU
        4. ODA
        5. OECD
        6. OECS
        7. OHCHR
        8. OIC
        9. OIF
        10. OOF
        11. OPANAL
        12. OPCW
        13. OPEC
        14. OSCE
        15. Ozone Layer Protection
      15. P
        1. PCA
        2. PFP
        3. PIF
        4. PPP
      16. R
        1. Ramsar
        2. RG
      17. S
        1. SAARC
        2. SACEP
        3. SACU
        4. SADC
        5. SAFE
        6. SCO
        7. SECI
        8. SHF
        9. Ship Pollution
        10. SICA
        11. Sparteca
        12. SPC
        13. SPF
        14. sq km
        15. sq mi
      18. T
        1. TAT
        2. TEU
        3. Tropical Timber 83
        4. Tropical Timber 94
      19. U
        1. UAE
        2. UDEAC
        3. UHF
        4. UK
        5. UN
        6. UN-AIDS
        7. UNAMID
        8. UNASUR
        9. UNCLOS
        10. UNCTAD
        11. UNDCP
        12. UNDEF
        13. UNDOF
        14. UNDP
        15. UNEP
        16. UNESCO
        17. UNFICYP
        18. UNFIP
        19. UNFPA
        20. UN-Habitat
        21. UNHCR
        22. UNICEF
        23. UNICRI
        24. UNIDIR
        25. UNIDO
        26. UNIFIL
        27. UN-INSTRAW
        28. UNITAR
        29. UNMIK
        30. UNMIL
        31. UNMIS
        32. UNMIT
        33. UNMOGIP
        34. UNOCI
        35. UNOPS
        36. UNRISD
        37. UNRWA
        38. UNSC
        39. UNSSC
        40. UNTSO
        41. UNU
        42. UNWTO
        43. UPU
        44. US
        45. USSR
        46. UTC
        47. UV
      20. V
        1. VHF
        2. VSAT
      21. W
        1. WADB
        2. WAEMU
        3. WCL
        4. WCO
        5. Wetlands
        6. WEU
        7. WFP
        8. WFTU
        9. Whaling
        10. WHO
        11. WIPO
        12. WMO
        13. WP
        14. WTO
      22. Z
        1. ZC
    2. B International Organizations and Groups
      1. A
        1. advanced developing countries
        2. African Development Bank Group (AfDB)
        3. African Union (AU)
        4. African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID)
        5. African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States (ACP Group)
        6. Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL)
        7. Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS)
        8. Andean Community (CAN)
        9. Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa (ABEDA)
        10. Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD)
        11. Arab Maghreb Union (AMU)
        12. Arab Monetary Fund (AMF)
        13. Arctic Council
        14. ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)
        15. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
        16. Asian Development Bank (ADB)
        17. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
        18. Australia Group (AG)
      2. B
        1. Baltic Assembly (BA)
        2. Bank for International Settlements (BIS)
        3. Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)
        4. Benelux Union (Benelux)
        5. Big Seven
        6. Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone (BSEC)
      3. C
        1. Caribbean Community and Common Market (Caricom)
        2. Caribbean Development Bank (CDB)
        3. Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC)
        4. Central African States Development Bank (BDEAC)
        5. Central American Bank for Economic Integration (BCIE)
        6. Central American Common Market (CACM)
        7. Central American Integration System (SICA)
        8. Central European Initiative (CEI)
        9. centrally planned economies
        10. Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)
        11. Colombo Plan (CP)
        12. Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
        13. Commonwealth (C)
        14. Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
        15. Communist countries
        16. Community of Democracies (CD)
        17. Comuinidade dos Paises de Lingua Portuguesa (CPLP)
        18. Conference of Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA)
        19. Coordinating Committee on Export Controls (COCOM)
        20. Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA)
        21. Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU)
        22. Council of Europe (CE)
        23. Council of the Baltic Sea States (CBSS)
        24. Council of the Entente (Entente)
        25. Customs Cooperation Council (CCC)
      4. D
        1. developed countries (DCs)
        2. developing countries
        3. Developing Eight (D-8)
      5. E
        1. East African Community (EAC)
        2. East African Development Bank (EADB)
        3. East Asia Summit (EAS)
        4. Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC)
        5. Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)
        6. Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
        7. Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries (CEPGL)
        8. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
        9. Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO)
        10. Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC or EurasEC)
        11. Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)
        12. European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD)
        13. European Central Bank (ECB)
        14. European Community (or European Communities, EC)
        15. European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
        16. European Investment Bank (EIB)
        17. European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)
        18. European Space Agency (ESA)
        19. European Union (EU)
      6. F
        1. Financial Action Task Force (FATF)
        2. First World
        3. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
        4. former Soviet Union (FSU)
        5. former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE)
        6. Four Dragons
        7. Franc Zone (FZ)
        8. Front Line States (FLS)
      7. G
        1. General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
        2. General Confederation of Trade Unions (GCTU)
        3. Group of 10 (G-10)
        4. Group of 11 (G-11)
        5. Group of 15 (G-15)
        6. Group of 20 (G-20)
        7. Group of 24 (G-24)
        8. Group of 3 (G-3)
        9. Group of 5 (G-5)
        10. Group of 6 (G-6)
        11. Group of 7 (G-7)
        12. Group of 77 (G-77)
        13. Group of 8 (G-8)
        14. Group of 9 (G-9)
        15. Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)
      8. H
        1. high income countries
      9. I
        1. Indian Ocean Commission (InOC)
        2. industrial countries
        3. Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD)
        4. Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)
        5. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
        6. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
        7. International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
        8. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
        9. International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti (MICAH)
        10. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
        11. International Court of Justice (ICJ)
        12. International Criminal Court (ICCt)
        13. International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol)
        14. International Development Association (IDA)
        15. International Energy Agency (IEA)
        16. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCS)
        17. International Finance Corporation (IFC)
        18. International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
        19. International Hydrographic Organization (IHO)
        20. International Labor Organization (ILO)
        21. International Mobile Satellite Organization (IMSO)
        22. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
        23. International Olympic Committee (IOC)
        24. International Organization for Migration (IOM)
        25. International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
        26. International Organization of the French-speaking World (OIF)
        27. International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRM)
        28. International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
        29. International Telecommunications Satellites Organization (ITSO)
        30. International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)
        31. Islamic Development Bank (IDB)
      10. L
        1. Latin American Economic System (LAES)
        2. Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)
        3. League of Arab States (LAS)
        4. least developed countries (LLDCs)
        5. less developed countries (LDCs)
      11. M
        1. middle-income countries
        2. Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)
      12. N
        1. Near Abroad
        2. new independent states (NIS)
        3. newly industrializing countries (NICs)
        4. newly industrializing economies (NIEs)
        5. Nonaligned Movement (NAM)
        6. Nordic Council (NC)
        7. Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)
        8. North
        9. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
        10. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
        11. Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)
        12. Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)
      13. O
        1. Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (GUAM)
        2. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
        3. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
        4. Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
        5. Organization of African Unity (OAU)
        6. Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC)
        7. Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)
        8. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
        9. Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)
      14. P
        1. Pacific Community (SPC)
        2. Pacific Islands Forum (PIF)
        3. Paris Club
        4. Partnership for Peace (PFP)
        5. Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)
        6. PetroCaribe
      15. R
        1. Rio Group (RG)
      16. S
        1. Schengen Convention
        2. Second World
        3. Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC)
        4. Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)
        5. socialist countries
        6. South
        7. South American Community of Nations (CSN)
        8. South Asia Co-operative Environment Program (SACEP)
        9. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
        10. South Pacific Forum (SPF)
        11. Southern African Customs Union (SACU)
        12. Southern African Development Community (SADC)
        13. Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) or Southern Common Market
        14. T
        15. Third World
      17. U
        1. underdeveloped countries
        2. undeveloped countries
        3. Union Latina
        4. Union of South American Nations (UNASUR - Spanish; UNASUL - Portuguese)
        5. United Nations (UN)
        6. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
        7. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
        8. United Nations Development Program (UNDP)
        9. United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)
        10. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
        11. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)
        12. United Nations General Assembly
        13. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
        14. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
        15. United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)
        16. United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT)
        17. United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)
        18. United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)
        19. United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA)
        20. United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)
        21. United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)
        22. United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)
        23. United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT)
        24. United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS)
        25. United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS)
        26. United Nations Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (UNOCI)
        27. United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO)
        28. United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)
        29. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
        30. United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)
        31. United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
        32. United Nations Secretariat
        33. United Nations Security Council (UNSC)
        34. United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)
        35. United Nations Trusteeship Council
        36. United Nations University (UNU)
        37. Universal Postal Union (UPU)
      18. W
        1. Warsaw Pact (WP)
        2. West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)
        3. Western European Union (WEU)
        4. World Bank Group
        5. World Confederation of Labor (WCL)
        6. World Customs Organization (WCO)
        7. World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)
        8. World Food Program (WFP)
        9. World Health Organization (WHO)
        10. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
        11. World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
        12. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
        13. World Trade Organization (WTO)
      19. Z
        1. Zangger Committee (ZC)
    3. C Selected International Environmental Agreements
      1. A
        1. Air Pollution
        2. Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides
        3. Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
        4. Air Pollution-Sulphur 85
        5. Air Pollution-Sulphur 94
        6. Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
        7. Antarctic - Environmental Protocol
        8. Antarctic Treaty
      2. B
        1. Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal
        2. Biodiversity
      3. C
        1. Climate Change
        2. Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
        3. Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals
        4. Convention on Biological Diversity
        5. Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas
        6. Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
        7. Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar)
        8. Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
        9. Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)
        10. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention)
        11. Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques
      4. D
        1. Desertification
      5. E
        1. Endangered Species
        2. Environmental Modification
      6. H
        1. Hazardous Wastes
      7. I
        1. International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling
        2. International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983
        3. International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994
      8. K
        1. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
      9. L
        1. Law of the Sea
      10. M
        1. Marine Dumping
        2. Marine Life Conservation
        3. Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer
      11. N
        1. Nuclear Test Ban
      12. O
        1. Ozone Layer Protection
      13. P
        1. Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL)
        2. Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty
        3. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes
        4. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or Their Transboundary Fluxes
        5. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions
        6. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants
        7. Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or Their Transboundary Fluxes by at Least 30%
      14. S
        1. Ship Pollution
      15. T
        1. Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water
        2. Tropical Timber 83
        3. Tropical Timber 94
      16. U
        1. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS)
        2. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa
        3. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
      17. W
        1. Wetlands
        2. Whaling
    4. D Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes
      1. FIPS 10
      2. ISO 3166
      3. STANAG 1059
      4. Internet
      5. Table Cross-Reference List of Country Codes
    5. E Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes
      1. IHO 23-4th
      2. IHO 23-3rd
      3. ACIC M 49-1
      4. DIAM 65-18
      5. Table Principal Oceans and Seas of the World With Hydrographic Codes by Institution
    6. F Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names
      1. Table Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names
    7. G Weights and Measures
      1. Table Mathematical Notation
      2. Table Metric Interrelationships
      3. Table Conversion Factors
  5. FAQs
    1. General
    2. Geography
    3. Photos
    4. Spelling and Pronunciation
    5. Policies and Procedures
    6. Technical

Cover Page

Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html

The World Factbook provides information on the history, people, government, economy, geography, communications, transportation, military, and transnational issues for 267 world entities. Our Reference tab includes: maps of the major world regions, as well as Flags of the World, a Physical Map of the World, a Political Map of the World, and a Standard Time Zones of the World map.

Region Country Page Last Updated

Region Country Page Last Updated

AFRICA

EAST & SOUTHEAST ASIA

ALGERIA 29-Nov-11
ANGOLA 9-Nov-11
BENIN 9-Nov-11
BOTSWANA 9-Nov-11
BURKINA FASO 9-Nov-11
BURUNDI  9-Nov-11
CAMEROON  9-Nov-11
CAPE VERDE 9-Nov-11
CHAD 15-Nov-11
COMOROS 10-Nov-11
COTE D'IVOIRE 1-Dec-11
DJIBOUTI 10-Nov-11
EGYPT 5-Dec-11
ERITREA 10-Nov-11
ETHIOPIA 10-Nov-11
GABON 10-Nov-11
GAMBIA, THE 28-Nov-11
GHANA 10-Nov-11
GUINEA 15-Nov-11
GUINEA-BISSAU 10-Nov-11
KENYA 10-Nov-11
LESOTHO 10-Nov-11
LIBERIA 17-Nov-11
LIBYA 29-Nov-11
LIECHTENSTEIN 10-Nov-11
LITHUANIA 15-Nov-11
LUXEMBOURG 15-Nov-11
MADAGASCAR 10-Nov-11
MALAWI 10-Nov-11
MALI 10-Nov-11
MAURITANIA 28-Nov-11
MAURITIUS 1-Dec-11
MAYOTTE 8-Mar-11
MOROCCO 6-Dec-11
MOZAMBIQUE 10-Nov-11
NAMIBIA 10-Nov-11
NIGER 10-Nov-11
NIGERIA 10-Nov-11
RWANDA 10-Nov-11
SAINT HELENA, ASCENSION, AND TRISTAN DA CUNHA (OVERSEAS TERRITORY OF THE UK) 10-Nov-11
SENEGAL 10-Nov-11
SEYCHELLES 10-Nov-11
SIERRA LEONE 10-Nov-11
SOMALIA 10-Nov-11
SOUTH AFRICA 15-Nov-11
SOUTH SUDAN 10-Nov-11
SUDAN 10-Nov-11
SWAZILAND 29-Nov-11
TANZANIA 10-Nov-11
TOGO 29-Nov-11
TUNISIA 29-Nov-11
UGANDA 10-Nov-11
WESTERN SAHARA 10-Nov-11
ZAMBIA 10-Nov-11
ZIMBABWE 17-Nov-11
BRUNEI 29-Nov-11
BURMA 6-Dec-11
CAMBODIA 9-Nov-11
CHINA (ALSO SEE SEPARATE HONG KONG, MACAU, AND TAIWAN ENTRIES) 10-Nov-11
HONG KONG (SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION OF CHINA) 15-Nov-11
INDONESIA 15-Nov-11
JAPAN 15-Nov-11
KOREA, NORTH 10-Nov-11
KOREA, SOUTH 15-Nov-11
LAOS 10-Nov-11
MACAU (SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGION OF CHINA)10-Nov-11
MALAYSIA 15-Nov-11
MONGOLIA 10-Nov-11
PARACEL ISLANDS 29-Apr-11
PHILIPPINES 15-Nov-11
SINGAPORE 10-Nov-11
SPRATLY ISLANDS 17-Nov-10
TAIWAN 10-Nov-11
THAILAND 15-Nov-11
TIMOR-LESTE 10-Nov-11
VIETNAM 10-Nov-11
WAKE ISLAND (TERRITORY OF THE US) 25-May-11

ANTARCTICA

EUROPE

ANTARCTICA  22-Mar-11
BOUVET ISLAND (TERRITORY OF NORWAY) 25-May-11
FRENCH SOUTHERN AND ANTARCTIC LANDS (OVERSEAS TERRITORY OF FRANCE) 18-Oct-11
HEARD ISLAND AND MCDONALD ISLANDS (TERRITORY OF AUSTRALIA) 25-May-11
ALBANIA 9-Nov-11
ANDORRA 9-Nov-11
AUSTRIA 29-Nov-11
BELARUS 15-Nov-11
BELGIUM 1-Dec-11
BULGARIA 15-Nov-11
CROATIA 6-Dec-11
CYPRUS 29-Nov-11
CZECH REPUBLIC 15-Nov-11
DENMARK 15-Nov-11
ESTONIA 15-Nov-11
FAROE ISLANDS (PART OF THE KINGDOM OF DENMARK)10-Nov-11
FINLAND 15-Nov-11
FRANCE 15-Nov-11
GERMANY 15-Nov-11
GIBRALTAR (OVERSEAS TERRITORY OF THE UK) 10-Nov-11
GREECE 28-Nov-11
GUERNSEY (BRITISH CROWN DEPENDENCY) 10-Nov-11
HOLY SEE (VATICAN CITY) 7-Nov-11
HUNGARY 15-Nov-11
ICELAND 29-Nov-11
IRELAND 15-Nov-11
ISLE OF MAN (BRITISH CROWN DEPENDENCY) 15-Nov-11
ITALY 5-Dec-11
JAN MAYEN (TERRITORY OF NORWAY) 25-May-11
JERSEY (BRITISH CROWN DEPENDENCY) 5-Dec-11
KOSOVO 4-Nov-11
LATVIA 15-Nov-11
MACEDONIA 10-Nov-11
MALTA 15-Nov-11
MOLDOVA 6-Dec-11
MONACO 10-Nov-11
MONTENEGRO 10-Nov-11
NETHERLANDS 1-Dec-11
NORWAY 15-Nov-11
POLAND 15-Nov-11
PORTUGAL 15-Nov-11
ROMANIA 15-Nov-11
SAN MARINO 10-Nov-11
SLOVENIA 6-Dec-11
SPAIN 6-Dec-11
SVALBARD (TERRITORY OF NORWAY) 4-Nov-11
SWEDEN 15-Nov-11
SWITZERLAND 15-Nov-11
UKRAINE 15-Nov-11

