Table of contents
  1. Enhancing Visualizations
    1. Coloring
      1. Coloring Overview
      2. Color Schemes
      3. Color Schemes Overview
        1. Opening a Color Scheme
        2. Predefined Color Schemes
        3. Applying a Color Scheme to Another Visualization
        4. Saving a Color Scheme
        5. Details
          1. Details on Open from Library
          2. Details on Edit Document Color Schemes
          3. Details on Apply to Visualizations
          4. Details on Apply Method
          5. Details on Save Document Color Scheme
      4. Color Modes
        1. Color Modes Overview
        2. Fixed Color Mode
        3. Categorical Color Mode
        4. Gradient Color Mode
        5. Segments Color Mode
        6. Unique Values Color Mode
        7. Details on Point/Value Menu
      5. Rules in Color Overview
        1. Color Rules
        2. Details on Add/Edit Rule
      6. Coloring in Tables, Cross-Tables, and Heat Maps
        1. Coloring in Tables, Cross Tables and Heat Maps
        2. Coloring in Tables
        3. Coloring in Cross Tables and Heat Maps
        4. Details on Add/Edit Color Scheme Grouping
      7. Custom Expressions for Coloring
    2. Limiting What is Shown in Visualizations
    3. Details Visualization
      1. What is a Details Visualization?
      2. Details on Create Details Visualization
    4. Custom Expressions
      1. Custom Expressions Introduction
      2. Custom Expressions Overview
      3. Basic Custom Expressions
      4. OVER in Custom Expressions
      5. Axes in Expressions
      6. Advanced Custom Expressions
      7. How to Insert a Custom Expression
      8. Details on Custom Expression
    5. Lines and Curves
      1. Lines and Curves
      2. Curve Fit Models
      3. Curve Fit Theory
      4. Details
        1. Details on Horizontal/Vertical Line
        2. Details on Naming Curve
        3. Details on Logistic Regression Curve Fit
        4. Details on Polynomial Curve Fit
        5. Details on Curve Draw
        6. Details on Curve from Data Table
        7. Details on Line from Column Values
        8. Details on Line from Data Table
        9. Details on Gaussian Curve Fit
        10. Details on Edit Expression
        11. Details on Label and Tooltip
    6. Formatting
      1. Formatting Overview
      2. Formatting Settings
      3. Format String
      4. Short Number Format
    7. Error Bars

Enhancing Visualizations

Last modified
Table of contents
  1. Enhancing Visualizations
    1. Coloring
      1. Coloring Overview
      2. Color Schemes
      3. Color Schemes Overview
        1. Opening a Color Scheme
        2. Predefined Color Schemes
        3. Applying a Color Scheme to Another Visualization
        4. Saving a Color Scheme
        5. Details
          1. Details on Open from Library
          2. Details on Edit Document Color Schemes
          3. Details on Apply to Visualizations
          4. Details on Apply Method
          5. Details on Save Document Color Scheme
      4. Color Modes
        1. Color Modes Overview
        2. Fixed Color Mode
        3. Categorical Color Mode
        4. Gradient Color Mode
        5. Segments Color Mode
        6. Unique Values Color Mode
        7. Details on Point/Value Menu
      5. Rules in Color Overview
        1. Color Rules
        2. Details on Add/Edit Rule
      6. Coloring in Tables, Cross-Tables, and Heat Maps
        1. Coloring in Tables, Cross Tables and Heat Maps
        2. Coloring in Tables
        3. Coloring in Cross Tables and Heat Maps
        4. Details on Add/Edit Color Scheme Grouping
      7. Custom Expressions for Coloring
    2. Limiting What is Shown in Visualizations
    3. Details Visualization
      1. What is a Details Visualization?
      2. Details on Create Details Visualization
    4. Custom Expressions
      1. Custom Expressions Introduction
      2. Custom Expressions Overview
      3. Basic Custom Expressions
      4. OVER in Custom Expressions
      5. Axes in Expressions
      6. Advanced Custom Expressions
      7. How to Insert a Custom Expression
      8. Details on Custom Expression
    5. Lines and Curves
      1. Lines and Curves
      2. Curve Fit Models
      3. Curve Fit Theory
      4. Details
        1. Details on Horizontal/Vertical Line
        2. Details on Naming Curve
        3. Details on Logistic Regression Curve Fit
        4. Details on Polynomial Curve Fit
        5. Details on Curve Draw
        6. Details on Curve from Data Table
        7. Details on Line from Column Values
        8. Details on Line from Data Table
        9. Details on Gaussian Curve Fit
        10. Details on Edit Expression
        11. Details on Label and Tooltip
    6. Formatting
      1. Formatting Overview
      2. Formatting Settings
      3. Format String
      4. Short Number Format
    7. Error Bars