AUSTRALIA-OCEANIA

MIDDLE EAST

AMERICAN SAMOA (TERRITORY OF THE US) 9-Nov-11
ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS (TERRITORY OF AUSTRALIA) 25-May-11
AUSTRALIA 15-Nov-11
CHRISTMAS ISLAND (TERRITORY OF AUSTRALIA) 18-Oct-11
COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS (TERRITORY OF AUSTRALIA) 25-May-11
COOK ISLANDS (SELF-GOVERNING IN FREE ASSOCIATION WITH NEW ZEALAND) 10-Nov-11
CORAL SEA ISLANDS (TERRITORY OF AUSTRALIA) 25-May-11
FIJI 14-Nov-11
FRENCH POLYNESIA (OVERSEAS LANDS OF FRANCE) 22-Nov-11
GUAM (TERRITORY OF THE US) 10-Nov-11
KIRIBATI 10-Nov-11
NAURU 29-Nov-11
NEW CALEDONIA (SELF-GOVERNING TERRITORY OF FRANCE) 10-Nov-11
NEW ZEALAND 28-Nov-11
NIUE (SELF-GOVERNING IN FREE ASSOCIATION WITH NEW ZEALAND) 10-Nov-11
NORFOLK ISLAND (TERRITORY OF AUSTRALIA) 10-Nov-11
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS (COMMONWEALTH IN POLITICAL UNION WITH THE US) 10-Nov-11
PALAU 14-Nov-11
PITCAIRN ISLANDS (OVERSEAS TERRITORY OF THE UK)2 9-Apr-11
SAMOA 10-Nov-11
SOLOMON ISLANDS 29-Nov-11
TOKELAU (TERRITORY OF NEW ZEALAND) 10-Nov-11
TONGA 15-Nov-11
TUVALU 10-Nov-11
VANUATU 10-Nov-11
WALLIS AND FUTUNA (OVERSEAS COLLECTIVITY OF FRANCE) 10-Nov-11
ARMENIA 15-Nov-11
AZERBAIJAN 9-Nov-11
BAHRAIN 29-Nov-11
GAZA STRIP 10-Nov-11
GEORGIA 15-Nov-11
IRAN 14-Nov-11
IRAQ 22-Nov-11
ISRAEL (ALSO SEE SEPARATE GAZA STRIP AND WEST BANK ENTRIES) 7-Dec-11
JORDAN 15-Nov-11
KUWAIT  5-Dec-11
LEBANON 10-Nov-11
OMAN 10-Nov-11
QATAR 17-Nov-11
SAUDI ARABIA 10-Nov-11
SERBIA 10-Nov-11
SLOVAKIA 15-Nov-11
SYRIA 29-Nov-11
TURKEY 15-Nov-11
WEST BANK 10-Nov-11
YEMEN 29-Nov-11

CENTRAL AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

NORTH AMERICA

ANGUILLA (OVERSEAS TERRITORY OF THE UK) 9-Nov-11
ARUBA (PART OF THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS) 9-Nov-11
BAHAMAS, THE 9-Nov-11
BARBADOS 9-Nov-11
BELIZE 9-Nov-11
BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS (OVERSEAS TERRITORY OF THE UK) 14-Nov-11
CAYMAN ISLANDS (OVERSEAS TERRITORY OF THE UK) 9-Nov-11
COSTA RICA 15-Nov-11
CUBA 10-Nov-11
DOMINICA 10-Nov-11
EL SALVADOR 15-Nov-11
GRENADA 10-Nov-11
GUATEMALA 10-Nov-11
HAITI 10-Nov-11
HONDURAS 29-Nov-11
JAMAICA 10-Nov-11
MONTSERRAT (OVERSEAS TERRITORY OF THE UK) 10-Nov-11
NAVASSA ISLAND (TERRITORY OF THE US) 25-May-11
NICARAGUA 10-Nov-11
PANAMA 10-Nov-11
PUERTO RICO (TERRITORY OF THE US WITH COMMONWEALTH STATUS) 10-Nov-11
SAINT BARTHELEMY (OVERSEAS COLLECTIVITY OF FRANCE) 5-Dec-11
SAINT LUCIA 6-Dec-11
SAINT MARTIN (OVERSEAS COLLECTIVITY OF FRANCE) 5-Dec-11
SINT MAARTEN (PART OF THE KINGDOM OF THE NETHERLANDS) 7-Nov-11
TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS (OVERSEAS TERRITORY OF THE UK) 10-Nov-11
VIRGIN ISLANDS (TERRITORY OF THE US) 10-Nov-11
BERMUDA (OVERSEAS TERRITORY OF THE UK) 9-Nov-11
CANADA 15-Nov-11
CLIPPERTON ISLAND (POSSESSION OF FRANCE) 25-May-11
GREENLAND (PART OF THE KINGDOM OF DENMARK) 10-Nov-11
MEXICO 15-Nov-11
SAINT PIERRE AND MIQUELON (TERRITORIAL OVERSEAS COLLECTIVITY OF FRANCE) 5-Dec-11
UNITED KINGDOM 15-Nov-11
UNITED STATES 17-Nov-11

CENTRAL ASIA

SOUTH AMERICA

KAZAKHSTAN 15-Nov-11
KYRGYZSTAN 1-Dec-11
RUSSIA 6-Dec-11
TAJIKISTAN 10-Nov-11
TURKMENISTAN 10-Nov-11
UZBEKISTAN 10-Nov-11
ARGENTINA 15-Nov-11
BOLIVIA 14-Nov-11
BRAZIL 15-Nov-11
CHILE 15-Nov-11
COLOMBIA 15-Nov-11
ECUADOR 15-Nov-11
FALKLAND ISLANDS (ISLAS MALVINAS) (OVERSEAS TERRITORY OF THE UK; ALSO CLAIMED BY ARGENTINA)10-Nov-11
GUYANA 6-Dec-11
PARAGUAY 10-Nov-11
PERU 15-Nov-11
SOUTH AMERICA SOUTH GEORGIA AND SOUTH SANDWICH ISLANDS (OVERSEAS TERRITORY OF THE UK, ALSO CLAIMED BY ARGENTINA)17-Nov-10
SURINAME 10-Nov-11
URUGUAY 15-Nov-11
VENEZUELA 29-Nov-11

SOUTH ASIA

PAGE NOT FOUND

AFGHANISTAN 30-Nov-11
BANGLADESH 5-Dec-11
BHUTAN 9-Nov-11
BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY (OVERSEAS TERRITORY OF THE UK) 27-Jul-11
INDIA 15-Nov-11
MALDIVES 10-Nov-11
NEPAL 30-Nov-11
PAKISTAN 22-Nov-11
SRI LANKA 10-Nov-11
 

About

History

NOTE: Gini Index in 2002

Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/history.html

A Brief History of Basic Intelligence and The World Factbook

The Intelligence Cycle is the process by which information is acquired, converted into intelligence, and made available to policymakers. Information is raw data from any source, data that may be fragmentary, contradictory, unreliable, ambiguous, deceptive, or wrong. Intelligence is information that has been collected, integrated, evaluated, analyzed, and interpreted. Finished intelligence is the final product of the Intelligence Cycle ready to be delivered to the policymaker.
 
The three types of finished intelligence are: basic, current, and estimative. Basic intelligence provides the fundamental and factual reference material on a country or issue. Current intelligence reports on new developments. Estimative intelligence judges probable outcomes. The three are mutually supportive: basic intelligence is the foundation on which the other two are constructed; current intelligence continually updates the inventory of knowledge; and estimative intelligence revises overall interpretations of country and issue prospects for guidance of basic and current intelligence. The World Factbook, The President's Daily Brief, and the National Intelligence Estimates are examples of the three types of finished intelligence.
 
The United States has carried on foreign intelligence activities since the days of George Washington but only since World War II have they been coordinated on a government-wide basis. Three programs have highlighted the development of coordinated basic intelligence since that time: (1) the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS), (2) the National Intelligence Survey (NIS), and (3)The World Factbook .
 
During World War II, intelligence consumers realized that the production of basic intelligence by different components of the US Government resulted in a great duplication of effort and conflicting information. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 brought home to leaders in Congress and the executive branch the need for integrating departmental reports to national policymakers. Detailed and coordinated information was needed not only on such major powers as Germany and Japan, but also on places of little previous interest. In the Pacific Theater, for example, the Navy and Marines had to launch amphibious operations against many islands about which information was unconfirmed or nonexistent. Intelligence authorities resolved that the United States should never again be caught unprepared.
 
In 1943, Gen. George B. Strong (G-2), Adm. H. C. Train (Office of Naval Intelligence - ONI), and Gen. William J. Donovan (Director of the Office of Strategic Services - OSS) decided that a joint effort should be initiated. A steering committee was appointed on 27 April 1943 that recommended the formation of a Joint Intelligence Study Publishing Board to assemble, edit, coordinate, and publish the Joint Army Navy Intelligence Studies (JANIS). JANIS was the first interdepartmental basic intelligence program to fulfill the needs of the US Government for an authoritative and coordinated appraisal of strategic basic intelligence. Between April 1943 and July 1947, the board published 34 JANIS studies. JANIS performed well in the war effort, and numerous letters of commendation were received, including a statement from Adm. Forrest Sherman, Chief of Staff, Pacific Ocean Areas, which said, "JANIS has become the indispensable reference work for the shore-based planners."
 
The need for more comprehensive basic intelligence in the postwar world was well expressed in 1946 by George S. Pettee, a noted author on national security. He wrote in The Future of American Secret Intelligence (Infantry Journal Press, 1946, page 46) that world leadership in peace requires even more elaborate intelligence than in war. "The conduct of peace involves all countries, all human activities - not just the enemy and his war production."
 
The Central Intelligence Agency was established on 26 July 1947 and officially began operating on 18 September 1947. Effective 1 October 1947, the Director of Central Intelligence assumed operational responsibility for JANIS. On 13 January 1948, the National Security Council issued Intelligence Directive (NSCID) No. 3, which authorized the National Intelligence Survey (NIS) program as a peacetime replacement for the wartime JANIS program. Before adequate NIS country sections could be produced, government agencies had to develop more comprehensive gazetteers and better maps. The US Board on Geographic Names (BGN) compiled the names; the Department of the Interior produced the gazetteers; and CIA produced the maps.
 
The Hoover Commission's Clark Committee, set up in 1954 to study the structure and administration of the CIA, reported to Congress in 1955 that: "The National Intelligence Survey is an invaluable publication which provides the essential elements of basic intelligence on all areas of the world. There will always be a continuing requirement for keeping the Survey up-to-date." The Factbook was created as an annual summary and update to the encyclopedic NIS studies. The first classified Factbook was published in August 1962, and the first unclassified version was published in June 1971. The NIS program was terminated in 1973 except for the Factbook, map, and gazetteer components. The 1975 Factbook was the first to be made available to the public with sales through the US Government Printing Office (GPO). The Factbook was first made available on the Internet in June 1997. The year 2010 marks the 63rd anniversary of the establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency and the 67th year of continuous basic intelligence support to the US Government by The World Factbook and its two predecessor programs.

The Evolution of The World Factbook

National Basic Intelligence Factbook produced semiannually until 1980. Country entries include sections on Land, Water, People, Government, Economy, Communications, and Defense Forces.
1981
Publication becomes an annual product and is renamed The World Factbook. A total of 165 nations are covered on 225 pages.
1983
Appendices (Conversion Factors, International Organizations) first introduced.
1984
Appendices expanded; now include: A. The United Nations, B. Selected United Nations Organizations, C. Selected International Organizations, D. Country Membership in Selected Organizations, E. Conversion Factors.
1987
A new Geography section replaces the former separate Land and Water sections. UN Organizations and Selected International Organizations appendices merged into a new International Organizations appendix. First multi-color-cover Factbook.
1988
More than 40 new geographic entities added to provide complete world coverage without overlap or omission. Among the new entities are Antarctica, oceans (Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, Pacific), and the World. The front-of-the-book explanatory introduction expanded and retitled to Notes, Definitions, and Abbreviations. Two new Appendices added: Weights and Measures (in place of Conversion Factors) and a Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names. Factbook size reaches 300 pages.
1989
Economy section completely revised and now includes an Overview briefly describing a country's economy. New entries added under People, Government, and Communications.
1990
The Government section revised and considerably expanded with new entries.
1991
A new International Organizations and Groups appendix added. Factbook size reaches 405 pages.
1992
Twenty new successor state entries replace those of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. New countries are respectively: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan; and Bosnia and Hercegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia. Number of nations in the Factbook rises to 188.
1993
Czechoslovakia's split necessitates new Czech Republic and Slovakia entries. New Eritrea entry added after it secedes from Ethiopia. Substantial enhancements made to Geography section.
1994
Two new appendices address Selected International Environmental Agreements. The gross domestic product (GDP) of most developing countries changed to a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis rather than an exchange rate basis. Factbook size up to 512 pages.
1995
The GDP of all countries now presented on a PPP basis. New appendix lists estimates of GDP on an exchange rate basis. Communications category split; Railroads, Highways, Inland waterways, Pipelines, Merchant marine, and Airports entries now make up a new Transportation category. The World Factbook is first produced on CD-ROM.
1996
Maps accompanying each entry now present more detail. Flags also introduced for nearly all entities. Various new entries appear under Geography and Communications. Factbook abbreviations consolidated into a new Appendix A. Two new appendices present a Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes and a Cross-Reference List of Hydrogeographic Data Codes. Geographic coordinates added to Appendix H, Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names. Factbook size expands by 95 pages in one year to reach 652.
1997
The World Factbook introduced onto the Internet. A special printed edition prepared for the CIA's 50th anniversary. A schema or Guide to Country Profiles introduced. New color maps and flags now accompany each country profile. Category headings distinguished by shaded backgrounds. Number of categories expanded to nine with the addition of an Introduction (for only a few countries) and Transnational Issues (which includes Disputes-international and Illicit drugs).
1998
The Introduction category with two entries, Current issues and Historical perspective, expanded to more countries. Last year for the production of CD-ROM versions of the Factbook.
1999
Historical perspective and Current issues entries in the Introduction category combined into a new Background statement. Several new Economy entries introduced. A new physical map of the world added to the back-of-the-book reference maps.
2000
A new "country profile" added on the Southern Ocean. The Background statements dramatically expanded to over 200 countries and possessions. A number of new Communications entries added.
2001
Background entries completed for all 267 entities in the Factbook. Several new HIV/AIDS entries introduced under the People category. Revision begun on individual country maps to include elevation extremes and a partial geographic grid. Weights and Measures appendix deleted.
2002
New entry on Distribution of Family income - Gini index added. Revision of individual country maps continued (process still ongoing).
2003
In the Economy category, petroleum entries added for oil production, consumption, exports, imports, and proved reserves, as well as natural gas proved reserves.
2004
Bi-weekly updates launched on The World Factbook website. Additional petroleum entries included for natural gas production, consumption, exports, and imports. In the Transportation category, under Merchant marine, subfields added for foreign-owned vessels and those registered in other countries. Descriptions of the many forms of government mentioned in the Factbook incorporated into the Definitions and Notes.
2005
In the People category, a Major infectious diseases field added for countries deemed to pose a higher risk for travelers. In the Economy category, entries included for Current account balance, Investment, Public debt, and Reserves of foreign exchange and gold. The Transnational issues category expanded to include Refugees and internally displaced persons. Size of the printed Factbook reaches 702 pages.
2006
In the Economy category, national GDP figures now presented at Official Exchange Rates (OER) in addition to GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP). Entries in the Transportation section reordered; Highways changed to Roadways, and Ports and harbors to Ports and terminals.
2007
In the Government category, the Capital entry significantly expanded with up to four subfields, including new information having to do with time. The subfields consist of the name of the capital itself, its geographic coordinates, the time difference at the capital from coordinated universal time (UTC), and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note is added to highlight those countries with multiple time zones. A Trafficking in persons entry added to the Transnational issues category. A new appendix, Weights and Measures, (re)introduced to the online version of the Factbook.
2008
In the Geography category, two fields focus on the increasingly vital resource of water: Total renewable water resources and Freshwater withdrawal. In the Economy category, three fields added for: Stock of direct foreign investment - at home, Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad, and Market value of publicly traded shares. Concise descriptions of all major religions included in the Definitions and Notes. Responsibility for printing of The World Factbook turned over to the Government Printing Office.
2009
The online Factbook site completely redesigned with many new features. In the People category, two new fields provide information on education in terms of opportunity and resources: School Life Expectancy and Education expenditures. Additionally, the Urbanization entry expanded to include all countries. In the Economy category, five fields added: Central bank discount rate, Commercial bank prime lending rate, Stock of narrow money, Stock of broad money, and Stock of domestic credit.
2010
Weekly updates inaugurated on the The World Factbook website. The dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles results in two new listings: Curacao and Sint Maarten. In the Communications category, a Broadcast media field replaces the former Radio broadcast stations and TV broadcast stations entries. In the Geography section, under Natural hazards, a Volcanism subfield added for countries with historically active volcanoes. In the Government category, a new National anthems field introduced. Concise descriptions of all major Legal systems incorporated into the Definitions and Notes. In order to facilitate comparisons over time, dozens of the entries in the Economy category expanded to include two (and in some cases three) years' worth of data.
2011
In the People section, a Major cities - population field provides the number of persons living in a country's capital and up to four of its major cities.
 

Copyright and Contributors

 
Preface
The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency for the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage, and content are designed to meet their specific requirements. Information is provided by Antarctic Information Program (National Science Foundation), Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center (Department of Defense), Bureau of the Census (Department of Commerce), Bureau of Labor Statistics (Department of Labor), Central Intelligence Agency, Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs, Defense Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Department of Energy, Department of State, Fish and Wildlife Service (Department of the Interior), Maritime Administration (Department of Transportation), National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Naval Facilities Engineering Command (Department of Defense), Office of Insular Affairs (Department of the Interior), Office of Naval Intelligence (Department of Defense), US Board on Geographic Names (Department of the Interior), US Transportation Command (Department of Defense), Oil & Gas Journal, and other public and private sources.
 
The Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).  The official seal of the CIA, however, may NOT be copied without permission as required by the CIA Act of 1949 (50 U.S.C. section 403m).  Misuse of the official seal of the CIA could result in civil and criminal penalties.
Citation model
The World Factbook 2009. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009.
 
Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to
Central Intelligence Agency
Attn: Office of Public Affairs
Washington, DC 20505
Hours: Monday-Friday 8:00 AM-4:30 PM Eastern Standard Time
Telephone: [1] (703) 482-0623
FAX: [1] (703) 482-1739

Purchasing

Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/purchase_info.html

Printed copies of The World Factbook may be obtained from the following:

US Government Printing Office
732 N. Capitol St.
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The World Factbook can be accessed on the Internet at: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html

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The World Factbook is one of the US Government's most accessed publications.
 