  1. Enhancing Visualizations
    1. Coloring
      1. Coloring Overview
      2. Color Schemes
      3. Color Schemes Overview
        1. Opening a Color Scheme
        2. Predefined Color Schemes
        3. Applying a Color Scheme to Another Visualization
        4. Saving a Color Scheme
        5. Details
          1. Details on Open from Library
          2. Details on Edit Document Color Schemes
          3. Details on Apply to Visualizations
          4. Details on Apply Method
          5. Details on Save Document Color Scheme
      4. Color Modes
        1. Color Modes Overview
        2. Fixed Color Mode
        3. Categorical Color Mode
        4. Gradient Color Mode
        5. Segments Color Mode
        6. Unique Values Color Mode
        7. Details on Point/Value Menu
      5. Rules in Color Overview
        1. Color Rules
        2. Details on Add/Edit Rule
      6. Coloring in Tables, Cross-Tables, and Heat Maps
        1. Coloring in Tables, Cross Tables and Heat Maps
        2. Coloring in Tables
        3. Coloring in Cross Tables and Heat Maps
        4. Details on Add/Edit Color Scheme Grouping
      7. Custom Expressions for Coloring
    2. Limiting What is Shown in Visualizations
    3. Details Visualization
      1. What is a Details Visualization?
      2. Details on Create Details Visualization
    4. Custom Expressions
      1. Custom Expressions Introduction
      2. Custom Expressions Overview
      3. Basic Custom Expressions
      4. OVER in Custom Expressions
      5. Axes in Expressions
      6. Advanced Custom Expressions
      7. How to Insert a Custom Expression
      8. Details on Custom Expression
    5. Lines and Curves
      1. Lines and Curves
      2. Curve Fit Models
      3. Curve Fit Theory
      4. Details
        1. Details on Horizontal/Vertical Line
        2. Details on Naming Curve
        3. Details on Logistic Regression Curve Fit
        4. Details on Polynomial Curve Fit
        5. Details on Curve Draw
        6. Details on Curve from Data Table
        7. Details on Line from Column Values
        8. Details on Line from Data Table
        9. Details on Gaussian Curve Fit
        10. Details on Edit Expression
        11. Details on Label and Tooltip
    6. Formatting
      1. Formatting Overview
      2. Formatting Settings
      3. Format String
      4. Short Number Format
    7. Error Bars

Enhancing Visualizations

Coloring

Coloring Overview

By coloring the items in a visualization you can add an extra dimension to your data. For instance, you can use colors to identify outliers in the data, or to distinguish different categories. In TIBCO Spotfire there are many ways to customize the coloring in your visualizations. Most of the coloring settings can be found on the Colors page of the Visualization Properties for each visualization type. Configuration of the coloring settings works in a similar way for most of the visualization types. However, for the table, cross table, and heat map it works in a slightly different way. Coloring for those visualizations is therefore described separately.

To learn more about coloring in Spotfire, see the following sections:

  • Color Schemes Overview

  • Color Modes Overview

  • Color Rules Overview

  • Coloring in Tables, Cross Tables and Heat Maps

Color Schemes

Color Schemes Overview

The entire setup of colors for a visualization is referred to as its color scheme. Which colors and threshold values you choose, as well as the color mode you select, are all part of a visualization's color scheme. The current color scheme of a visualization can be viewed in the legend, and on the Colors page of the Visualization Properties. This is also where you edit a color scheme. In the example below two scatter plots are shown. Their respective color schemes are displayed in the legend.

ColorSchemesOverview.png

The visualization on the left has a color scheme with only two colors, each representing a category, while the visualization on the right has a color scheme with a somewhat more complex configuration. While the left color scheme can be defined directly in the legend, the right visualization's configuration requires that you open the Visualization Properties dialog. The two color schemes above are in different scale modes. The one on the left is a categorical color scheme, which means that it is colored by a categorical column. In this case, the column Category contains string values. The color scheme on the right is continuous. It is colored by the continuous column Sales, which contains Integer values. Different scale modes also create different possibilities. When setting up a color scheme for a visualization, the color mode you choose is essential. Since the available settings differ between different color modes, each mode is described separately. See Color Modes Overview to learn more about how to set up color schemes in each of the color modes.

Once you have configured a color scheme, you can save and reuse it in a number of ways. For example, you can apply a color scheme to another visualization in the same analysis. You can also save a color scheme to disk for later use, or in the library to share it with other users. When you are about to set up a new color scheme, you can make use of one of the predefined color schemes as a starting point, and then modify it to your liking.

The following sections describe how you can use and reuse color schemes in a number of ways:

  • Opening a Color Scheme

  • Predefined Color Schemes

  • Applying a Color Scheme to Another Visualization

  • Saving a Color Scheme

See also:

Coloring Overview

Color Modes Overview

Color Rules Overview

Opening a Color Scheme

You can open a color scheme that has previously been saved to disk or to the library. You can also apply a color scheme from another visualization in the analysis, or open a document color scheme. The color scheme must be in the same scale mode as the visualization in which you want to use it.

  • To open a color scheme from file:

  1. Open the Visualization Properties dialog, and go to the Colors page.

  2. Click on the Color Schemes menu icon, ColorSchemeMenu.png.

  3. Select Open from File....

    Response: A dialog where you can browse for a previously saved color scheme is opened.

  4. Browse to the color scheme of interest and click Open.

    Response: If it is a gradient color scheme, the selected color scheme is applied to the visualization. Otherwise, the Apply Method dialog is opened, continue to step 5.

  5. Click the Colors only radio button to apply only the colors in the color scheme to the visualization. Click Colors matched to values if you want to match the colors in the color scheme to the values in the visualization.

    Comment: See Details on Apply Method for an example of how the two options work.

  6. Click OK.

    Response: The selected color scheme is applied to the visualization.

  • To open a color scheme from the library:

  1. Open the Visualization Properties dialog, and go to the Colors page.

  2. Click on the Color Schemes menu icon, ColorSchemeMenu.png.

  3. Select Open from Library....

    Comment: The menu option Open from Library is not available if you are working offline (without a connection to a server).

    Response: The Open from Library dialog is opened.

  4. From the Available color schemes list, select the color scheme you want to open.

    Comment: To limit the amount of items shown in the list, you can click on a keyword in the panel to the left. You can also search for a color scheme by entering a file name, or part of a file name in the search field.

  5. Click OK.

    Response: If it is a gradient color scheme, the selected color scheme is applied to the visualization. Otherwise, the Apply Method dialog is opened, continue to step 6.

  6. Click the Colors only radio button to apply only the colors in the color scheme to the visualization. Click Colors matched to values if you want to match the colors in the color scheme to the values in the visualization.

    Comment: See Details on Apply Method for an example of how the two options work.

  7. Click OK.

    Response: The selected color scheme is applied to the visualization.

  • To apply a color scheme from a visualization:

  1. Open the Visualization Properties dialog, and go to the Colors page.

  2. Click on the Color Schemes menu icon, ColorSchemeMenu.png.

    Response: The Color Schemes menu is opened.

  3. Select From Visualization to open the submenu.

    Response: The submenu lists all the existing pages in the analysis.

  4. Select the page of interest to open the submenu.

    Response: The submenu lists all the color schemes used in other visualizations on that page.

  5. Select the color scheme you want to use.

    Response: If it is a gradient color scheme, the selected color scheme is applied to the visualization. Otherwise, the Apply Method dialog is opened, continue to step 6.

  6. Click the Colors only radio button to apply only the colors in the color scheme to the visualization. Click Colors matched to values if you want to match the colors in the color scheme to the values in the visualization.

    Comment: See Details on Apply Method for an example of how the two options work.

  7. Click OK.

    Response: The selected color scheme is applied to the visualization.

  • To open a document color scheme:

  1. Open the Visualization Properties dialog, and go to the Colors page.

  2. Click on the Color Schemes menu icon, ColorSchemeMenu.png.

  3. Select Document Color Schemes to open the submenu.

    Response: The submenu lists all the previously saved document color schemes in the analysis.

  4. Select the color scheme you want to use.

    Response: If it is a gradient color scheme, the selected color scheme is applied to the visualization. Otherwise, the Apply Method dialog is opened, continue to step 5.

  5. Click the Colors only radio button to apply only the colors in the color scheme to the visualization. Click Colors matched to values if you want to match the colors in the color scheme to the values in the visualization.

    Comment: See Details on Apply Method for an example of how the two options work.

  6. Click OK.

    Response: The selected color scheme is applied to the visualization.

Note: The menu option From Visualization is only available if other visualizations exist in the analysis.

Note: The menu option Document Color Schemes is only available if one or more document color schemes have previously been saved in the analysis. See Saving a Color Scheme to learn more.

See also:

Details on Apply Method

Color Schemes Overview

Predefined Color Schemes

To facilitate setting up color schemes you can open one of the predefined ones and then adjust it according to your preferences. Predefined color schemes are only available for color schemes based on a column in continuous scale mode. Which predefined schemes are available differs slightly depending on the data type of the column.

  • To reach the predefined color schemes:

  1. Open the Visualization Properties dialog, and go to the Colors page.

  2. Click on the Color Schemes menu icon, ColorSchemeMenu.png.

    Response: The Color Schemes menu is opened. The predefined color schemes are located in the middle of the menu, as seen below.

PredefinedColorSchemes.png

Option

Description

Top n

A color scheme in Segments color mode. Items representing values from Min to Max get a single fixed gray color, and a rule states that the ten items with the highest values in the data get an orange color.

Bottom n

A color scheme in Segments color mode. Items representing values from Min to Max get a single fixed gray color, and a rule states that the ten items with the lowest values in the data get an orange color.

Above x

A color scheme in Segments color mode. Items representing values from Min to Max get a single fixed blue color, and a rule states that the items representing values above average get an orange color.

Below x

A color scheme in Segments color mode. Items representing values from Min to Max get a single fixed blue color, and a rule states that the items representing values below average get an orange color.