The World Factbook, produced for US policymakers and coordinated throughout the US Intelligence Community, presents the basic realities about the world in which we live. We share these facts with the people of all nations in the belief that knowledge of the truth underpins the functioning of free societies.
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Information in The Factbook is collected from - and coordinated with - a wide variety of US Government agencies, as well as from hundreds of published sources.

References

Flags of the World

Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/docs/flagsoftheworld.html

 

 
 
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AFGHANISTAN

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AKROTIRI

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ALBANIA

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ALGERIA

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AMERICAN SAMOA

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ANDORRA

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ANGOLA

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ANGUILLA

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ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

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ARGENTINA

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ARMENIA

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ARUBA

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ASHMORE AND CARTIER ISLANDS

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AUSTRALIA

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AUSTRIA

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AZERBAIJAN

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BAHAMAS, THE

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BAHRAIN

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BANGLADESH

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BARBADOS

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BELARUS

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BELGIUM

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BELIZE

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BENIN

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BERMUDA

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BHUTAN

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BOLIVIA

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BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

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BOTSWANA

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BOUVET ISLAND

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BRAZIL

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BRITISH INDIAN OCEAN TERRITORY

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BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS

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BRUNEI

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BULGARIA

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BURKINA FASO

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BURMA

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BURUNDI

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CAMBODIA

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CAMEROON

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CANADA

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CAPE VERDE

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CAYMAN ISLANDS

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CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

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CHAD

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CHILE

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CHINA

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CHRISTMAS ISLAND

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CLIPPERTON ISLAND

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COCOS (KEELING) ISLANDS

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COLOMBIA

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COMOROS

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CONGO, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE

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CONGO, REPUBLIC OF THE

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COOK ISLANDS

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CORAL SEA ISLANDS

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COSTA RICA

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COTE D'IVOIRE

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CROATIA

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CUBA

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CURACAO

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CYPRUS

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CZECH REPUBLIC

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DENMARK

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DHEKELIA

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DJIBOUTI

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DOMINICA

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DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

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ECUADOR

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EGYPT

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EL SALVADOR

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EQUATORIAL GUINEA

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ERITREA

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Add the Rest

Definitions and Notes

Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publicat...esanddefs.html

LOD with Links to Most Appendices

A

Abbreviations
This information is included in Appendix A: Abbreviations, which includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with their expansions.
Acronyms
An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered in all capital letters (NATO from North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association of Southeast Asian Nations). In general, an acronym made up of more than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is rendered with only an initial capital letter (Comsat from Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from Nonaligned Movement). Hybrid forms are sometimes used to distinguish between initially identical terms (ICC for International Chamber of Commerce and ICCt for International Criminal Court).
Administrative divisions
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on by the BGN are noted.
Age structure
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry provides the distribution of the population according to age. Information is included by sex and age group (0-14 years15-64 years65 years and over). The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage ages 65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. The age structure can also be used to help predict potential political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population unable to find employment can lead to unrest.
Agriculture - products
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important.
Airports
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields recognizable from the air. The runway(s) may be paved (concrete or asphalt surfaces) or unpaved (grass, earth, sand, or gravel surfaces) and may include closed or abandoned installations. Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable (overgrown, no facilities, etc.) are not included. Note that not all airports have accommodations for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.
Airports - with paved runways
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways (concrete or asphalt surfaces) by length. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m (over 10,000 ft), (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m (8,000 to 10,000 ft), (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m (5,000 to 8,000 ft), (4) 914 to 1,523 m (3,000 to 5,000 ft), and (5)under 914 m (under 3,000 ft). Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control. The type aircraft capable of operating from a runway of a given length is dependent upon a number of factors including elevation of the runway, runway gradient, average maximum daily temperature at the airport, engine types, flap settings, and take-off weight of the aircraft.
Airports - with unpaved runways
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways (grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces) by length. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - (1)over 3,047 m (over 10,000 ft), (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m (8,000 to 10,000 ft), (3)1,524 to 2,437 m (5,000 to 8,000 ft), (4) 914 to 1,523 m (3,000 to 5,000 ft), and (5) under 914 m (under 3,000 ft). Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control. The type aircraft capable of operating from a runway of a given length is dependent upon a number of factors including elevation of the runway, runway gradient, average maximum daily temperature at the airport, engine types, flap settings, and take-off weight of the aircraft.
Appendixes
This section includes Factbook-related material by topic.
Area
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Water areais the sum of the surfaces of all inland water bodies, such as lakes, reservoirs, or rivers, as delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines.
Area - comparative
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry provides an area comparison based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area measurements (1990 revised) provided by the US Bureau of the Census. The smaller entities are compared with Washington, DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).
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B

Background
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.
Birth rate
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.
Broadcast media
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry provides information on the approximate number of public and private TV and radio stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services.
Budget
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry includes revenuesexpenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry records the difference between national government revenues and expenditures, expressed as a percent of GDP. A positive (+) number indicates that revenues exceeded expenditures (a budget surplus), while a negative (-) number indicates the reverse (a budget deficit). Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits (relative to their GDPs) generally have more difficulty raising funds to finance expenditures, than those with lower deficits.
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C

Capital
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those countries that have multiple time zones.
Central bank discount rate
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry provides the annualized interest rate a country's central bank charges commercial, depository banks for loans to meet temporary shortages of funds.
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the percent of children under five considered to be underweight. Underweight means weight-for-age is approximately 2 kg below for standard at age one, 3 kg below standard for ages two and three, and 4 kg below standard for ages four and five. This statistic is an indicator of the nutritional status of a community. Children who suffer from growth retardation as a result of poor diets and/or recurrent infections tend to have a greater risk of suffering illness and death.
Climate
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes throughout the year.
Coastline
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land area (including islands) and the sea.
Commercial bank prime lending rate
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry provides a simple average of annualized interest rates commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national currency, to their most credit-worthy customers.
Communications
This category deals with the means of exchanging information and includes the telephone, radio, television, and Internet host entries.
Communications - note
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry includes miscellaneous communications information of significance not included elsewhere.
Constitution
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry includes the dates of adoption, revisions, and major amendments.
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
UTC is the international atomic time scale that serves as the basis of timekeeping for most of the world. The hours, minutes, and seconds expressed by UTC represent the time of day at the Prime Meridian (0� longitude) located near Greenwich, England as reckoned from midnight. UTC is calculated by the Bureau International des Poids et Measures (BIPM) in Sevres, France. The BIPM averages data collected from more than 200 atomic time and frequency standards located at about 50 laboratories worldwide. UTC is the basis for all civil time with the Earth divided into time zones expressed as positive or negative differences from UTC. UTC is also referred to as "Zulu time." See the Standard Time Zones of the World map included with the Reference Maps.
Country data codes
See Data codes.
Country map
Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in color. The maps were produced from the best information available at the time of preparation. Names and/or boundaries may have changed subsequently.
Country name
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example): conventional long form(Italian Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as theabbreviation. Also see the Terminology note.
Crude oil
See entry for oil.
Current account balance
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
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D

Data codes
Date of information
In general, information available as of January in a given year is used in the preparation of the printed edition.
Daylight Saving Time (DST)
This entry is included for those entities that have adopted a policy of adjusting the official local time forward, usually one hour, from Standard Time during summer months. Such policies are most common in mid-latitude regions.
Death rate
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining fertility results in an aging population.
Debt - external
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
Dependency status
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry describes the formal relationship between a particular nonindependent entity and an independent state.
Dependent areas
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry contains an alphabetical listing of all nonindependent entities associated in some way with a particular independent state.
Diplomatic representation
The US Government has diplomatic relations with 190 independent states, including 188 of the 193 UN members (excluded UN members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, and the US itself). In addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 2 independent states that are not in the UN, the Holy See and Kosovo, as well as with the EU.
Diplomatic representation from the US
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry includes the chief of missionembassy address, mailing address,telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations, consulate generallocations, and consulate locations.
Diplomatic representation in the US
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry includes the chief of missionchancery addresstelephoneFAX,consulate general locations, and consulate locations. The use of the annotated title Appointed Ambassador refers to a new ambassador who has presented his/her credentials to the secretary of state but not the US president. Such ambassadors fulfill all diplomatic functions except meeting with or appearing at functions attended by the president until such time as they formally present their credentials at a White House ceremony.
Disputes - international
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another. Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.
Distribution of family income - Gini index
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of (a) the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to (b) the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its Lorenz curve to the 45 degree line and the lower its Gini index, e.g., a Scandinavian country with an index of 25. The more unequal a country's income distribution, the farther its Lorenz curve from the 45 degree line and the higher its Gini index, e.g., a Sub-Saharan country with an index of 50. If income were distributed with perfect equality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the 45 degree line and the index would be zero; if income were distributed with perfect inequality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the horizontal axis and the right vertical axis and the index would be 100.
Drinking water source
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved drinking water sources available to segments of the population of a country.improved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: piped water into dwelling, yard, or plot; public tap or standpipe; tubewell or borehole; protected dug well; protected spring; or rainwater collection. unimproved drinking water - use of any of the following sources: unprotected dug well; unprotected spring; cart with small tank or drum; tanker truck; surface water, which includes rivers, dams, lakes, ponds, streams, canals or irrigation channels; or bottled water.
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E

Economy
This category includes the entries dealing with the size, development, and management of productive resources, i.e., land, labor, and capital.
Economy - overview
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry briefly describes the type of economy, including the degree of market orientation, the level of economic development, the most important natural resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also characterizes major economic events and policy changes in the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about one or two key future macroeconomic trends.
Education expenditures
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP.
Electricity - consumption
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
Electricity - exports
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours.
Electricity - imports
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours.
Electricity - production
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.
Elevation extremes
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry includes both the highest point and the lowest point.
Entities
Some of the independent states, dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in this publication are not independent, and others are not officially recognized by the US Government. "Independent state" refers to a people politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory. "Dependencies" and "areas of special sovereignty" refer to a broad category of political entities that are associated in some way with an independent state. "Country" names used in the table of contents or for page headings are usually the short-form names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names and may include independent states, dependencies, and areas of special sovereignty, or other geographic entities. There are a total of 267 separate geographic entities in The World Factbookthat may be categorized as follows:
INDEPENDENT STATES
195 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kosovo, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
OTHER
2 Taiwan, European Union
DEPENDENCIES AND AREAS OF SPECIAL SOVEREIGNTY
6 Australia - Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
2 China - Hong Kong, Macau
2 Denmark - Faroe Islands, Greenland
8 France - Clipperton Island, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, New Caledonia, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna
3 Netherlands - Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten
3 New Zealand - Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
3 Norway - Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
17 UK - Akrotiri, Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dhekelia, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
14 US - American Samoa, Baker Island*, Guam, Howland Island*, Jarvis Island*, Johnston Atoll*, Kingman Reef*, Midway Islands*, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll*, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island (* consolidated in United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges entry)
MISCELLANEOUS
6 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara
OTHER ENTITIES
5 oceans - Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Southern Ocean
1 World

267 total
Environment - current issues
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry lists the most pressing and important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: 
Acidification - the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid precipitation and deposition usually through precipitation; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline conditions (see acid rain). 
Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly to the earth's fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH scale where 7 is neutral, values greater than 7 are considered alkaline, and values below 5.6 are considered acid precipitation; note - a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in New England. 
Aerosol - a collection of airborne particles dispersed in a gas, smoke, or fog. 
Afforestation - converting a bare or agricultural space by planting trees and plants; reforestation involves replanting trees on areas that have been cut or destroyed by fire. 
Asbestos - a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly used in fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic in particulate form. 
Biodiversity - also biological diversity; the relative number of species, diverse in form and function, at the genetic, organism, community, and ecosystem level; loss of biodiversity reduces an ecosystem's ability to recover from natural or man-induced disruption. 
Bio-indicators - a plant or animal species whose presence, abundance, and health reveal the general condition of its habitat. 
Biomass - the total weight or volume of living matter in a given area or volume. 
Carbon cycle - the term used to describe the exchange of carbon (in various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and geological deposits. 
Catchments - assemblages used to capture and retain rainwater and runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited freshwater resources, such as Gibraltar. 
DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane) - a colorless, odorless insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was banned in the US in 1972. 
Defoliants - chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control, and may have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health. 
Deforestation - the destruction of vast areas of forest (e.g., unsustainable forestry practices, agricultural and range land clearing, and the over exploitation of wood products for use as fuel) without planting new growth. 
Desertification - the spread of desert-like conditions in arid or semi-arid areas, due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive soils, or climate change. 
Dredging - the practice of deepening an existing waterway; also, a technique used for collecting bottom-dwelling marine organisms (e.g., shellfish) or harvesting coral, often causing significant destruction of reef and ocean-floor ecosystems. 
Drift-net fishing - done with a net, miles in extent, that is generally anchored to a boat and left to float with the tide; often results in an over harvesting and waste of large populations of non-commercial marine species (by-catch) by its effect of "sweeping the ocean clean." 
Ecosystems - ecological units comprised of complex communities of organisms and their specific environments. 
Effluents - waste materials, such as smoke, sewage, or industrial waste which are released into the environment, subsequently polluting it. 
Endangered species - a species that is threatened with extinction either by direct hunting or habitat destruction. 
Freshwater - water with very low soluble mineral content; sources include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, and underground aquifers. 
Greenhouse gas - a gas that "traps" infrared radiation in the lower atmosphere causing surface warming; water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons, and ozone are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. 
Groundwater - water sources found below the surface of the earth often in naturally occurring reservoirs in permeable rock strata; the source for wells and natural springs. 
Highlands Water Project - a series of dams constructed jointly by Lesotho and South Africa to redirect Lesotho's abundant water supply into a rapidly growing area in South Africa; while it is the largest infrastructure project in southern Africa, it is also the most costly and controversial; objections to the project include claims that it forces people from their homes, submerges farmlands, and squanders economic resources. 
Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) - represents the roughly 150,000 Inuits of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Russia in international environmental issues; a General Assembly convenes every three years to determine the focus of the ICC; the most current concerns are long-range transport of pollutants, sustainable development, and climate change. 
Metallurgical plants - industries which specialize in the science, technology, and processing of metals; these plants produce highly concentrated and toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of ground water and air when not properly disposed. 
Noxious substances - injurious, very harmful to living beings. 
Overgrazing - the grazing of animals on plant material faster than it can naturally regrow leading to the permanent loss of plant cover, a common effect of too many animals grazing limited range land. 
Ozone shield - a layer of the atmosphere composed of ozone gas (O3) that resides approximately 25 miles above the Earth's surface and absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation that can be harmful to living organisms. 
Poaching - the illegal killing of animals or fish, a great concern with respect to endangered or threatened species. 
Pollution - the contamination of a healthy environment by man-made waste. 
Potable water - water that is drinkable, safe to be consumed. 
Salination - the process through which fresh (drinkable) water becomes salt (undrinkable) water; hence, desalination is the reverse process; also involves the accumulation of salts in topsoil caused by evaporation of excessive irrigation water, a process that can eventually render soil incapable of supporting crops. 
Siltation - occurs when water channels and reservoirs become clotted with silt and mud, a side effect of deforestation and soil erosion. 
Slash-and-burn agriculture - a rotating cultivation technique in which trees are cut down and burned in order to clear land for temporary agriculture; the land is used until its productivity declines at which point a new plot is selected and the process repeats; this practice is sustainable while population levels are low and time is permitted for regrowth of natural vegetation; conversely, where these conditions do not exist, the practice can have disastrous consequences for the environment. 
Soil degradation - damage to the land's productive capacity because of poor agricultural practices such as the excessive use of pesticides or fertilizers, soil compaction from heavy equipment, or erosion of topsoil, eventually resulting in reduced ability to produce agricultural products. 
Soil erosion - the removal of soil by the action of water or wind, compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing, and desertification. 
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation - a portion of the electromagnetic energy emitted by the sun and naturally filtered in the upper atmosphere by the ozone layer; UV radiation can be harmful to living organisms and has been linked to increasing rates of skin cancer in humans. 
Waterborne diseases - those in which bacteria survive in, and are transmitted through, water; always a serious threat in areas with an untreated water supply.
Environment - international agreements
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This entry separates country participation in international environmental agreements into two levels - party to and signed, but not ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.
Environmental agreements
This information is presented in Appendix C: Selected International Environmental Agreements, which includes the name, abbreviation, date opened for signature, date entered into force, objective, and parties by category.
Ethnic groups
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This entry provides an ordered listing of ethnic groups starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population.
Exchange rates
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This entry provides the average annual price of a country's monetary unit for the time period specified, expressed in units of local currency per US dollar, as determined by international market forces or by official fiat. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4217 alphabetic currency code for the national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis. Closing daily exchange rates are not presented in The World Factbook, but are used to convert stock values - e.g., the market value of publicly traded shares - to US dollars as of the specified date.
Executive branch
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This entry includes several subfields. Chief of state includes the name and title of the titular leader of the country who represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head of government includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government. For example, in the UK, the monarch is the chief of state, and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is both the chief of state and the head of government. Cabinet includes the official name for this body of high-ranking advisers and the method for selection of members. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election resultsincludes the percent of vote for each candidate in the last election.
Exports
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This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
Exports - commodities
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This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
Exports - partners
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This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
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F

Flag description
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This entry provides a written flag description produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.
Flag graphic
Most versions of the Factbook include a color flag at the beginning of the country profile. The flag graphics were produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time of preparation. The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have flags.
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
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This entry provides the annual quantity of water in cubic kilometers removed from available sources for use in any purpose. Water drawn-off is not necessarily entirely consumed and some portion may be returned for further use downstream. Domestic sector use refers to water supplied by public distribution systems. Note that some of this total may be used for small industrial and/or limited agricultural purposes. Industrial sector use is the quantity of water used by self-supplied industries not connected to a public distribution system. Agricultural sector use includes water used for irrigation and livestock watering, and does not account for agriculture directly dependent on rainfall. Included are figures for total annual water withdrawal and per capita water withdrawal.
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G