2 colors

A color scheme in Segments color mode. Items representing values from Min to Average get a blue color, and items representing values from average to Max get a pink color.

3 colors

A color scheme in Segments color mode. Items representing values from Min to Q1 get a blue color, items representing values from Q1 to Q3 get a pink color, and items representing values from Q3 to Max get a yellow color. To learn more about quartiles, see Percentiles and Quartiles.

2-point gradient

A color scheme in Gradient color mode with a gradient transition from light green to dark green between Min and Max.

3-point gradient

A color scheme in Gradient color mode. Items representing values from Min to 0.00 are colored with a gradient transition from red to white. Items representing values from 0.00 to Max are colored in a gradient transition from white to blue. The Min and Max points are defined with custom expressions to ensure that items representing positive values are always colored in a blue nuance, and negative values are always colored in a red nuance.

Min-average-max

A color scheme in Gradient color mode. Items representing values from Min to average are colored with a gradient transition from green to black. Items representing values from average to Max are colored in a gradient transition from black to red.

Exclude outliers

A color scheme in Gradient color mode. Items representing values from LIF to UIF are colored with a gradient transition from light green to dark green. One rule states that items representing values greater than UIF should be white. A second rule states that items representing a lower value than LIF should also be white. To learn more about outliers, see Adjacent Values and Outliers.

Spotfire categorical

The default color scheme for categorical columns.

Spotfire continuous

The default color scheme for continuous columns.

See also:

Color Schemes Overview

Coloring Overview

Color Modes Overview

Color Rules Overview

Applying a Color Scheme to Another Visualization

When you have set up a color scheme for a visualization, you can apply it to another visualization, provided that the two visualizations are colored by a column in the same scale mode.

  • To apply a color scheme to a visualization:

  1. Open the Visualization Properties dialog, and go to the Colors page.

  2. Click on the Color Schemes menu icon, ColorSchemeMenu.png.

  3. Select Apply to Visualizations....

    Response: The Apply to Visualizations dialog is opened.

  4. From the Available visualizations list, select a visualization that you want to apply the current color scheme to, and clickAdd >.

    Comment: You can select and add an entire page if you want to apply the color scheme to all visualizations on that page.

    Response: The selected visualization or page is added to the Selected visualizations list (and removed from the Available visualizations list).

  5. Repeat step 4 until all the visualizations you want to apply the color scheme to have been added to the list.

  6. If the color scheme you are about to apply is categorical you need to select an Apply method. Click the Colors only radio button to apply only the colors in the color scheme to the visualization. Click Colors matched to values if you want to match the colors in the color scheme to the values in the visualization.

    Comment: See Details on Apply Method for an example of how the two options work.

  7. Click OK.

    Response: The current color scheme is applied to the selected visualizations.

Note: If you apply a color scheme to a table, cross table, or heat map, the coloring will not take effect immediately. The color scheme will be added as an empty color scheme grouping, and you must select which columns or axis values to include in the grouping by opening the Edit Color Scheme Grouping dialog.

See also:

Details on Apply to Visualizations

Color Schemes Overview

Coloring Overview

Saving a Color Scheme

You can save a color scheme for later reuse or to share it with others. If you save the color scheme to disk or in the library, you can use it in other analyses. If you save it as a document color scheme, you can use it again within the analysis. A document color scheme can be selected for a specific visualization in the analysis from the Colors page of the visualization properties. You can also select it as the default color scheme to use for a specific column as well as for new visualizations in the analysis. See Column Properties – Properties, Column Properties Descriptions, and Options – Visualization to learn more about using default color schemes.

  • To save a color scheme as a file:

  1. Open the Visualization Properties dialog, and go to the Colors page.

  2. Click on the Color Schemes menu icon, ColorSchemeMenu.png.

  3. Select Save As > File....

    Response: The Save Color Scheme dialog is displayed.

  4. Specify a file name and a location for the color scheme.

  5. Click Save.

  • To save a color scheme as a library item:

  1. Open the Visualization Properties dialog, and go to the Colors page.

  2. Click on the Color Schemes menu icon, ColorSchemeMenu.png.

  3. Select Save As > Library Item....

    Comment: The menu option Library Item... is not available if you are working offline (without a connection to a server).

    Response: The Save as Library Item dialog is displayed.

    Comment: The path in the upper part of the dialog shows your current location in the folder structure of the library.

  4. Navigate to the folder where you want to save the color scheme.

    Comment: Double-click on a folder to open it. Double-click on the folder with two dots, "..", to move up in the folder hierarchy. Click on the New Folder button to create a new folder to save your color scheme in. To modify folder permissions, click on the Folder Permissions... button. To learn more about permissions, see Permissions.

  5. Specify a name for the color scheme.

  6. Optionally, type one or more Keywords describing the color scheme. Other users can then browse color schemes using keywords when opening from the library.

    Comment: Keywords are separated by a semicolon, i.e., if you write "corporate colors; categorical" this will be two keywords, "corporate colors" and "categorical".

  7. Click Save.

  • To save a color scheme as a document color scheme:

  1. Open the Visualization Properties dialog, and go to the Colors page.

  2. Click on the Color Schemes menu icon, ColorSchemeMenu.png.

  3. Select Save As > Document Color Scheme....

    Response: The Save Document Color Scheme dialog is displayed.

  4. Click the New color scheme radio button and enter a name in the text field to save as a new document color scheme. Select the Replace existing color scheme radio button to overwrite a previously saved document color scheme. Select the color scheme to overwrite from the drop-down list.

  5. Click OK.

    Response: The saved document color scheme is now available in the Color Schemes menu.

See also:

Color Schemes Overview

Details
Details on Open from Library

Use this dialog to select which color scheme to apply to the current visualization.

  • To reach the Open from Library dialog:

  1. In the Visualization Properties dialog, go to the Colors page.

  2. Click on the Color Schemes menu icon, ColorSchemeMenu.png.

  3. Select Open from Library....

    Comment: The menu option Open from Library is not available if you are working offline (without a connection to a server).

DetailsonOpenfromLibrary.png

Option

Description

Keywords

Select (All) to see all the available color schemes in the library. Select a keyword from the list to see only color schemes with that particular keyword.

[Type to search]

Type a search string to limit the number of items in the Available color schemes list. It is possible to use the wildcard character * in the search. See Searching in TIBCO Spotfire for more information.

Available color schemes

Lists the color schemes that apply to the selected keyword and/or search string.

See also:

Opening a Color Scheme

Color Schemes Overview

Coloring Overview

Details on Edit Document Color Schemes

This dialog is used to rename or delete previously added document color schemes.

DetailsonEditDocumentColorSchemes.png

Option

Description

Available color schemes

Lists all previously created document color schemes.

Rename...

Allows you to rename the selected document color scheme.

Remove

Deletes the selected document color scheme.

See also:

Details on Save Document Color Scheme

Details on Apply to Visualizations
  • To reach the Apply to Visualizations dialog:

  1. In the Visualization Properties dialog, go to the Colors page.

  2. Click on the Color Schemes menu icon, ColorSchemeMenu.png.

  3. Select Apply to Visualizations....

DetailsonApplytoVisualizations.png

Option

Description

Available visualizations

Lists all the visualizations available for selection.

Selected visualizations

Lists the visualizations that have been selected, and to which the color scheme will be applied.

Add >

Adds the selected visualizations to the Selected visualizations list.

< Remove

Removes the selected visualizations from the Selected visualizations list.

Remove All

Removes all visualizations from the Selected visualizations list.

Apply

 

   Colors only

Select this option if you want only the colors in the color scheme to be applied to the visualization.

Note: If the color scheme contains any rules, they will not be included.

   Colors matched to values

Select this option if you want to keep the colors matched to the values in the visualization, when matches exist.

Note: See Details on Apply Method for an example of how the two Apply options work

See also:

Applying a Color Scheme to Another Visualization

Details on Apply Method

Color Schemes Overview

Coloring Overview

Details on Apply Method

This dialog is shown when you apply a categorical color scheme to a visualization. It lets you choose how you want the colors to be matched to the values in the visualization. This is illustrated with an example below.

DetailsonApplyMethod1.png

Option

Description

Apply

 

   Colors only

Select this option if you want only the colors in the color scheme to be applied to the visualization.

Note: If the color scheme contains any rules, they will not be included.

   Colors matched to values

Select this option if you want to keep the colors matched to the values in the visualization, when matches exist.

Example:

When you open a categorical color scheme, or apply a categorical color scheme to a visualization, you can apply the colors in two different ways. Either you apply only the colors to the visualization, or you match the colors to the values in the visualization. The scatter plot below is colored by the column Type, which contains a number of different fruits, vegetables, and spices. These all have their own color in the color scheme.

DetailsonApplyMethod2.png

The color scheme from the scatter plot above has been applied to the two visualizations below, but using different application methods.

The visualization on the left is colored by a column containing completely different values than the scatter plot, in this case countries. Therefore the option Apply > Colors only was selected when applying the colors to the visualization. The visualization on the right is colored by a column that contains some of the same values from the upper scatter plot. Therefore, the option Apply > Colors matched to values was selected for this visualization. This ensures that those values the visualization has in common with the color scheme get the same colors. If the visualization contains values that do not exist in the color scheme, then colors from the default color palette will be used for those values.

Note: If the color scheme contains any rules, they will only be included if you select Colors matched to values.

See also:

Opening a Color Scheme

Applying a Color Scheme to Another Visualization

Details on Open from Library

Details on Apply to Visualizations

Details on Save Document Color Scheme

You can save a color scheme as a document color scheme if you want to use it again within an analysis. See Saving a Color Scheme for more information about document color schemes.