GDP (official exchange rate)
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This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at official exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-�-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange rates, however, can be artificially fixed and/or subject to manipulation - resulting in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency - and are not necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated GDP changed.
GDP (purchasing power parity)
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This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The differences between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the wealthy industrialized countries are generally much smaller.
GDP - composition by sector
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This entry gives the percentage contribution of agricultureindustry, andservices to total GDP. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete.
GDP - per capita (PPP)
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This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.
GDP - real growth rate
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This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.
GDP methodology
In the Economy category, GDP dollar estimates for countries are reported both on an official exchange rate (OER) and a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. Both measures contain information that is useful to the reader. The PPP method involves the use of standardized international dollar price weights, which are applied to the quantities of final goods and services produced in a given economy. The data derived from the PPP method probably provide the best available starting point for comparisons of economic strength and well-being between countries. In contrast, the currency exchange rate method involves a variety of international and domestic financial forces that may not capture the value of domestic output. Whereas PPP estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing countries are often rough approximations. In developing countries with weak currencies, the exchange rate estimate of GDP in dollars is typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Most of the GDP estimates for developing countries are based on extrapolation of PPP numbers published by the UN International Comparison Program (UNICP) and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues. GDP derived using the OER method should be used for the purpose of calculating the share of items such as exports, imports, military expenditures, external debt, or the current account balance, because the dollar values presented in the Factbook for these items have been converted at official exchange rates, not at PPP. One should use the OER GDP figure to calculate the proportion of, say, Chinese defense expenditures in GDP, because that share will be the same as one calculated in local currency units. Comparison of OER GDP with PPP GDP may also indicate whether a currency is over- or under-valued. If OER GDP is smaller than PPP GDP, the official exchange rate may be undervalued, and vice versa. However, there is no strong historical evidence that market exchange rates move in the direction implied by the PPP rate, at least not in the short- or medium-term. Note: the numbers for GDP and other economic data should not be chained together from successive volumes of theFactbook because of changes in the US dollar measuring rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies, use of new or different sources of information, and changes in national statistical methods and practices.
Geographic coordinates
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This entry includes rounded latitude and longitude figures for the centroid or center point of a country expressed in degrees and minutes; it is based on the locations provided in the Geographic Names Server (GNS), maintained by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency on behalf of the US Board on Geographic Names.
Geographic names
This information is presented in Appendix F: Cross Reference List of Geographic Names. It includes a listing of various alternate names, former names, local names, and regional names referenced to one or more relatedFactbook entries. Spellings are normally, but not always, those approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN). Alternate names and additional information are included in parentheses.
Geography
This category includes the entries dealing with the natural environment and the effects of human activity.
Geography - note
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This entry includes miscellaneous geographic information of significance not included elsewhere.
Gini index
See entry for Distribution of family income - Gini index
GNP
Gross national product (GNP) is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned by its citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production. The Factbook, following current practice, uses GDP rather than GNP to measure national production. However, the user must realize that in certain countries net remittances from citizens working abroad may be important to national well-being.
Government
This category includes the entries dealing with the system for the adoption and administration of public policy.
Government - note
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This entry includes miscellaneous government information of significance not included elsewhere.
Government type
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This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows. (Note that for some countries more than one definition applies.): 
Absolute monarchy - a form of government where the monarch rules unhindered, i.e., without any laws, constitution, or legally organized opposition.
Anarchy - a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority. 
Authoritarian - a form of government in which state authority is imposed onto many aspects of citizens' lives. 
Commonwealth - a nation, state, or other political entity founded on law and united by a compact of the people for the common good. 
Communist - a system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and a single - often authoritarian - party holds power; state controls are imposed with the elimination of private ownership of property or capital while claiming to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people (i.e., a classless society). 
Confederacy (Confederation) - a union by compact or treaty between states, provinces, or territories, that creates a central government with limited powers; the constituent entities retain supreme authority over all matters except those delegated to the central government. 
Constitutional - a government by or operating under an authoritative document (constitution) that sets forth the system of fundamental laws and principles that determines the nature, functions, and limits of that government. 
Constitutional democracy - a form of government in which the sovereign power of the people is spelled out in a governing constitution. 
Constitutional monarchy - a system of government in which a monarch is guided by a constitution whereby his/her rights, duties, and responsibilities are spelled out in written law or by custom. 
Democracy - a form of government in which the supreme power is retained by the people, but which is usually exercised indirectly through a system of representation and delegated authority periodically renewed. 
Democratic republic - a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them.
Dictatorship - a form of government in which a ruler or small clique wield absolute power (not restricted by a constitution or laws). 
Ecclesiastical - a government administrated by a church. 
Emirate - similar to a monarchy or sultanate, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of an emir (the ruler of a Muslim state); the emir may be an absolute overlord or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority. 
Federal (Federation) - a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided - usually by means of a constitution - between a central authority and a number of constituent regions (states, colonies, or provinces) so that each region retains some management of its internal affairs; differs from a confederacy in that the central government exerts influence directly upon both individuals as well as upon the regional units. 
Federal republic - a state in which the powers of the central government are restricted and in which the component parts (states, colonies, or provinces) retain a degree of self-government; ultimate sovereign power rests with the voters who chose their governmental representatives. 
Islamic republic - a particular form of government adopted by some Muslim states; although such a state is, in theory, a theocracy, it remains a republic, but its laws are required to be compatible with the laws of Islam. 
Maoism - the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism developed in China by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung), which states that a continuous revolution is necessary if the leaders of a communist state are to keep in touch with the people. 
Marxism - the political, economic, and social principles espoused by 19th century economist Karl Marx; he viewed the struggle of workers as a progression of historical forces that would proceed from a class struggle of the proletariat (workers) exploited by capitalists (business owners), to a socialist "dictatorship of the proletariat," to, finally, a classless society - Communism. 
Marxism-Leninism - an expanded form of communism developed by Lenin from doctrines of Karl Marx; Lenin saw imperialism as the final stage of capitalism and shifted the focus of workers' struggle from developed to underdeveloped countries. 
Monarchy - a government in which the supreme power is lodged in the hands of a monarch who reigns over a state or territory, usually for life and by hereditary right; the monarch may be either a sole absolute ruler or a sovereign - such as a king, queen, or prince - with constitutionally limited authority. 
Oligarchy - a government in which control is exercised by a small group of individuals whose authority generally is based on wealth or power. 
Parliamentary democracy - a political system in which the legislature (parliament) selects the government - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor along with the cabinet ministers - according to party strength as expressed in elections; by this system, the government acquires a dual responsibility: to the people as well as to the parliament. 
Parliamentary government (Cabinet-Parliamentary government) - a government in which members of an executive branch (the cabinet and its leader - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor) are nominated to their positions by a legislature or parliament, and are directly responsible to it; this type of government can be dissolved at will by the parliament (legislature) by means of a no confidence vote or the leader of the cabinet may dissolve the parliament if it can no longer function. 
Parliamentary monarchy - a state headed by a monarch who is not actively involved in policy formation or implementation (i.e., the exercise of sovereign powers by a monarch in a ceremonial capacity); true governmental leadership is carried out by a cabinet and its head - a prime minister, premier, or chancellor - who are drawn from a legislature (parliament). 
Presidential - a system of government where the executive branch exists separately from a legislature (to which it is generally not accountable). 
Republic - a representative democracy in which the people's elected deputies (representatives), not the people themselves, vote on legislation. 
Socialism - a government in which the means of planning, producing, and distributing goods is controlled by a central government that theoretically seeks a more just and equitable distribution of property and labor; in actuality, most socialist governments have ended up being no more than dictatorships over workers by a ruling elite. 
Sultanate - similar to a monarchy, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of a sultan (the head of a Muslim state); the sultan may be an absolute ruler or a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority. 
Theocracy - a form of government in which a Deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, but the Deity's laws are interpreted by ecclesiastical authorities (bishops, mullahs, etc.); a government subject to religious authority. 
Totalitarian - a government that seeks to subordinate the individual to the state by controlling not only all political and economic matters, but also the attitudes, values, and beliefs of its population.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
The mean solar time at the Greenwich Meridian, Greenwich, England, with the hours and days, since 1925, reckoned from midnight. GMT is now a historical term having been replaced by UTC on 1 January 1972. See Coordinated Universal Time.
Gross domestic product
See GDP
Gross national product
See GNP
Gross world product
See GWP
GWP
This entry gives the gross world product (GWP) or aggregate value of all final goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.
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H

Health expenditures
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This entry provides the total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP. Health expenditures are broadly defined as activities performed either by institutions or individuals through the application of medical, paramedical, and/or nursing knowledge and technology, the primary purpose of which is to promote, restore, or maintain health.
Heliports
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This entry gives the total number of heliports with hard-surface runways, helipads, or landing areas that support routine sustained helicopter operations exclusively and have support facilities including one or more of the following facilities: lighting, fuel, passenger handling, or maintenance. It includes former airports used exclusively for helicopter operations but excludes heliports limited to day operations and natural clearings that could support helicopter landings and takeoffs.
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
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This entry gives an estimate of the percentage of adults (aged 15-49) living with HIV/AIDS. The adult prevalence rate is calculated by dividing the estimated number of adults living with HIV/AIDS at yearend by the total adult population at yearend.
HIV/AIDS - deaths
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This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year.
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
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This entry gives an estimate of all people (adults and children) alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.
Hospital bed density
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This entry provides the number of hospital beds per 1,000 people; it serves as a general measure of inpatient service availability. Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers. In most cases, beds for both acute and chronic care are included. Because the level of inpatient services required for individual countries depends on several factors - such as demographic issues and the burden of disease - there is no global target for the number of hospital beds per country. So, while 2 beds per 1,000 in one country may be sufficient, 2 beds per 1,000 in another may be woefully inadequate because of the amount of people hospitalized by disease.
Household income or consumption by percentage share
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Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons.
Hydrographic data codes
See Data codes
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I

Illicit drugs
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This entry gives information on the five categories of illicit drugs - narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens, and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of medical channels. 
Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot, Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish (hash), and hashish oil (hash oil). 
Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter. 
Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush. 
Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital), benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide (Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid). 
Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral change in an individual. 
Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual. 
Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc, buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others (psilocybin, psilocyn). 
Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). 
Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine. 
Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant. 
Marijuana is the dried leaf of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis sativa). 
Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in Southwest Asia and Africa. 
Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussin AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone (Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil). 
Opium is the brown, gummy exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium poppy. 
Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for the natural and semisynthetic narcotics. 
Poppy straw is the entire cut and dried opium poppy-plant material, other than the seeds. Opium is extracted from poppy straw in commercial operations that produce the drug for medical use. 
Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis that is chewed or drunk as tea. 
Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant. 
Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn, Dexedrine), ephedrine, ecstasy (clarity, essence, doctor, Adam), phenmetrazine (Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).
Imports
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This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.
Imports - commodities
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This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
Imports - partners
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This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.
Independence
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For most countries, this entry gives the date that sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state succession. For a number of countries, the establishment of statehood was a lengthy evolutionary process occurring over decades or even centuries. In such cases, several significant dates are cited. Dependent areas include the notation "none" followed by the nature of their dependency status. Also see the Terminology note.
Industrial production growth rate
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This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).
Industries
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This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.
Infant mortality rate
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This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year; included is the total death rate, and deaths by sex, male and female. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.
Inflation rate (consumer prices)
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This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.
International disputes
see Disputes - international
International law organization participation
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This entry includes information on a country's acceptance of jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and of the International Criminal Court (ICCt); 55 countries have accepted ICJ jurisdiction with reservations and 11 have accepted ICJ jurisdiction without reservations; 114 countries have accepted ICCt jurisdiction.
International organization participation
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This entry lists in alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.
International organizations
This information is presented in Appendix B: International Organizations and Groups which includes the name, abbreviation, date established, aim, and members by category.
Internet country code
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This entry includes the two-letter codes maintained by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the ISO 3166 Alpha-2 list and used by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) to establish country-coded top-level domains (ccTLDs).
Internet hosts
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This entry lists the number of Internet hosts available within a country. An Internet host is a computer connected directly to the Internet; normally an Internet Service Provider's (ISP) computer is a host. Internet users may use either a hard-wired terminal, at an institution with a mainframe computer connected directly to the Internet, or may connect remotely by way of a modem via telephone line, cable, or satellite to the Internet Service Provider's host computer. The number of hosts is one indicator of the extent of Internet connectivity.
Internet users
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This entry gives the number of users within a country that access the Internet. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months.
Introduction
This category includes one entry, Background.
Investment (gross fixed)
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This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital.
Irrigated land
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This entry gives the number of square kilometers of land area that is artificially supplied with water.
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J

Judicial branch
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This entry contains the name(s) of the highest court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.
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L