  • To reach the Save Document Color Scheme dialog:

  1. In the Visualization Properties dialog, go to the Colors page.

  2. Click on the Color Schemes menu icon, ColorSchemeMenu.png.

  3. Select Save As > Document Color Scheme....

DetailsonSaveDocumentColorScheme.png

Option

Description

New color scheme

Use this option to save a new color scheme. Type a name in the text field.

Replace existing color scheme

Use this option to replace a previously saved color scheme with a new one. Select the color scheme to overwrite from the drop-down list.

See also:

Saving a Color Scheme

Color Schemes Overview

Coloring Overview

Color Modes

Color Modes Overview

A color mode can be described as the way the colors in a color scheme are assigned to the values in the data. For example, you can determine whether you want the items in your visualization to get distinct colors representing different categories, or if you want to see a gradient color transition between two or more anchor points in a range of values.

The following color modes are available in TIBCO Spotfire:

  • Fixed

  • Categorical

  • Gradient

  • Segments

  • Unique values

Which color modes are available depends on the characteristics of the column or hierarchy you have selected to color the visualization by. For a column in categorical scale mode you can select Categorical or Fixed color mode. For a column in continuous scale mode you can choose one of the following color modes: Gradient, Segments, Fixed, or Unique values. The data type in the selected column decides which scale mode the column will be set to by default, as well as if it is possible to change the scale mode.

Note: In tables, cross tables, and heat maps coloring is always continuous. This means that the color mode Categorical is not applicable. However, you can use the color mode Unique values to get a categorical appearance in those visualizations. To learn more about coloring in these visualization types, see Coloring in Tables, Cross Tables and Heat Maps.

See also:

Coloring Overview

Color Schemes Overview

Color Rules Overview

Fixed Color Mode

Fixed color mode is available as an option for columns in both categorical scale mode and continuous scale mode. In fixed mode, all items in the visualization will get a single, fixed color as seen in the example below.

FixedColorMode1.png

Note that Fixed color mode is not the same as not selecting a column to color by. If no column is selected, most of the settings for the color scheme will be grayed out. The only setting you can change is the color of the values. In Fixed color mode, you can still add rules to the color scheme, and the rules will be applied to the column you have selected. In the example above, the scatter plot is colored by the column Sales. At this point, no rules have been added, which means that it looks like a scatter plot without any coloring applied to it. The example below shows the Colors page of the Visualization Properties for Fixed color mode.

FixedColorMode2.png

Changing the color for values

To change the color of the items in the visualization, click on the color box to the left of All values or Empty values in the color scheme. This will open a color selector where you can select a different color.

Adding rules to the color scheme

You cannot add points to the color scheme in Fixed mode. The Add Point and Delete Point buttons are therefore grayed out. However, as mentioned, you can add rules. A rule functions as an exception to the rest of the color scheme. To add a rule, click on the Add Rule... button to the right of the color scheme area. This will open a dialog where you can define the rule. The rule will be added on top of the color scheme, as seen in the example below, where a rule stating that all values below 15 should be yellow.

FixedColorMode3.png

If the color scheme includes more than one rule, the rules are prioritized from top to bottom. You can change the order of the rules by using drag-and-drop. To learn more about rules in color schemes, see Color Rules Overview.

Deleting rules

To delete a rule, click on the x to the right of the rule, or right-click on the rule and select Delete Rule from the menu.

Resetting the color scheme

To reset the color scheme to its initial state, right-click in the color scheme area to open the menu, and select Reset Color Scheme. The color scheme will be reset to the default state for the selected column. Any added rules will be removed.

For a description of the rest of the Colors page in the Visualization Properties dialog, see the corresponding help section for each visualization type.

See also:

Color Modes Overview

Coloring Overview

Color Rules Overview

Categorical Color Mode

Categorical color mode is available for columns in categorical scale mode, and gives each value in the column a separate color, as seen in the example below.

CategoricalColorMode1.png

In the example, the scatter plot is colored by the column Type, which is a column containing string values representing different types of fruits and vegetables. Each of the six different types has its own color. The example below shows the Colors page of the Visualization Properties for Categorical color mode.

CategoricalColorMode2.png

Changing the color for values

To change the color of any of the values in the color scheme, click on the color box to the left of a value. A color selector will appear, and you can select a different color.

Adding rules to the color scheme

You cannot add points to the color scheme in Categorical mode. The Add Point and Delete Point buttons are therefore grayed out. However, as mentioned, you can add rules. A rule functions as an exception to the rest of the color scheme. The rules available in categorical mode are all of the kind that requires the output to be either true or false. For example, you can add a rule saying that all values starting with a certain letter should have a different color. To add a rule, click on the Add Rule... button to the right of the color scheme area. This will open a dialog where you can define the rule. The rule will be added at the top of the color scheme, as seen in the example below, where a rule states that all values starting with the letters "Ba" should be brown.