Labor force
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This entry contains the total labor force figure.
Labor force - by occupation
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This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industryincludes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Servicescover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete and may range from 99-101 percent due to rounding.
Land boundaries
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This entry contains the total length of all land boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border countries. When available, official lengths published by national statistical agencies are used. Because surveying methods may differ, country border lengths reported by contiguous countries may differ.
Land use
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This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area for three different types of land use: arable land - land cultivated for crops like wheat, maize, and rice that are replanted after each harvest; permanent crops - land cultivated for crops like citrus, coffee, and rubber that are not replanted after each harvest; includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber; other - any land not arable or under permanent crops; includes permanent meadows and pastures, forests and woodlands, built-on areas, roads, barren land, etc.
Languages
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This entry provides a rank ordering of languages starting with the largest and sometimes includes the percent of total population speaking that language.
Legal system
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This entry provides the description of a country's legal system. A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. The legal systems of nearly all countries are generally modeled upon elements of five main types: civil law (including French law, the Napoleonic Code, Roman law, Roman-Dutch law, and Spanish law); common law (including United State law); customary law; mixed or pluralistic law; and religious law (including Islamic law). An additional type of legal system - international law, which governs the conduct of independent nations in their relationships with one another - is also addressed below. The following list describes these legal systems, the countries or world regions where these systems are enforced, and a brief statement on the origins and major features of each. 
Civil Law - The most widespread type of legal system in the world, applied in various forms in approximately 150 countries. Also referred to as European continental law, the civil law system is derived mainly from the Roman Corpus Juris Civilus, (Body of Civil Law), a collection of laws and legal interpretations compiled under the East Roman (Byzantine) Emperor Justinian I between A.D. 528 and 565. The major feature of civil law systems is that the laws are organized into systematic written codes. In civil law the sources recognized as authoritative are principally legislation - especially codifications in constitutions or statutes enacted by governments - and secondarily, custom. The civil law systems in some countries are based on more than one code. 
Common Law - A type of legal system, often synonymous with "English common law," which is the system of England and Wales in the UK, and is also in force in approximately 80 countries formerly part of or influenced by the former British Empire. English common law reflects Biblical influences as well as remnants of law systems imposed by early conquerors including the Romans, Anglo-Saxons, and Normans. Some legal scholars attribute the formation of the English common law system to King Henry II (r.1154-1189). Until the time of his reign, laws customary among England's various manorial and ecclesiastical (church) jurisdictions were administered locally. Henry II established the king's court and designated that laws were "common" to the entire English realm. The foundation of English common law is "legal precedent" - referred to as stare decisis, meaning "to stand by things decided." In the English common law system, court judges are bound in their decisions in large part by the rules and other doctrines developed - and supplemented over time - by the judges of earlier English courts. 
Customary Law - A type of legal system that serves as the basis of, or has influenced, the present-day laws in approximately 40 countries - mostly in Africa, but some in the Pacific islands, Europe, and the Near East. Customary law is also referred to as "primitive law," "unwritten law," "indigenous law," and "folk law." There is no single history of customary law such as that found in Roman civil law, English common law, Islamic law, or the Napoleonic Civil Code. The earliest systems of law in human society were customary, and usually developed in small agrarian and hunter-gatherer communities. As the term implies, customary law is based upon the customs of a community. Common attributes of customary legal systems are that they are seldom written down, they embody an organized set of rules regulating social relations, and they are agreed upon by members of the community. Although such law systems include sanctions for law infractions, resolution tends to be reconciliatory rather than punitive. A number of African states practiced customary law many centuries prior to colonial influences. Following colonization, such laws were written down and incorporated to varying extents into the legal systems imposed by their colonial powers. 
European Union Law - A sub-discipline of international law known as "supranational law" in which the rights of sovereign nations are limited in relation to one another. Also referred to as the Law of the European Union or Community Law, it is the unique and complex legal system that operates in tandem with the laws of the 27 member states of the European Union (EU). Similar to federal states, the EU legal system ensures compliance from the member states because of the Union's decentralized political nature. The European Court of Justice (ECJ), established in 1952 by the Treaty of Paris, has been largely responsible for the development of EU law. Fundamental principles of European Union law include: subsidiarity - the notion that issues be handled by the smallest, lowest, or least centralized competent authority;proportionality - the EU may only act to the extent needed to achieve its objectives; conferral - the EU is a union of member states, and all its authorities are voluntarily granted by its members; legal certainty - requires that legal rules be clear and precise; and precautionary principle - a moral and political principle stating that if an action or policy might cause severe or irreversible harm to the public or to the environment, in the absence of a scientific consensus that harm would not ensue, the burden of proof falls on those who would advocate taking the action. 
French Law - A type of civil law that is the legal system of France. The French system also serves as the basis for, or is mixed with, other legal systems in approximately 50 countries, notably in North Africa, the Near East, and the French territories and dependencies. French law is primarily codified or systematic written civil law. Prior to the French Revolution (1789-1799), France had no single national legal system. Laws in the northern areas of present-day France were mostly local customs based on privileges and exemptions granted by kings and feudal lords, while in the southern areas Roman law predominated. The introduction of the Napoleonic Civil Code during the reign of Napoleon I in the first decade of the 19th century brought major reforms to the French legal system, many of which remain part of France's current legal structure, though all have been extensively amended or redrafted to address a modern nation. French law distinguishes between "public law" and "private law." Public law relates to government, the French Constitution, public administration, and criminal law. Private law covers issues between private citizens or corporations. The most recent changes to the French legal system - introduced in the 1980s - were the decentralization laws, which transferred authority from centrally appointed government representatives to locally elected representatives of the people. 
International Law - The law of the international community, or the body of customary rules and treaty rules accepted as legally binding by states in their relations with each other. International law differs from other legal systems in that it primarily concerns sovereign political entities. There are three separate disciplines of international law: public international law, which governs the relationship between provinces and international entities and includes treaty law, law of the sea, international criminal law, and international humanitarian law; private international law, which addresses legal jurisdiction; and supranational law - a legal framework wherein countries are bound by regional agreements in which the laws of the member countries are held inapplicable when in conflict with supranational laws. At present the European Union is the only entity under a supranational legal system. The term "international law" was coined by Jeremy Bentham in 1780 in his Principles of Morals and Legislation, though laws governing relations between states have been recognized from very early times (many centuries B.C.). Modern international law developed alongside the emergence and growth of the European nation-states beginning in the early 16th century. Other factors that influenced the development of international law included the revival of legal studies, the growth of international trade, and the practice of exchanging emissaries and establishing legations. The sources of International law are set out in Article 38-1 of the Statute of the International Court of Justice within the UN Charter. 
Islamic Law - The most widespread type of religious law, it is the legal system enforced in over 30 countries, particularly in the Near East, but also in Central and South Asia, Africa, and Indonesia. In many countries Islamic law operates in tandem with a civil law system. Islamic law is embodied in the sharia, an Arabic word meaning "the right path." Sharia covers all aspects of public and private life and organizes them into five categories: obligatory, recommended, permitted, disliked, and forbidden. The primary sources of sharia law are the Qur'an, believed by Muslims to be the word of God revealed to the Prophet Muhammad by the angel Gabriel, and the Sunnah, the teachings of the Prophet and his works. In addition to these two primary sources, traditional Sunni Muslims recognize the consensus of Muhammad's companions and Islamic jurists on certain issues, called ijmas, and various forms of reasoning, including analogy by legal scholars, referred to as qiyas. Shia Muslims reject ijmas and qiyas as sources of sharia law. 
Mixed Law - Also referred to as pluralistic law, mixed law consists of elements of some or all of the other main types of legal systems - civil, common, customary, and religious. The mixed legal systems of a number of countries came about when colonial powers overlaid their own legal systems upon colonized regions but retained elements of the colonies' existing legal systems. 
Napoleonic Civil Code - A type of civil law, referred to as the Civil Code orCode Civil des Francais, forms part of the legal system of France, and underpins the legal systems of Bolivia, Egypt, Lebanon, Poland, and the US state of Louisiana. The Civil Code was established under Napoleon I, enacted in 1804, and officially designated the Code Napoleon in 1807. This legal system combined the Teutonic civil law tradition of the northern provinces of France with the Roman law tradition of the southern and eastern regions of the country. The Civil Code bears similarities in its arrangement to the Roman Body of Civil Law (see Civil Law above). As enacted in 1804, the Code addressed personal status, property, and the acquisition of property. Codes added over the following six years included civil procedures, commercial law, criminal law and procedures, and a penal code. 
Religious Law - A legal system which stems from the sacred texts of religious traditions and in most cases professes to cover all aspects of life as a seamless part of devotional obligations to a transcendent, imminent, or deep philosophical reality. Implied as the basis of religious law is the concept of unalterability, because the word of God cannot be amended or legislated against by judges or governments. However, a detailed legal system generally requires human elaboration. The main types of religious law are sharia in Islam, halakha in Judaism, and canon law in some Christian groups. Sharia is the most widespread religious legal system (see Islamic Law), and is the sole system of law for countries including Iran, the Maldives, and Saudi Arabia. No country is fully governed by halakha, but Jewish people may decide to settle disputes through Jewish courts and be bound by their rulings. Canon law is not a divine law as such because it is not found in revelation. It is viewed instead as human law inspired by the word of God and applying the demands of that revelation to the actual situation of the church. Canon law regulates the internal ordering of the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion. 
Roman Law - A type of civil law developed in ancient Rome and practiced from the time of the city's founding (traditionally 753 B.C.) until the fall of the Western Empire in the 5th century A.D. Roman law remained the legal system of the Byzantine (Eastern Empire) until the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Preserved fragments of the first legal text, known as the Law of the Twelve Tables, dating from the 5th century B.C., contained specific provisions designed to change the prevailing customary law. Early Roman law was drawn from custom and statutes; later, during the time of the empire, emperors asserted their authority as the ultimate source of law. The basis for Roman laws was the idea that the exact form - not the intention - of words or of actions produced legal consequences. It was only in the late 6th century A.D. that a comprehensive Roman code of laws was published (see Civil Law above). Roman law served as the basis of law systems developed in a number of continental European countries. 
Roman-Dutch Law - A type of civil law based on Roman law as applied in the Netherlands. Roman-Dutch law serves as the basis for legal systems in seven African countries, as well as Guyana, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. This law system, which originated in the province of Holland and expanded throughout the Netherlands (to be replaced by the French Civil Code in 1809), was instituted in a number of sub-Saharan African countries during the Dutch colonial period. The Dutch jurist/philosopher Hugo Grotius was the first to attempt to reduce Roman-Dutch civil law into a system in his Jurisprudence of Holland (written 1619-20, commentary published 1621). The Dutch historian/lawyer Simon van Leeuwen coined the term "Roman-Dutch law" in 1652. 
Spanish Law - A type of civil law, often referred to as the Spanish Civil Code, it is the present legal system of Spain and is the basis of legal systems in 12 countries mostly in Central and South America, but also in southwestern Europe, northern and western Africa, and southeastern Asia. The Spanish Civil Code reflects a complex mixture of customary, Roman, Napoleonic, local, and modern codified law. The laws of the Visigoth invaders of Spain in the 5th to 7th centuries had the earliest major influence on Spanish legal system development. The Christian Reconquest of Spain in the 11th through 15th centuries witnessed the development of customary law, which combined canon (religious) and Roman law. During several centuries of Hapsburg and Bourbon rule, systematic recompilations of the existing national legal system were attempted, but these often conflicted with local and regional customary civil laws. Legal system development for most of the 19th century concentrated on formulating a national civil law system, which was finally enacted in 1889 as the Spanish Civil Code. Several sections of the code have been revised, the most recent of which are the penal code in 1989 and the judiciary code in 2001. The Spanish Civil Code separates public and private law. Public law includes constitutional law, administrative law, criminal law, process law, financial and tax law, and international public law. Private law includes civil law, commercial law, labor law, and international private law. 
United States Law - A type of common law, which is the basis of the legal system of the United States and that of its island possessions in the Caribbean and the Pacific. This legal system has several layers, more possibly than in most other countries, and is due in part to the division between federal and state law. The United States was founded not as one nation but as a union of 13 colonies, each claiming independence from the British Crown. The US Constitution, implemented in 1789, began shifting power away from the states and toward the federal government, though the states today retain substantial legal authority. US law draws its authority from four sources: constitutional law,statutory lawadministrative regulations, and case law. Constitutional law is based on the US Constitution and serves as the supreme federal law. Taken together with those of the state constitutions, these documents outline the general structure of the federal and state governments and provide the rules and limits of power. US statutory law is legislation enacted by the US Congress and is codified in the United States Code. The 50 state legislatures have similar authority to enact state statutes. Administrative law is the authority delegated to federal and state executive agencies. Case law, also referred to as common law, covers areas where constitutional or statutory law is lacking. Case law is a collection of judicial decisions, customs, and general principles that began in England centuries ago, that were adopted in America at the time of the Revolution, and that continue to develop today.
Legislative branch
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This entry contains information on the structure (unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of office. Electionsincludes the nature of the election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each party in the last election.
Life expectancy at birth
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This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. The entry includes total population as well as the male and femalecomponents. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.
Literacy
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This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total populationmales, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition - the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons. Low levels of literacy, and education in general, can impede the economic development of a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven world.
Location
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This entry identifies the country's regional location, neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water.
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Major cities - population
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This entry provides the population of the capital and up to four major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least 750,000 people. An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city. For smaller countries, lacking urban centers of 750,000 or more, only the population of the capital is presented.
Major infectious diseases
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This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high as compared to the United States. These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three years. The degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present. The diseases listed do not necessarily represent the total disease burden experienced by the local population.
The risk to an individual traveler varies considerably by the specific location, visit duration, type of activities, type of accommodations, time of year, and other factors. Consultation with a travel medicine physician is needed to evaluate individual risk and recommend appropriate preventive measures such as vaccines.
Diseases are organized into the following six exposure categories shown in italics and listed in typical descending order of risk. Note: The sequence of exposure categories listed in individual country entries may vary according to local conditions.
food or waterborne diseases acquired through eating or drinking on the local economy:
Hepatitis A - viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; spread through consumption of food or water contaminated with fecal matter, principally in areas of poor sanitation; victims exhibit fever, jaundice, and diarrhea; 15% of victims will experience prolonged symptoms over 6-9 months; vaccine available.
Hepatitis E - water-borne viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver; most commonly spread through fecal contamination of drinking water; victims exhibit jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and dark colored urine.
Typhoid fever - bacterial disease spread through contact with food or water contaminated by fecal matter or sewage; victims exhibit sustained high fevers; left untreated, mortality rates can reach 20%.
vectorborne diseases acquired through the bite of an infected arthropod:
Malaria - caused by single-cell parasitic protozoa Plasmodium; transmitted to humans via the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito; parasites multiply in the liver attacking red blood cells resulting in cycles of fever, chills, and sweats accompanied by anemia; death due to damage to vital organs and interruption of blood supply to the brain; endemic in 100, mostly tropical, countries with 90% of cases and the majority of 1.5-2.5 million estimated annual deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa.
Dengue fever - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated with urban environments; manifests as sudden onset of fever and severe headache; occasionally produces shock and hemorrhage leading to death in 5% of cases.
Yellow fever - mosquito-borne viral disease; severity ranges from influenza-like symptoms to severe hepatitis and hemorrhagic fever; occurs only in tropical South America and sub-Saharan Africa, where most cases are reported; fatality rate is less than 20%.
Japanese Encephalitis - mosquito-borne (Culex tritaeniorhynchus) viral disease associated with rural areas in Asia; acute encephalitis can progress to paralysis, coma, and death; fatality rates 30%.
African Trypanosomiasis - caused by the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma; transmitted to humans via the bite of bloodsucking Tsetse flies; infection leads to malaise and irregular fevers and, in advanced cases when the parasites invade the central nervous system, coma and death; endemic in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa; cattle and wild animals act as reservoir hosts for the parasites.
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis - caused by the parasitic protozoa leishmania; transmitted to humans via the bite of sandflies; results in skin lesions that may become chronic; endemic in 88 countries; 90% of cases occur in Iran, Afghanistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, and Peru; wild and domesticated animals as well as humans can act as reservoirs of infection.
Plague - bacterial disease transmitted by fleas normally associated with rats; person-to-person airborne transmission also possible; recent plague epidemics occurred in areas of Asia, Africa, and South America associated with rural areas or small towns and villages; manifests as fever, headache, and painfully swollen lymph nodes; disease progresses rapidly and without antibiotic treatment leads to pneumonic form with a death rate in excess of 50%.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever - tick-borne viral disease; infection may also result from exposure to infected animal blood or tissue; geographic distribution includes Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe; sudden onset of fever, headache, and muscle aches followed by hemorrhaging in the bowels, urine, nose, and gums; mortality rate is approximately 30%.
Rift Valley fever - viral disease affecting domesticated animals and humans; transmission is by mosquito and other biting insects; infection may also occur through handling of infected meat or contact with blood; geographic distribution includes eastern and southern Africa where cattle and sheep are raised; symptoms are generally mild with fever and some liver abnormalities, but the disease may progress to hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or ocular disease; fatality rates are low at about 1% of cases.
Chikungunya - mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated with urban environments, similar to Dengue Fever; characterized by sudden onset of fever, rash, and severe joint pain usually lasting 3-7 days, some cases result in persistent arthritis.
water contact diseases acquired through swimming or wading in freshwater lakes, streams, and rivers:
Leptospirosis - bacterial disease that affects animals and humans; infection occurs through contact with water, food, or soil contaminated by animal urine; symptoms include high fever, severe headache, vomiting, jaundice, and diarrhea; untreated, the disease can result in kidney damage, liver failure, meningitis, or respiratory distress; fatality rates are low but left untreated recovery can take months.
Schistosomiasis - caused by parasitic trematode flatworm Schistosoma; fresh water snails act as intermediate host and release larval form of parasite that penetrates the skin of people exposed to contaminated water; worms mature and reproduce in the blood vessels, liver, kidneys, and intestines releasing eggs, which become trapped in tissues triggering an immune response; may manifest as either urinary or intestinal disease resulting in decreased work or learning capacity; mortality, while generally low, may occur in advanced cases usually due to bladder cancer; endemic in 74 developing countries with 80% of infected people living in sub-Saharan Africa; humans act as the reservoir for this parasite.
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease acquired through inhalation of aerosols contaminated with rodent urine:
Lassa fever - viral disease carried by rats of the genus Mastomys; endemic in portions of West Africa; infection occurs through direct contact with or consumption of food contaminated by rodent urine or fecal matter containing virus particles; fatality rate can reach 50% in epidemic outbreaks.
respiratory disease acquired through close contact with an infectious person:
Meningococcal meningitis - bacterial disease causing an inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord; one of the most important bacterial pathogens is Neisseria meningitidis because of its potential to cause epidemics; symptoms include stiff neck, high fever, headaches, and vomiting; bacteria are transmitted from person to person by respiratory droplets and facilitated by close and prolonged contact resulting from crowded living conditions, often with a seasonal distribution; death occurs in 5-15% of cases, typically within 24-48 hours of onset of symptoms; highest burden of meningococcal disease occurs in the hyperendemic region of sub-Saharan Africa known as the "Meningitis Belt" which stretches from Senegal east to Ethiopia.
animal contact disease acquired through direct contact with local animals:
Rabies - viral disease of mammals usually transmitted through the bite of an infected animal, most commonly dogs; virus affects the central nervous system causing brain alteration and death; symptoms initially are non-specific fever and headache progressing to neurological symptoms; death occurs within days of the onset of symptoms.
Manpower available for military service
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This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for a country (defined as being ages 16-49) and assumes that every individual is fit to serve.
Manpower fit for military service
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This entry gives the number of males and females falling in the military age range for a country (defined as being ages 16-49) and who are not otherwise disqualified for health reasons; accounts for the health situation in the country and provides a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve.
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
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This entry gives the number of males and females entering the military manpower pool (i.e., reaching age 16) in any given year and is a measure of the availability of military-age young adults.
Map references
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This entry includes the name of the Factbook reference map on which a country may be found. Note that boundary representations on these maps are not necessarily authoritative. The entry on Geographic coordinates may be helpful in finding some smaller countries.
Maritime claims
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This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions: 
territorial sea - the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea, described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS (Part II); this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying seabed and subsoil; every state has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles; the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the mean low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal state; where the coasts of two states are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither state is entitled to extend its territorial sea beyond the median line, every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baseline from which the territorial seas of both states are measured; the UNCLOS describes specific rules for archipelagic states. 
contiguous zone - according to the UNCLOS (Article 33), this is a zone contiguous to a coastal state's territorial sea, over which it may exercise the control necessary to: prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea; punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea; the contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured (e.g., the US has claimed a 12-nautical mile contiguous zone in addition to its 12-nautical mile territorial sea); where the coasts of two states are opposite or adjacent to each other, neither state is entitled to extend its contiguous zone beyond the median line, every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points on the baseline from which the contiguous zone of both states are measured. 
exclusive economic zone (EEZ) - the UNCLOS (Part V) defines the EEZ as a zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea in which a coastal state has: sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents, and winds; jurisdiction with regard to the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations, and structures; marine scientific research; the protection and preservation of the marine environment; the outer limit of the exclusive economic zone shall not exceed 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. 
continental shelf - the UNCLOS (Article 76) defines the continental shelf of a coastal state as comprising the seabed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the continental margin, or to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that distance; the continental margin comprises the submerged prolongation of the landmass of the coastal state, and consists of the seabed and subsoil of the shelf, the slope and the rise; wherever the continental margin extends beyond 200 nautical miles from the baseline, coastal states may extend their claim to a distance not to exceed 350 nautical miles from the baseline or 100 nautical miles from the 2,500-meter isobath, which is a line connecting points of 2,500 meters in depth; it does not include the deep ocean floor with its oceanic ridges or the subsoil thereof. 
exclusive fishing zone - while this term is not used in the UNCLOS, some states (e.g., the United Kingdom) have chosen not to claim an EEZ, but rather to claim jurisdiction over the living resources off their coast; in such cases, the term exclusive fishing zone is often used; the breadth of this zone is normally the same as the EEZ or 200 nautical miles.
Market value of publicly traded shares
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This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the final day of the period indicated. It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated over all companies listed on the particular exchange.
Maternal mortality rate
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The maternal mortality rate (MMR) is the annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes). The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year.
Median age
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This entry is the age that divides a population into two numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age and half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Uganda and Gaza Strip to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan. See the entry for "Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by implication, a low versus a higher median age.
Merchant marine
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Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of goods; or all commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. This entry contains information in four fields - total, ships by typeforeign-owned, and registered in other countries
Total includes the number of ships (1,000 GRT or over), total DWT for those ships, and total GRT for those ships. DWT or dead weight tonnage is the total weight of cargo, plus bunkers, stores, etc., that a ship can carry when immersed to the appropriate load line. GRT or gross register tonnage is a figure obtained by measuring the entire sheltered volume of a ship available for cargo and passengers and converting it to tons on the basis of 100 cubic feet per ton; there is no stable relationship between GRT and DWT. 
Ships by type includes a listing of barge carriers, bulk cargo ships, cargo ships, chemical tankers, combination bulk carriers, combination ore/oil carriers, container ships, liquefied gas tankers, livestock carriers, multifunctional large-load carriers, petroleum tankers, passenger ships, passenger/cargo ships, railcar carriers, refrigerated cargo ships, roll-on/roll-off cargo ships, short-sea passenger ships, specialized tankers, and vehicle carriers. 
Foreign-owned are ships that fly the flag of one country but belong to owners in another. 
Registered in other countries are ships that belong to owners in one country but fly the flag of another.
Military
This category includes the entries dealing with a country's military structure, manpower, and expenditures.
Military - note
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This entry includes miscellaneous military information of significance not included elsewhere.
Military branches
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This entry lists the service branches subordinate to defense ministries or the equivalent (typically ground, naval, air, and marine forces).
Military expenditures
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This entry gives spending on defense programs for the most recent year available as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP); the GDP is calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP).
Military service age and obligation
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This entry gives the required ages for voluntary or conscript military service and the length of service obligation.
Money figures
All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars unless otherwise indicated.
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National anthem
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A generally patriotic musical composition - usually in the form of a song or hymn of praise - that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition. Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.
National holiday
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This entry gives the primary national day of celebration - usually independence day.
National symbol(s)
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A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation - or some distinctive object - that over time has come to be closely identified with a country or entity. Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one.
Nationality
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This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens - noun and adjective.
Natural gas - consumption
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This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.
Natural gas - exports
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This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters (cu m).
Natural gas - imports
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This entry is the total natural gas imported in cubic meters (cu m).
Natural gas - production
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This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.
Natural gas - proved reserves
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This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters (cu m). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
Natural hazards
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This entry lists potential natural disasters. For countries where volcanic activity is common, a volcanism subfield highlights historically active volcanoes.
Natural resources
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This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum, hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance, such as rare earth elements (REEs).
Net migration rate
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This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population change. The net migration rate does not distinguish between economic migrants, refugees, and other types of migrants nor does it distinguish between lawful migrants and undocumented migrants.
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Obesity - adult prevalence rate
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This entry gives the percent of a country's population considered to be obese. Obesity is defined as an adult having a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater to or equal to 30.0. BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight in kg and dividing it by the person's squared height in meters.
Oil - consumption
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This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
Oil - exports
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This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
Oil - imports
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This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.
Oil - production
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This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.
Oil - proved reserves
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This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.
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People - note
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This entry includes miscellaneous demographic information of significance not included elsewhere.
People and Society
This category includes the entries dealing with the characteristics of the people and their society.
Personal Names - Capitalization
The Factbook capitalizes the surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions. The need for capitalization, bold type, underlining, italics, or some other indicator of the individual's surname is apparent in the following examples: MAO Zedong, Fidel CASTRO Ruz, George W. BUSH, and TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah. By knowing the surname, a short form without all capital letters can be used with confidence as in President Castro, Chairman Mao, President Bush, or Sultan Tunku Salahuddin. The same system of capitalization is extended to the names of leaders with surnames that are not commonly used such as Queen ELIZABETH II. For Vietnamese names, the given name is capitalized because officials are referred to by their given name rather than by their surname. For example, the president of Vietnam is Tran Duc LUONG. His surname is Tran, but he is referred to by his given name - President LUONG.
Personal Names - Spelling
The romanization of personal names in the Factbook normally follows the same transliteration system used by the US Board on Geographic Names for spelling place names. At times, however, a foreign leader expressly indicates a preference for, or the media or official documents regularly use, a romanized spelling that differs from the transliteration derived from the US Government standard. In such cases, theFactbook uses the alternative spelling.
Personal Names - Titles
The Factbook capitalizes any valid title (or short form of it) immediately preceding a person's name. A title standing alone is not capitalized. Examples: President PUTIN and President OBAMA are chiefs of state. In Russia, the president is chief of state and the premier is the head of the government, while in the US, the president is both chief of state and head of government.
Petroleum
See entries under Oil.
Petroleum products
See entries under Oil.
Physicians density
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This entry gives the number of medical doctors (physicians), including generalist and specialist medical practitioners, per 1,000 of the population. Medical doctors are defined as doctors that study, diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans through the application of modern medicine. They also plan, supervise, and evaluate care and treatment plans by other health care providers. The World Health Organization estimates that fewer than 2.3 health workers (physicians, nurses, and midwives only) per 1,000 would be insufficient to achieve coverage of primary healthcare needs.
Pipelines
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This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products.
Piracy
Piracy is defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea as any illegal act of violence, detention, or depredation directed against a ship, aircraft, persons, or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State. Such criminal acts committed in the territorial waters of a littoral state are generally considered to be armed robbery against ships. Information on piracy may be found, where applicable, in the Transportation - note.
Political parties and leaders
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This entry includes a listing of significant political organizations and their leaders.
Political pressure groups and leaders
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This entry includes a listing of a country's political, social, labor, or religious organizations that are involved in politics, or that exert political pressure, but whose leaders do not stand for legislative election. International movements or organizations are generally not listed.
Population
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This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends. The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region. Note: Starting with the 1993 Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries (mostly African) have explicitly taken into account the effects of the growing impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. These countries are currently: The Bahamas, Benin, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Population below poverty line
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National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.
Population growth rate
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The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Rapid population growth can be seen as threatening by neighboring countries.
Ports and terminals
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This entry lists major ports and terminals primarily on the basis of the amount of cargo tonnage shipped through the facilities on an annual basis. In some instances, the number of containers handled or ship visits were also considered.
Public debt
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This entry records the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.
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Railways
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This entry states the total route length of the railway network and of its component parts by gauge, which is the measure of the distance between the inner sides of the load-bearing rails. The four typical types of gauges are:broadstandardnarrow, and dual. Other gauges are listed under note. Some 60% of the world's railways use the standard gauge of 1.4 m (4.7 ft). Gauges vary by country and sometimes within countries. The choice of gauge during initial construction was mainly in response to local conditions and the intent of the builder. Narrow-gauge railways were cheaper to build and could negotiate sharper curves, broad-gauge railways gave greater stability and permitted higher speeds. Standard-gauge railways were a compromise between narrow and broad gauges.
Rare earth elements
Rare earth elements or REEs are 17 chemical elements that are critical in many of today's high-tech industries. They include lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, lutetium, scandium, and yttrium. Typical applications for REEs include batteries in hybrid cars, fiber optic cables, flat panel displays, and permanent magnets, as well as some defense and medical products.
Reference maps
This section includes world and regional maps.
Refugees and internally displaced persons
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This entry includes those persons residing in a country as refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs). The definition of a refugee according to a United Nations Convention is "a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution." The UN established the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 1950 to handle refugee matters worldwide. The UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has a different operational definition for a Palestinian refugee: "a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948 and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict." However, UNHCR also assists some 400,000 Palestinian refugees not covered under the UNRWA definition. The term "internally displaced person" is not specifically covered in the UN Convention; it is used to describe people who have fled their homes for reasons similar to refugees, but who remain within their own national territory and are subject to the laws of that state.
Religions
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This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population. The core characteristics and beliefs of the world's major religions are described below. 
Baha'i - Founded by Mirza Husayn-Ali (known as Baha'u'llah) in Iran in 1852, Baha'i faith emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God. Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace may be achieved on earth. Baha'i revelation contends the prophets of major world religions reflect some truth or element of the divine, believes all were manifestations of God given to specific communities in specific times, and that Baha'u'llah is an additional prophet meant to call all humankind. Bahais are an open community, located worldwide, with the greatest concentration of believers in South Asia. 
Buddhism - Religion or philosophy inspired by the 5th century B.C. teachings of Siddhartha Gautama (also known as Gautama Buddha "the enlightened one"). Buddhism focuses on the goal of spiritual enlightenment centered on an understanding of Gautama Buddha's Four Noble Truths on the nature of suffering, and on the Eightfold Path of spiritual and moral practice, to break the cycle of suffering of which we are a part. Buddhism ascribes to a karmic system of rebirth. Several schools and sects of Buddhism exist, differing often on the nature of the Buddha, the extent to which enlightenment can be achieved - for one or for all, and by whom - religious orders or laity. 
Basic Groupings 
   Theravada Buddhism: The oldest Buddhist school, Theravada is practiced mostly in Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, and Thailand, with minority representation elsewhere in Asia and the West. Theravadans follow the Pali Canon of Buddha's teachings, and believe that one may escape the cycle of rebirth, worldly attachment, and suffering for oneself; this process may take one or several lifetimes. 
   Mahayana Buddhism, including subsets Zen and Tibetan (Lamaistic) Buddhism: Forms of Mahayana Buddhism are common in East Asia and Tibet, and parts of the West. Mahayanas have additional scriptures beyond the Pali Canon and believe the Buddha is eternal and still teaching. Unlike Theravada Buddhism, Mahayana schools maintain the Buddha-nature is present in all beings and all will ultimately achieve enlightenment. 
    Hoa Hao: a minority tradition of Buddhism practiced in Vietnam that stresses lay participation, primarily by peasant farmers; it eschews expensive ceremonies and temples and relocates the primary practices into the home.
Christianity - Descending from Judaism, Christianity's central belief maintains Jesus of Nazareth is the promised messiah of the Hebrew Scriptures, and that his life, death, and resurrection are salvific for the world. Christianity is one of the three monotheistic Abrahamic faiths, along with Islam and Judaism, which traces its spiritual lineage to Abraham of the Hebrew Scriptures. Its sacred texts include the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament (or the Christian Gospels). 
Basic Groupings 
   Catholicism (or Roman Catholicism): This is the oldest established western Christian church and the world's largest single religious body. It is supranational, and recognizes a hierarchical structure with the Pope, or Bishop of Rome, as its head, located at the Vatican. Catholics believe the Pope is the divinely ordered head of the Church from a direct spiritual legacy of Jesus' apostle Peter. Catholicism is comprised of 23 particular Churches, or Rites - one Western (Roman or Latin-Rite) and 22 Eastern. The Latin Rite is by far the largest, making up about 98% of Catholic membership. Eastern-Rite Churches, such as the Maronite Church and the Ukrainian Catholic Church, are in communion with Rome although they preserve their own worship traditions and their immediate hierarchy consists of clergy within their own rite. The Catholic Church has a comprehensive theological and moral doctrine specified for believers in its catechism, which makes it unique among most forms of Christianity. 
   Mormonism (including the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints): Originating in 1830 in the United States under Joseph Smith, Mormonism is not characterized as a form of Protestant Christianity because it claims additional revealed Christian scriptures after the Hebrew Bible and New Testament. The Book of Mormon maintains there was an appearance of Jesus in the New World following the Christian account of his resurrection, and that the Americas are uniquely blessed continents. Mormonism believes earlier Christian traditions, such as the Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant reform faiths, are apostasies and that Joseph Smith's revelation of the Book of Mormon is a restoration of true Christianity. Mormons have a hierarchical religious leadership structure, and actively proselytize their faith; they are located primarily in the Americas and in a number of other Western countries. 
   Jehovah's Witnesses structure their faith on the Christian Bible, but their rejection of the Trinity is distinct from mainstream Christianity. They believe that a Kingdom of God, the Theocracy, will emerge following Armageddon and usher in a new earthly society. Adherents are required to evangelize and to follow a strict moral code.
   Orthodox Christianity: The oldest established eastern form of Christianity, the Holy Orthodox Church, has a ceremonial head in the Bishop of Constantinople (Istanbul), also known as a Patriarch, but its various regional forms (e.g., Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox) are autocephalous (independent of Constantinople's authority, and have their own Patriarchs). Orthodox churches are highly nationalist and ethnic. The Orthodox Christian faith shares many theological tenets with the Roman Catholic Church, but diverges on some key premises and does not recognize the governing authority of the Pope. 
   Protestant Christianity: Protestant Christianity originated in the 16th century as an attempt to reform Roman Catholicism's practices, dogma, and theology. It encompasses several forms or denominations which are extremely varied in structure, beliefs, relationship to state, clergy, and governance. Many protestant theologies emphasize the primary role of scripture in their faith, advocating individual interpretation of Christian texts without the mediation of a final religious authority such as the Roman Pope. The oldest Protestant Christianities include Lutheranism, Calvinism (Presbyterians), and Anglican Christianity (Episcopalians), which have established liturgies, governing structure, and formal clergy. Other variants on Protestant Christianity, including Pentecostal movements and independent churches, may lack one or more of these elements, and their leadership and beliefs are individualized and dynamic. 
Hinduism - Originating in the Vedic civilization of India (second and first millennium B.C.), Hinduism is an extremely diverse set of beliefs and practices with no single founder or religious authority. Hinduism has many scriptures; the Vedas, the Upanishads, and the Bhagavad-Gita are among some of the most important. Hindus may worship one or many deities, usually with prayer rituals within their own home. The most common figures of devotion are the gods Vishnu, Shiva, and a mother goddess, Devi. Most Hindus believe the soul, oratman, is eternal, and goes through a cycle of birth, death, and rebirth (samsara) determined by one's positive or negative karma, or the consequences of one's actions. The goal of religious life is to learn to act so as to finally achieve liberation (moksha) of one's soul, escaping the rebirth cycle. 
Islam - The third of the monotheistic Abrahamic faiths, Islam originated with the teachings of Muhammad in the 7th century. Muslims believe Muhammad is the final of all religious prophets (beginning with Abraham) and that the Qu'ran, which is the Islamic scripture, was revealed to him by God. Islam derives from the word submission, and obedience to God is a primary theme in this religion. In order to live an Islamic life, believers must follow the five pillars, or tenets, of Islam, which are the testimony of faith (shahada), daily prayer (salah), giving alms (zakah), fasting during Ramadan (sawm), and the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj). 
Basic Groupings 
   The two primary branches of Islam are Sunni and Shia, which split from each other over a religio-political leadership dispute about the rightful successor to Muhammad. The Shia believe Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali, was the only divinely ordained Imam (religious leader), while the Sunni maintain the first three caliphs after Muhammad were also legitimate authorities. In modern Islam, Sunnis and Shia continue to have different views of acceptable schools of Islamic jurisprudence, and who is a proper Islamic religious authority. Islam also has an active mystical branch, Sufism, with various Sunni and Shia subsets. 
    Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population. It recognizes the Abu Bakr as the first caliph after Muhammad. Sunni has four schools of Islamic doctrine and law - Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali - which uniquely interpret the Hadith, or recorded oral traditions of Muhammad. A Sunni Muslim may elect to follow any one of these schools, as all are considered equally valid. 
    Shia Islam represents 10-20% of Muslims worldwide, and its distinguishing feature is its reverence for Ali as an infallible, divinely inspired leader, and as the first Imam of the Muslim community after Muhammad. A majority of Shia are known as "Twelvers," because they believe that the 11 familial successor imams after Muhammad culminate in a 12th Imam (al-Mahdi) who is hidden in the world and will reappear at its end to redeem the righteous. 
Variants 
   Ismaili faith: A sect of Shia Islam, its adherents are also known as "Seveners," because they believe that the rightful seventh Imam in Islamic leadership was Isma'il, the elder son of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq. Ismaili tradition awaits the return of the seventh Imam as the Mahdi, or Islamic messianic figure. Ismailis are located in various parts of the world, particularly South Asia and the Levant. 
   Alawi faith: Another Shia sect of Islam, the name reflects followers' devotion to the religious authority of Ali. Alawites are a closed, secretive religious group who assert they are Shia Muslims, although outside scholars speculate their beliefs may have a syncretic mix with other faiths originating in the Middle East. Alawis live mostly in Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey. 
   Druze faith: A highly secretive tradition and a closed community that derives from the Ismaili sect of Islam; its core beliefs are thought to emphasize a combination of Gnostic principles believing that the Fatimid caliph, al-Hakin, is the one who embodies the key aspects of goodness of the universe, which are, the intellect, the word, the soul, the preceder, and the follower. The Druze have a key presence in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. 
Jainism - Originating in India, Jain spiritual philosophy believes in an eternal human soul, the eternal universe, and a principle of "the own nature of things." It emphasizes compassion for all living things, seeks liberation of the human soul from reincarnation through enlightenment, and values personal responsibility due to the belief in the immediate consequences of one's behavior. Jain philosophy teaches non-violence and prescribes vegetarianism for monks and laity alike; its adherents are a highly influential religious minority in Indian society. 
Judaism - One of the first known monotheistic religions, likely dating to between 2000-1500 B.C., Judaism is the native faith of the Jewish people, based upon the belief in a covenant of responsibility between a sole omnipotent creator God and Abraham, the patriarch of Judaism's Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh. Divine revelation of principles and prohibitions in the Hebrew Scriptures form the basis of Jewish law, or halakhah, which is a key component of the faith. While there are extensive traditions of Jewish halakhic and theological discourse, there is no final dogmatic authority in the tradition. Local communities have their own religious leadership. Modern Judaism has three basic categories of faith: Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform/Liberal. These differ in their views and observance of Jewish law, with the Orthodox representing the most traditional practice, and Reform/Liberal communities the most accommodating of individualized interpretations of Jewish identity and faith. 
Shintoism - A native animist tradition of Japan, Shinto practice is based upon the premise that every being and object has its own spirit or kami. Shinto practitioners worship several particular kamis, including the kamis of nature, and families often have shrines to their ancestors' kamis. Shintoism has no fixed tradition of prayers or prescribed dogma, but is characterized by individual ritual. Respect for the kamis in nature is a key Shinto value. Prior to the end of World War II, Shinto was the state religion of Japan, and bolstered the cult of the Japanese emperor. 
Sikhism - Founded by the Guru Nanak (born 1469), Sikhism believes in a non-anthropomorphic, supreme, eternal, creator God; centering one's devotion to God is seen as a means of escaping the cycle of rebirth. Sikhs follow the teachings of Nanak and nine subsequent gurus. Their scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib - also known as the Adi Granth - is considered the living Guru, or final authority of Sikh faith and theology. Sikhism emphasizes equality of humankind and disavows caste, class, or gender discrimination. 
Taoism - Chinese philosophy or religion based upon Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching, which centers on belief in the Tao, or the way, as the flow of the universe and the nature of things. Taoism encourages a principle of non-force, or wu-wei, as the means to live harmoniously with the Tao. Taoists believe the esoteric world is made up of a perfect harmonious balance and nature, while in the manifest world - particularly in the body - balance is distorted. The Three Jewels of the Tao - compassion, simplicity, and humility - serve as the basis for Taoist ethics.
Zoroastrianism - Originating from the teachings of Zoroaster in about the 9th or 10th century B.C., Zoroastrianism may be the oldest continuing creedal religion. Its key beliefs center on a transcendent creator God, Ahura Mazda, and the concept of free will. The key ethical tenets of Zoroastrianism expressed in its scripture, the Avesta, are based on a dualistic worldview where one may prevent chaos if one chooses to serve God and exercises good thoughts, good words, and good deeds. Zoroastrianism is generally a closed religion and members are almost always born to Zoroastrian parents. Prior to the spread of Islam, Zoroastrianism dominated greater Iran. Today, though a minority, Zoroastrians remain primarily in Iran, India (where they are known as Parsi), and Pakistan. 
Traditional beliefs
    Animism: the belief that non-human entities contain souls or spirits.
    Badimo: a form of ancestor worship of the Tswana people of Botswana.
    Confucianism: an ideology that humans are perfectible through self-cultivation and self-creation; developed from teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. Confucianism has strongly influenced the culture and beliefs of East Asian countries, including China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Vietnam.
    Inuit beliefs are a form of shamanism (see below) based on animistic principles of the Inuit or Eskimo peoples.
    Kirant: the belief system of the Kirat, a people who live mainly in the Himalayas of Nepal. It is primarily a form of polytheistic shamanism, but includes elements of animism and ancestor worship. 
    Pagan is a blanket term used to describe many unconnected belief practices throughout history, usually in reference to religions outside of the Abrahamic category (monotheistic faiths like Judaism, Christianity, and Islam).
    Shamanism: beliefs and practices promoting communication with the spiritual world. Shamanistic beliefs are organized around a shaman or medicine man who - as an intermediary between the human and spirit world - is believed to be able to heal the sick (by healing their souls), communicate with the spirit world, and help souls into the afterlife through the practice of entering a trance. In shaman-based religions, the shaman is also responsible for leading sacred rites.
    Spiritualism: the belief that souls and spirits communicate with the living usually through intermediaries called mediums. 
Syncretic (fusion of diverse religious beliefs and practices) 
    Santeria: practiced in Cuba, the merging of the Yoruba religion of Nigeria with Roman Catholicism and native Indian traditions. Its practitioners believe that each person has a destiny and eventually transcends to merge with the divine creator and source of all energy, Olorun. 
    Voodoo/Vodun: a form of spirit and ancestor worship combined with some Christian faiths, especially Catholicism. Haitian and Louisiana Voodoo, which have included more Catholic practices, are separate from West African Vodun, which has retained a focus on spirit worship.
    Cao Dai: a nationalistic Vietnamese sect, officially established in 1926, that draws practices and precepts from Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and Catholicism.
    Rastafarian: an afro-centrist ideology and movement based on Christianity that arose in Jamaica in the 1930s; it believes that Haile Selassie I, Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930-74, was the incarnation of the second coming of Jesus.
    Kimbanguist: a puritan form of the Baptist denomination founded by Simon Kimbangu in the 1920s in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo. Adherents believe that salvation comes through Jesus' death and resurrection, like Christianity, but additionally that living a spiritually pure life following strict codes of conduct is required for salvation. 
    Modekngei: a hybrid of Christianity and ancient Palauan culture and oral traditions founded around 1915 on the island of Babeldaob. Adherents simultaneously worship Jesus Christ and Palauan goddesses. 
    Chondogyo: or the religion of the Heavenly Way, is based on Korean shamanism, Buddhism, and Korean folk traditions, with some elements drawn from Christianity. Formulated in the 1860s, it holds that God lives in all of us and strives to convert society into a paradise on earth, populated by believers transformed into intelligent moral beings with a high social conscience. 
Non-religious
    Agnosticism: the belief that most things are unknowable. In regard to religion it is usually characterized as neither a belief nor non belief in a deity.
    Atheism: the belief that there are no deities of any kind.
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
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This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.
Roadways
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This entry gives the total length of the road network and includes the length of the paved and unpaved portions.
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Sanitation facility access
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This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved sanitation facilities available to segments of the population of a country.improved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: flush or pour-flush to a piped sewer system, septic tank or pit latrine; ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine; pit latrine with slab; or a composting toilet. unimproved sanitation - use of any of the following facilities: flush or pour-flush not piped to a sewer system, septic tank or pit latrine; pit latrine without a slab or open pit; bucket; hanging toilet or hanging latrine; shared facilities of any type; no facilities; or bush or field.
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
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School life expectancy (SLE) is the total number of years of schooling (primary to tertiary) that a child can expect to receive, assuming that the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that age. Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content or quality as a year or grade completed in another country. SLE represents the expected number of years of schooling that will be completed, including years spent repeating one or more grades.
Sex ratio
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups - at birthunder 15 years15-64 years65 years and over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertility patterns. Eventually, it could cause unrest among young adult males who are unable to find partners.
Stock of broad money
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry covers all of "Narrow money," plus the total quantity of time and savings deposits, credit union deposits, institutional money market funds, short-term repurchase agreements between the central bank and commercial deposit banks, and other large liquid assets held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy. National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate for the date of the information. Because of exchange rate movements, changes in money stocks measured in national currency units may vary significantly from those shown in US dollars, and caution is urged when making comparisons over time in US dollars. In addition to serving as a medium of exchange, broad money includes assets that are slightly less liquid than narrow money and the assets tend to function as a "store of value" - a means of holding wealth.
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in foreign countries made directly by residents - primarily companies - of the home country, as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.
Stock of domestic credit
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry is the total quantity of credit, denominated in the domestic currency, provided by financial institutions to the central bank, state and local governments, public non-financial corporations, and the private sector. The national currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate on the date of the information.
Stock of narrow money
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry, also known as "M1," comprises the total quantity of currency in circulation (notes and coins) plus demand deposits denominated in the national currency held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy, measured at a specific point in time. National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate for the date of the information. Because of exchange rate movements, changes in money stocks measured in national currency units may vary significantly from those shown in US dollars, and caution is urged when making comparisons over time in US dollars. Narrow money consists of more liquid assets than broad money and the assets generally function as a "medium of exchange" for an economy.
Suffrage
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the right to vote is universal or restricted.
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T