CategoricalColorMode3.png

Since the rule functions as an exception to the rest of the color scheme, the markers for “Bananas” (and any other values starting with “Ba”) will become brown in the visualization. If the color scheme includes more than one rule, the rules are prioritized from top to bottom. You can change the order of the rules by using drag-and-drop. To learn more about rules in color schemes, see Color Rules Overview.

Deleting rules

To delete a rule, click on the x to the right of the rule, or right-click on the rule and select Delete Rule from the menu.

Resetting the color scheme

To reset the color scheme to its initial state, right-click in the color scheme area to open the menu, and select Reset Color Scheme. The color scheme will be reset to the default state for the selected column. Any added rules will be removed.

For a description of the rest of the Colors page in the Visualization Properties dialog, see the corresponding help section for each visualization type.

See also:

Color Modes Overview

Coloring Overview

Color Rules Overview

Gradient Color Mode

Gradient color mode is available for columns in continuous scale mode. In this mode the items will show a color gradient between two or more anchor points as seen in the example below.

GradientColorMode1.png

In the example, the scatter plot is colored by the column Sales, which is a column containing integer values. The color scheme has three anchor points: Min, Average, and Max. The colors at these points are set to red, white, and blue respectively, which means that the color gradient shifts from red to white to blue. The example below shows the Colors page of the Visualization Properties for Gradient color mode.

GradientColorMode2.png

Changing the color of anchor points

To change the color of an anchor point, click on the color box to the left of the point. A color selector will appear, and you can select a different color. The coloring will be updated immediately in the visualization.

Adding anchor points to the color scheme

To add a point where you want the gradient to switch to another color, you can either click on the Add Point button, or double-click in the color scheme area. To specify the exact placement of the added point, select one of the options in the menu beside the anchor point. The example below shows the available options in the menu. See Details on Point/Value Menu for descriptions of all the options in this menu.

GradientColorMode3.png

Most of the options in the menu will add an anchor point that is relative to the current color scale. For example, if you select Average, the position of the anchor point will be adjusted automatically when you filter the data, so that it stays at average for the new range of values.

If you select Value, you can enter an absolute value for the anchor point in the field. Keep in mind that this means that the value can end up outside the range of values if you filter out data or select another column to color by. When you have selected Value from the menu, you can also adjust the position of a point by dragging it vertically.

Select the last menu option to open the Custom Expression dialog, where you can define a custom expression to set the anchor point. See Custom Expressions for Coloring to learn more about this. To get a basic understanding of custom expressions, see Custom Expressions Introduction.

Adding rules to the color scheme

You can also add rules to the color scheme in gradient mode. A rule functions as an exception to the rest of the color scheme. To add a rule, click on the Add Rule... button to the right of the color scheme area. This will open a dialog where you can define the rule. The rule will be added at the top of the color scheme, as seen in the example below, where a rule states that all values below 15 should be yellow.

GradientColorMode4.png

If the color scheme includes more than one rule, the rules are prioritized from top to bottom. You can change the order of the rules by using drag-and-drop. To learn more about rules in color schemes, see Color Rules Overview.

Deleting points and rules

To delete a point, select it in the color scheme and click the Delete Point button. You can also right-click on the point and select Delete Point from the menu.

To delete a rule, click on the x to the right of the rule, or right-click on the rule and select Delete Rule from the menu.

Resetting the color scheme

To reset the color scheme to its initial state, right-click in the color scheme area to open the menu, and select Reset Color Scheme. The color scheme will be reset to the default state for the selected column. Any added rules will be removed.

For a description of the rest of the Colors page in the Visualization Properties dialog, see the corresponding help section for each visualization type.

See also:

Color Modes Overview

Coloring Overview

Color Rules Overview

Segments Color Mode

Segments color mode is available for columns in continuous scale mode. This will color the items representing values between two or more anchor points in fixed colors, as seen in the example below.

SegmentsColorMode1.png

In the example, the scatter plot is colored by the column Sales, which is a column containing integer values. The color scheme has four anchor points: Min, Average, 30, and Max. The colors between these points are set to blue, yellow, and red respectively. This means that items representing values between the Min value (8) and the average value (18) are colored blue, items representing values between average and 30 are colored yellow, and items representing values greater than 30 are colored red.

Note: An anchor point will get its color from the segment below it on the scale. In the example above, this means that an item representing the value 30 will be yellow.

The example below shows the Colors page of the Visualization Properties for the color mode Segments.

SegmentsColorMode2.png

Changing the color of segments

To change the color of a segment, click on the color box to the left of that segment. A color selector will appear, and you can select a different color.

Adding anchor points to the color scheme

To add an anchor point where you want a boundary between two segments, you can either click on the Add Point button, or double-click in the color scheme area. To specify the exact placement of the added point, select one of the options in the menu beside the anchor point. The example below shows the available options in the menu. See Details on Point/Value Menu for descriptions of all the options in this menu.