Taxes and other revenues
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP. Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries, and provides an average rate at which all income (GDP) is paid to the national level government for the supply of public goods and services.
Telephone numbers
All telephone numbers in The World Factbook consist of the country code in brackets, the city or area code (where required) in parentheses, and the local number. The one component that is not presented is the international access code, which varies from country to country. For example, an international direct dial telephone call placed from the US to Madrid, Spain, would be as follows: 011 [34] (1) 577-xxxx, where 011 is the international access code for station-to-station calls; 01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls, [34] is the country code for Spain, (1) is the city code for Madrid, 577 is the local exchange, and xxxx is the local telephone number. An international direct dial telephone call placed from another country to the US would be as follows: international access code + [1] (202) 939-xxxx, where [ 1] is the country code for the US, (202) is the area code for Washington, DC, 939 is the local exchange, and xxxx is the local telephone number.
Telephone system
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry: 
Arabsat - Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). 
Autodin - Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense). 
CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications. 
Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio frequency and sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in its area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a telephone exchange. 
Central American Microwave System - a trunk microwave radio relay system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with each other. 
Coaxial cable - a multichannel communication cable consisting of a central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a cylindrical conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can be made available within the insulated space by the use of a large number of carrier frequencies. 
Comsat - Communications Satellite Corporation (US). 
DSN - Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network or Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of the Defense Communications System (US Department of Defense). 
Eutelsat - European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Paris). 
Fiber-optic cable - a multichannel communications cable using a thread of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the signal (voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light. 
GSM - a global system for mobile (cellular) communications devised by the Groupe Special Mobile of the pan-European standardization organization, Conference Europeanne des Posts et Telecommunications (CEPT) in 1982. 
HF - high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-kHz range. 
Inmarsat - International Maritime Satellite Organization (London); provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial, distress, and safety applications at sea, in the air, and on land. 
Intelsat - International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Washington, DC). 
Intersputnik - International Organization of Space Communications (Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia. 
Landline - communication wire or cable of any sort that is installed on poles or buried in the ground. 
Marecs - Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency. 
Marisat - satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in the Inmarsat system. 
Medarabtel - the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially started in Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and was known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications Network. 
Microwave radio relay - transmission of long distance telephone calls and television programs by highly directional radio microwaves that are received and sent on from one booster station to another on an optical path. 
NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system that was developed jointly by the national telecommunications authorities of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). 
Orbita - a Russian television service; also the trade name of a packet-switched digital telephone network. 
Radiotelephone communications - the two-way transmission and reception of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using telephone handsets. 
PanAmSat - PanAmSat Corporation (Greenwich, CT). 
SAFE - South African Far East Cable 
Satellite communication system - a communication system consisting of two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provide long distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system. 
Satellite earth station - a communications facility with a microwave radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required receiving and transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites. 
Satellite link - a radio connection between a satellite and an earth station permitting communication between them, either one-way (down link from satellite to earth station - television receive-only transmission) or two-way (telephone channels). 
SHF - super high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-MHz range. 
Shortwave - radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall above the commercial broadcast band and are used for communication over long distances. 
Solidaridad - geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere. 
Statsionar - Russia's geostationary system for satellite telecommunications. 
Submarine cable - a cable designed for service under water. 
TAT - Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America. 
Telefax - facsimile service between subscriber stations via the public switched telephone network or the international Datel network. 
Telegraph - a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated electric impulse transmission. 
Telex - a communication service involving teletypewriters connected by wire through automatic exchanges. 
Tropospheric scatter - a form of microwave radio transmission in which the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals; reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of this system for very long distances. 
Trunk network - a network of switching centers, connected by multichannel trunk lines. 
UHF - ultra high frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to 3,000-MHz range. 
VHF - very high frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300-MHz range.
Telephones - main lines in use
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the total number of main telephone lines in use.
Telephones - mobile cellular
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers.
Terminology
Due to the highly structured nature of the Factbook database, some collective generic terms have to be used. For example, the word Country in the Country name entry refers to a wide variety of dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands, and other entities in addition to the traditional countries or independent states. Military is also used as an umbrella term for various civil defense, security, and defense activities in many entries. The Independence entry includes the usual colonial independence dates and former ruling states as well as other significant nationhood dates such as the traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation, establishment, or state succession that are not strictly independence dates. Dependent areas have the nature of their dependency status noted in this same entry.
Terrain
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry contains a brief description of the topography.
Time difference
This entry is expressed in The World Factbook in two ways. First, it is stated as the difference in hours between the capital of an entity and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) during Standard Time. Additionally, the difference in time between the capital of an entity and that observed in Washington, D.C. is also provided. Note that the time difference assumes both locations are simultaneously observing Standard Time or Daylight Saving Time.
Time zones
Ten countries (Australia, Brazil, Canada, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Mexico, New Zealand, Russia, Spain, and the United States) and the island of Greenland observe more than one official time depending on the number of designated time zones within their boundaries. An illustration of time zones throughout the world and within countries can be seen in the Standard Time Zones of the World map included in theReference Maps section of The World Factbook.
Total fertility rate
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate (TFR) is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replacement rate for a population, resulting in relative stability in terms of total numbers. Rates above two children indicate populations growing in size and whose median age is declining. Higher rates may also indicate difficulties for families, in some situations, to feed and educate their children and for women to enter the labor force. Rates below two children indicate populations decreasing in size and growing older. Global fertility rates are in general decline and this trend is most pronounced in industrialized countries, especially Western Europe, where populations are projected to decline dramatically over the next 50 years.
Total renewable water resources
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry provides the long-term average water availability for a country in cubic kilometers of precipitation, recharged ground water, and surface inflows from surrounding countries. The values have been adjusted to account for overlap resulting from surface flow recharge of groundwater sources. Total renewable water resources provides the water total available to a country but does not include water resource totals that have been reserved for upstream or downstream countries through international agreements. Note that these values are averages and do not accurately reflect the total available in any given year. Annual available resources can vary greatly due to short-term and long-term climatic and weather variations.
Trafficking in persons
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
Trafficking in persons is modern-day slavery, involving victims who are forced, defrauded, or coerced into labor or sexual exploitation. The International Labor Organization (ILO), the UN agency charged with addressing labor standards, employment, and social protection issues, estimates that 12.3 million people worldwide are enslaved in forced labor, bonded labor, forced child labor, sexual servitude, and involuntary servitude at any given time. Human trafficking is a multi-dimensional threat, depriving people of their human rights and freedoms, risking global health, promoting social breakdown, inhibiting development by depriving countries of their human capital, and helping fuel the growth of organized crime. In 2000, the US Congress passed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA), reauthorized in 2003 and 2005, which provides tools for the US to combat trafficking in persons, both domestically and abroad. One of the law's key components is the creation of the US Department of State's annual Trafficking in Persons Report, which assesses the government response (i.e., the current situation) in some 150 countries with a significant number of victims trafficked across their borders who are recruited, harbored, transported, provided, or obtained for forced labor or sexual exploitation. Countries in the annual report are rated in three tiers, based on government efforts to combat trafficking. The countries identified in this entry are those listed in the 2010 Trafficking in Persons Report as Tier 2 Watch List or Tier 3based on the following tier rating definitions: 
Tier 2 Watch List countries do not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but are making significant efforts to do so, and meet one of the following criteria: 
1. they display high or significantly increasing number of victims, 
2. they have failed to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat trafficking in persons, or, 
3. they have committed to take action over the next year.
 
Tier 3 countries neither satisfy the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking nor demonstrate a significant effort to do so. Countries in this tier are subject to potential non-humanitarian and non-trade sanctions.
Transnational issues
This category includes four entries - Disputes - internationalRefugees and internally displaced personsTrafficking in persons, and Illicit drugs - that deal with current issues going beyond national boundaries.
Transportation
This category includes the entries dealing with the means for movement of people and goods.
Transportation - note
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry includes miscellaneous transportation information of significance not included elsewhere.
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U

Unemployment rate
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the percent of the total labor force ages 15-24 unemployed during a specified year.
Urbanization
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country. The second, rate of urbanization, describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban population over the given period of time. Additionally, the World entry includes a list of the ten largest urban agglomerations. An urban agglomerationis defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city.
UTC (Coordinated Universal Time)
See entry for Coordinated Universal Time.
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W

Waterways
Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order.
This entry gives the total length of navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water.
Weights and Measures
This information is presented in Appendix G: Weights and Measures and includes mathematical notations (mathematical powers and names), metric interrelationships (prefix; symbol; length, weight, or capacity; area; volume), and standard conversion factors.
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Y

Years
All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless indicated as fiscal year (FY). The calendar year is an accounting period of 12 months from 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year is an accounting period of 12 months other than 1 January to 31 December.
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NOTE: INFORMATION FOR THE US AND US DEPENDENCIES WAS COMPLIED FROM MATERIAL IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN AND DOES NOT REPRESENT INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY ESTIMATES.

Guide to Country Profiles

Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publicat...fileguide.html

Links to Definitions and Notes above

Guide to Country Comparison

Download the Publication: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/download/ See Below. Note: I did and decided to scrape the live version.

Note: This is the gold mine of data!

Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/rankorderguide.html

Country Comparison pages are presorted lists of data from selected Factbook data fields. Country Comparison pages are generally given in descending order - highest to lowest - such as Population and Area. The two exceptions are Unemployment Rate and Inflation Rate, which are in ascending - lowest to highest - order. Country Comparison pages are available for the following 63 fields in six of the nine Factbook categories.

Download Data: https://www.cia.gov/library/publicat...wdata_2147.txt

 
Not all Country Comparisons include the same number of entries because information for a particular field is not available for all countries. In addition, not all data fields are suitable for displaying as Country Comparisons, such as those containing textual information. Textual information is more readily viewed by clicking on the Field Listing icon next to the Data field title.
 
All of the Country Comparisons' pages can be downloaded as tab-delimited data files and can be opened in other applications such as spreadsheets and databases. To save a Country Comparisons page in a spreadsheet, first click on the 'Download Datafile' choice above the Country Comparisons page you selected; then, at the top of your browser window, click on 'File' and 'Save As'. After saving the file, open the spreadsheet, find the saved file, and 'Open' it.
 

Geography

Area:
total
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Transportation

Airports:
Railways:
total
Roadways:
total
Waterways:
Merchant marine:
total
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Download the World Factbook

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* Adobe® Reader® is needed to view Adobe PDF files. If you don't already have Adobe Reader installed, you may download the current version at www.adobe.com (opens in a new window). [external link disclaimer]

 
 
Posted: May 05, 2007 05:23 PM
Last Updated: Dec 08, 2011 01:42 PM
Last Reviewed: May 05, 2007 05:23 PM
 

Geography

Area

Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2147rank.html

Download Data: https://www.cia.gov/library/publicat...wdata_2147.txt

This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the sum of all land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of the surfaces of all inland water bodies, such as lakes, reservoirs, or rivers, as delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines.

People and Society

Population
 
This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on assumptions about future trends. The total population presents one overall measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its region. Note: Starting with the 1993 Factbook, demographic estimates for some countries (mostly African) have explicitly taken into account the effects of the growing impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. These countries are currently: The Bahamas, Benin, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
Population growth rate

The average annual percent change in the population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure (e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources (e.g., food, water, electricity), and jobs. Rapid population growth can be seen as threatening by neighboring countries.

Birth rate

This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year per 1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility and the age structure of the population.

Death rate

This entry gives the average annual number of deaths during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country, accurately indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. This indicator is significantly affected by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued decline in mortality at all ages, as declining fertility results in an aging population

Net migration rate

This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56 migrants/1,000 population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (e.g., -9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The net migration rate indicates the contribution of migration to the overall level of population change. The net migration rate does not distinguish between economic migrants, refugees, and other types of migrants nor does it distinguish between lawful migrants and undocumented migrants.

Maternal mortality rate

The maternal mortality rate (MMR) is the annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes). The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year.

Infant mortality rate

This entry gives the number of deaths of infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year; included is the total death rate, and deaths by sex, male and female. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country.

Life expectancy at birth

This entry contains the average number of years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at each age remains constant in the future. The entry includes total population as well as the maleand female components. Life expectancy at birth is also a measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various actuarial measures.

Total fertility rate

This entry gives a figure for the average number of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each age. The total fertility rate (TFR) is a more direct measure of the level of fertility than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator shows the potential for population change in the country. A rate of two children per woman is considered the replacement rate for a population, resulting in relative stability in terms of total numbers. Rates above two children indicate populations growing in size and whose median age is declining. Higher rates may also indicate difficulties for families, in some situations, to feed and educate their children and for women to enter the labor force. Rates below two children indicate populations decreasing in size and growing older. Global fertility rates are in general decline and this trend is most pronounced in industrialized countries, especially Western Europe, where populations are projected to decline dramatically over the next 50 years.

Obesity - adult prevalence rate

This entry gives the percent of a country's population considered to be obese. Obesity is defined as an adult having a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater to or equal to 30.0. BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight in kg and dividing it by the person's squared height in meters.

Children under the age of 5 underweight

This entry gives the percent of children under five considered to be underweight. Underweight means weight-for-age is approximately 2 kg below for standard at age one, 3 kg below standard for ages two and three, and 4 kg below standard for ages four and five. This statistic is an indicator of the nutritional status of a community. Children who suffer from growth retardation as a result of poor diets and/or recurrent infections tend to have a greater risk of suffering illness and death.

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

This entry gives an estimate of the percentage of adults (aged 15-49) living with HIV/AIDS. The adult prevalence rate is calculated by dividing the estimated number of adults living with HIV/AIDS at yearend by the total adult population at yearend.

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

This entry gives an estimate of all people (adults and children) alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.

HIV/AIDS - deaths

This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year.

Health expenditures

This entry provides the total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP. Health expenditures are broadly defined as activities performed either by institutions or individuals through the application of medical, paramedical, and/or nursing knowledge and technology, the primary purpose of which is to promote, restore, or maintain health.

Education expenditures

This entry provides the public expenditure on education as a percent of GDP.

Unemployment youth ages 15-24

This entry gives the percent of the total labor force ages 15-24 unemployed during a specified year.

 

Economy

GDP (purchasing power parity)

This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision. For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official exchange rate (OER) measure. The differences between the OER- and PPP-denominated GDP values for most of the wealthy industrialized countries are generally much smaller.

GDP real growth rate

This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.

GDP - per capita (PPP)

This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.

Labor force

This entry contains the total labor force figure.

Unemployment rate

This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.

Distribution of family income - Gini Index

This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of (a) the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to (b) the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its Lorenz curve to the 45 degree line and the lower its Gini index, e.g., a Scandinavian country with an index of 25. The more unequal a country's income distribution, the farther its Lorenz curve from the 45 degree line and the higher its Gini index, e.g., a Sub-Saharan country with an index of 50. If income were distributed with perfect equality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the 45 degree line and the index would be zero; if income were distributed with perfect inequality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the horizontal axis and the right vertical axis and the index would be 100.

Investment (gross fixed)

This entry records total business spending on fixed assets, such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes investment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital.

Public debt

This entry records the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices.

Central bank discount rate

This entry provides the annualized interest rate a country's central bank charges commercial, depository banks for loans to meet temporary shortages of funds.

Commercial bank prime lending rate

This entry provides a simple average of annualized interest rates commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national currency, to their most credit-worthy customers.

Stock of money

BLANK

Stock of quasi money

BLANK

Stock of domestic credit

This entry is the total quantity of credit, denominated in the domestic currency, provided by financial institutions to the central bank, state and local governments, public non-financial corporations, and the private sector. The national currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate on the date of the information.

Market value of publicly traded shares

This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the final day of the period indicated. It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated over all companies listed on the particular exchange.

Industrial production growth rate

This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining, and construction).

Electricity - production

This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.

Electricity - consumption

This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. The discrepancy between the amount of electricity generated and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is accounted for as loss in transmission and distribution.

Oil - production

This entry is the total oil produced in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.

Oil - consumption

This entry is the total oil consumed in barrels per day (bbl/day). The discrepancy between the amount of oil produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains, and other complicating factors.

Oil - exports

This entry is the total oil exported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.

Oil - imports

This entry is the total oil imported in barrels per day (bbl/day), including both crude oil and oil products.

Oil - proved reserves

This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil in barrels (bbl). Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Natural gas - production

This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.

Natural gas - consumption

This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes and other complicating factors.

Natural gas - exports

This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters (cu m).

Natural gas - imports

This entry is the total natural gas imported in cubic meters (cu m).

Natural gas - proved reserves

This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters (cu m). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Current account balance

This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Exports

This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Imports

This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.

Debt - external

This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in foreign countries made directly by residents - primarily companies - of the home country, as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.

Communications

Telephones - main lines in use

This entry gives the total number of main telephone lines in use.

Telephones - mobile cellular

This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers.

Internet hosts

This entry lists the number of Internet hosts available within a country. An Internet host is a computer connected directly to the Internet; normally an Internet Service Provider's (ISP) computer is a host. Internet users may use either a hard-wired terminal, at an institution with a mainframe computer connected directly to the Internet, or may connect remotely by way of a modem via telephone line, cable, or satellite to the Internet Service Provider's host computer. The number of hosts is one indicator of the extent of Internet connectivity.

Internet users

This entry gives the number of users within a country that access the Internet. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months.

 

Transportation

Airports

This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields recognizable from the air. The runway(s) may be paved (concrete or asphalt surfaces) or unpaved (grass, earth, sand, or gravel surfaces) and may include closed or abandoned installations. Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable (overgrown, no facilities, etc.) are not included. Note that not all airports have accommodations for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Railways
total
This entry states the total route length of the railway network and of its component parts by gauge, which is the measure of the distance between the inner sides of the load-bearing rails. The four typical types of gauges are: broadstandardnarrow, and dual. Other gauges are listed under note. Some 60% of the world's railways use the standard gauge of 1.4 m (4.7 ft). Gauges vary by country and sometimes within countries. The choice of gauge during initial construction was mainly in response to local conditions and the intent of the builder. Narrow-gauge railways were cheaper to build and could negotiate sharper curves, broad-gauge railways gave greater stability and permitted higher speeds. Standard-gauge railways were a compromise between narrow and broad gauges.
Roadways
total
This entry gives the total length of the road network and includes the length of the paved and unpavedportions.
Waterways

This entry gives the total length of navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water.

Merchant marine
total
Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged in the carriage of goods; or all commercial vessels (as opposed to all nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs, etc. This entry contains information in four fields - total, ships by typeforeign-owned, and registered in other countries
Total includes the number of ships (1,000 GRT or over), total DWT for those ships, and total GRT for those ships. DWT or dead weight tonnage is the total weight of cargo, plus bunkers, stores, etc., that a ship can carry when immersed to the appropriate load line. GRT or gross register tonnage is a figure obtained by measuring the entire sheltered volume of a ship available for cargo and passengers and converting it to tons on the basis of 100 cubic feet per ton; there is no stable relationship between GRT and DWT. 
Ships by type includes a listing of barge carriers, bulk cargo ships, cargo ships, chemical tankers, combination bulk carriers, combination ore/oil carriers, container ships, liquefied gas tankers, livestock carriers, multifunctional large-load carriers, petroleum tankers, passenger ships, passenger/cargo ships, railcar carriers, refrigerated cargo ships, roll-on/roll-off cargo ships, short-sea passenger ships, specialized tankers, and vehicle carriers. 
Foreign-owned are ships that fly the flag of one country but belong to owners in another. 
Registered in other countries are ships that belong to owners in one country but fly the flag of another.
 

Military

Military expenditures - percent of GDP

This entry gives spending on defense programs for the most recent year available as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP); the GDP is calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP).

Appendices

A Abbreviations

Source: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/appendix/appendix-a.html

LOD (Alphabet)

A

ABEDA
Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa
ACP Group
African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States
ADB
Asian Development Bank
AfDB
African Development Bank
AFESD
Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development
AG
Australia Group
Air Pollution
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution
Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides
Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes
Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants
Air Pollution-Sulphur 85
Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or Their Transboundary Fluxes by at Least 30%
Air Pollution-Sulphur 94
Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions
Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds
Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or Their Transboundary Fluxes
AMF
Arab Monetary Fund
AMU
Arab Maghreb Union
Antarctic Marine Living Resources
Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
Antarctic Seals
Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals
Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty
ANZUS
Australia-New Zealand-United States Security Treaty
AOSIS
Alliance of Small Island States
APEC
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Arabsat
Arab Satellite Communications Organization
ARF
ASEAN Regional Forum
ASEAN
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
AU
African Union
Autodin
Automatic Digital Network

B

BA
Baltic Assembly
bbl/day
barrels per day
BCIE
Central American Bank for Economic Integration
BDEAC
Central African States Development Bank
Benelux
Benelux Union
BGN
United States Board on Geographic Names
BIMSTEC
Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multisectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation
Biodiversity
Convention on Biological Diversity
BIS
Bank for International Settlements
BSEC
Black Sea Economic Cooperation Zone

C

C
Commonwealth
c.i.f.
cost, insurance, and freight
CACM
Central American Common Market
CAEU
Council of Arab Economic Unity
CAN
Andean Community of Nations
Caricom
Caribbean Community and Common Market
CB
citizen's band mobile radio communications
CBSS
Council of the Baltic Sea States
CCC
Customs Cooperation Council
CD
Community of Democracies
CDB
Caribbean Development Bank
CE
Council of Europe
CEI
Central European Initiative
CEMA
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
CEMAC
Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa
CEPGL
Economic Community of the Great Lakes Countries
CEPT
Conference Europeanne des Poste et Telecommunications
CERN
European Organization for Nuclear Research
CIA
Central Intelligence Agency
CICA
Conference of Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia
CIS
Commonwealth of Independent States
CITES
see Endangered Species
Climate Change
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
COCOM
Coordinating Committee on Export Controls
COMESA
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
Comsat
Communications Satellite Corporation
CP
Colombo Plan
CPLP
Comunidade dos Paises de Lingua Portuguesa
CSN
South American Community of Nations became UNASUL - Union of South American Nations
CSN
Union of South American Nations
CSTO
Collective Security Treaty Organization
CTBTO
Preparation commission for the Nuclear-Ban-Treaty Operation
CY
calendar year

D

D-8
Developing Eight
DC
developed country
DDT
dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane
Desertification
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa
DIA
United States Defense Intelligence Agency
DSN
Defense Switched Network
DST
daylight savings time
DWT
deadweight ton

E

EAC
East African Community
EADB
East African Development Bank
EAEC
Eurasian Economic Community
EAPC
Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council
EAS
East Asia Summit
EBRD
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
EC
European Community or European Commission
ECA
Economic Commission for Africa
ECE
Economic Commission for Europe
ECLAC
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
ECO
Economic Cooperation Organization
ECOSOC
Economic and Social Council
ECOWAS
Economic Community of West African States
ECSC
European Coal and Steel Community
EE
Eastern Europe
EEC
European Economic Community
EEZ
exclusive economic zone
EFTA
European Free Trade Association
EIB
European Investment Bank
EMU
European Monetary Union
Endangered Species
Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)
Entente
Council of the Entente
Environmental Modification
Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques
ESA
European Space Agency
ESCAP
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESCWA
Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
est.
estimate
EU
European Union
Euratom
European Atomic Energy Community
Eutelsat
European Telecommunications Satellite Organization
Ex-Im
Export-Import Bank of the United States

F

f.o.b.
free on board
FAO
Food and Agriculture Organization
FATF
Financial Action Task Force
FAX
facsimile
FLS
Front Line States
FOC
flags of convenience
FSU
former Soviet Union
FY
fiscal year
FZ
Franc Zone

G

G-2
Group of 2
G-3
Group of 3
G-5
Group of 5
G-6
Group of 6
G-7
Group of 7
G-8
Group of 8
G-9
Group of 9
G-10
Group of 10
G-15
Group of 15
G-11
Group of 11
G-24
Group of 24
G-77
Group of 77
GATT
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; now WTO
GCC
Gulf Cooperation Council
GCTU
General Confederation of Trade Unions
GDP
gross domestic product
GMT
Greenwich Mean Time
GNP
gross national product
GRT
gross register ton
GSM
global system for mobile cellular communications
GUAM
Organization for Democracy and Economic Development; acronym for member states - Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Moldova
GWP
gross world product

H

Hazardous Wastes
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal
HF
high-frequency
HIV/AIDS
human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

I

IADB
Inter-American Development Bank
IAEA
International Atomic Energy Agency
IANA
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
IBRD
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
ICAO
International Civil Aviation Organization
ICC
International Chamber of Commerce
ICCt
International Criminal Court
ICJ
International Court of Justice (World Court)
ICRC
International Committee of the Red Cross
ICRM
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
ICSID
International Center for Secretariat of Investment Disputes
ICTR
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
ICTY
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
IDA
International Development Association
IDB
Islamic Development Bank
IDP
Internally Displaced Person
IEA
International Energy Agency
IFAD
International Fund for Agricultural Development
IFC
International Finance Corporation
IFRCS
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
IGAD
Inter-Governmental Authority on Development
IHO
International Hydrographic Organization
ILO
International Labor Organization
IMF
International Monetary Fund
IMO
International Maritime Organization
IMSO
International Mobile Satellite Organization
Inmarsat
International Maritime Satellite Organization
InOC
Indian Ocean Commission
INSTRAW
International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women
Intelsat
International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
Interpol
International Criminal Police Organization
Intersputnik
International Organization of Space Communications
IOC
International Olympic Committee
IOM
International Organization for Migration
IPU
Inter-parliamentary Union
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
ISP
Internet Service Provider
ITSO
International Telecommunications Satellites Organization
ITU
International Telecommunication Union
ITUC
International Trade Union Confederation, the successor to ICFTU (International Confederation of Free Trade Unions) and the WCL (World Confederation of Labor)

K

kHz
kilohertz
km
kilometer
kW
kilowatt
kWh
kilowatt-hour

L

LAES
Latin American Economic System
LAIA
Latin American Integration Association
LAS
League of Arab States
Law of the Sea
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOS)
LDC
less developed country
LLDC
least developed country
London Convention
see Marine Dumping
LOS
see Law of the Sea

M

m
meter
Marecs
Maritime European Communications Satellite
Marine Dumping
Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping Wastes and Other Matter
Marine Life Conservation
Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas
MARPOL
see Ship Pollution
Medarabtel
Middle East Telecommunications Project of the International Telecommunications Union
Mercosur
Southern Cone Common Market
MHz
megahertz
MICAH
International Civilian Support Mission in Haiti
MIGA
Multilateral Investment Geographic Agency
MINURSO
United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara
MINUSTAH
United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti
MONUSCO
United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

N

NA
not available
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement
NAM
Nonaligned Movement
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NC
Nordic Council
NEA
Nuclear Energy Agency
NEGL
negligible
NGA
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
NGO
nongovernmental organization
NIB
Nordic Investment Bank
NIC
newly industrializing country
NIE
newly industrializing economy
NIS
new independent states
nm
nautical mile
NMT
Nordic Mobile Telephone
NSG
Nuclear Suppliers Group
Nuclear Test Ban
Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space, and Under Water
NZ
New Zealand

O

OAPEC
Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries
OAS
Organization of American States
OAU
Organization of African Unity; see African Union
ODA
official development assistance
OECD
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OECS
Organization of Eastern Caribbean States
OHCHR
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
OIC
Organization of the Islamic Conference
OIF
International Organization of the French-speaking World
OOF
other official flows
OPANAL
Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean
OPCW
Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
OSCE
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
Ozone Layer Protection
Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer

P

PCA
Permanent Court of Arbitration
PFP
Partnership for Peace
PIF
Pacific Islands Forum
PPP
purchasing power parity

R

Ramsar
see Wetlands
RG
Rio Group

S

SAARC
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
SACEP
South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme
SACU
Southern African Customs Union
SADC
Southern African Development Community
SAFE
South African Far East Cable
SCO
Shanghai Cooperation Organization
SECI
Southeast European Cooperative Initiative
SHF
super-high-frequency
Ship Pollution
Protocol of 1978 Relating to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL)
SICA
Central American Integration System
Sparteca
South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement
SPC
Secretariat of the Pacific Communities
SPF
South Pacific Forum
sq km
square kilometer
sq mi
square mile

T

TAT
Trans-Atlantic Telephone
TEU
Twenty-Foot Equivalent Unit, a unit of measure for containerized cargo capacity
Tropical Timber 83
International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1983
Tropical Timber 94
International Tropical Timber Agreement, 1994

U

UAE
United Arab Emirates
UDEAC
Central African Customs and Economic Union
UHF
ultra-high-frequency
UK
United Kingdom
UN
United Nations
UN-AIDS
Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS
UNAMID
African Union/United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur
UNASUR
Union of South American Nations
UNCLOS
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, also know as LOS
UNCTAD
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDCP
United Nations Drug Control Program
UNDEF
United Nations Democracy Fund
UNDOF
United Nations Disengagement Observer Force
UNDP
United Nations Development Program
UNEP
United Nations Environment Program
UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
UNFICYP
United Nations Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus
UNFIP
United Nations Fund for International Partnerships
UNFPA
United Nations Population Fund
UN-Habitat
United Nations Center for Human Settlements
UNHCR
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF
United Nations Children's Fund
UNICRI
United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute
UNIDIR
United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research
UNIDO
United Nations Industrial Development Organization
UNIFIL
United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon
UN-INSTRAW
International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women
UNITAR
United Nations Institute for Training and Research
UNMIK
United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo
UNMIL
United Nations Mission in Liberia
UNMIS
United Nations Mission in the Sudan
UNMIT
United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste
UNMOGIP
United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan
UNOCI
United Nations Op