SegmentsColorMode3.png

Most of the options in the menu will add an anchor point that is relative to the current color scale. For example, if you select Average, the position of the anchor point will be adjusted automatically when you filter the data, so that it stays at average for the new range of values.

If you select Value, you can enter an absolute value for the anchor point in the field. Keep in mind that this means that the value can end up outside the range of values if you filter out data or select another column to color by. When you have selected Value from the menu, you can also adjust the position of a point by dragging it vertically.

Select the last menu option to open the Custom Expression dialog, where you can define a custom expression to set the anchor point. See Custom Expressions for Coloring to learn more about this. To get a basic understanding of custom expressions, see Custom Expressions Introduction.

Adding rules to the color scheme

You can also add rules to the color scheme in Segments mode. A rule functions as an exception to the rest of the color scheme. To add a rule, click on the Add Rule... button to the right of the color scheme area. This will open a dialog where you can define the rule. The rule will be added at the top of the color scheme, as seen in the example below, where a rule stating that all values below 15 should be green.

SegmentsColorMode4.png

If the color scheme includes more than one rule, the rules are prioritized from top to bottom. You can change the order of the rules by using drag-and-drop. To learn more about rules in color schemes, see Color Rules Overview.

Deleting points and rules

To delete a point, select it in the color scheme and click the Delete Point button. You can also right-click on the point and select Delete Point from the menu.

To delete a rule, click on the x to the right of the rule, or right-click on the rule and select Delete Rule from the menu.

Resetting the color scheme

To reset the color scheme to its initial state, right-click in the color scheme area to open the menu, and select Reset Color Scheme. The color scheme will be reset to the default state for the selected column. Any added rules will be removed.

Note: A color scheme in Segments color mode may appear as if the coloring is categorical. However, because the column used to color by is in continuous scale mode, the coloring is also considered continuous. This means that if you are using multiple scales, it is not possible to set individual scaling per color. For lines and curves, this means that you cannot set them to one line or curve per color.

For a description of the rest of the Colors page in the Visualization Properties dialog, see the corresponding help section for each visualization type.

See also:

Color Modes Overview

Coloring Overview

Color Rules Overview

Unique Values Color Mode

Unique values color mode is available for columns in continuous scale mode. It is similar to the Categorical color mode, and gives each unique value in the column a separate color, as seen in the example below.

UniqueValuesColorMode1.png

In the example, the scatter plot is colored by the column Sales, which is a column containing integer values. Each unique value in the column has its own color. The example below shows the Colors page of the Visualization Properties for Unique values color mode.

UniqueValuesColorMode2.png

Changing the color for values

To change the color of any of the values in the color scheme, click on the color box to the left of a value. A color selector will appear, and you can select a different color.

Adding rules to the color scheme

You cannot add points to the color scheme in Unique values mode, but you can add rules. A rule functions as an exception to the rest of the color scheme. For example, you can add a rule stating that the bottom three values should be yellow. In the example above, this would mean that the values 8, 9, and 10 would all be yellow. To add a rule, click on the Add Rule... button to the right of the color scheme area. This will open a dialog where you can define the rule. The rule will be added at the top of the color scheme as seen below.

UniqueValuesColorMode3.png

If the color scheme includes more than one rule, the rules are prioritized from top to bottom. You can change the order of the rules by using drag-and-drop. To learn more about rules in color schemes, see Color Rules Overview.

Deleting rules

To delete a rule, click on the x to the right of the rule, or right-click on the rule and select Delete Rule from the menu.

Resetting the color scheme

To reset the color scheme to its initial state, right-click in the color scheme area to open the menu, and select Reset Color Scheme. The color scheme will be reset to the default state for the selected column. Any added rules will be removed.

Note: A color scheme in Unique values color mode may appear as if the coloring is categorical. However, because the column used to color by is in continuous scale mode, the coloring is also considered continuous. This means that if you are using multiple scales, it is not possible to set individual scaling per color. For lines and curves, this means that you cannot set them to one line or curve per color.

For a description of the rest of the Colors page in the Visualization Properties dialog, see the corresponding help section for each visualization type.

See also:

Color Modes Overview

Coloring Overview

Color Rules Overview

Details on Point/Value Menu

This menu is available for points in the color scheme area in the two color modes Segments and Gradient, as seen below. It is also available in the Add/Edit Rule dialog.

DetailsonPoint-ValueMenu.png

Note: Most of the options in the menu will add an anchor point that is relative to the current color scale. For example, if you select Average, the position of the anchor point will be adjusted automatically when you filter the data, so that it stays at average for the new range of values.

Option

Description

Value

Select this option to specify an absolute value. Type the value of your choice in the field and press Enter.

For dates, you can also click on the calendar icon, , to set a date.

Note: Because the value is absolute, it can end up outside the range of values if you filter out data or select another column to color by.

Min

Sets the value to the minimum value in the data.

Max

Sets the value to the maximum value in the data.

Average

Sets the value to the average value in the data.

Median

Sets the value to the median value in the data.

Percent

Sets the value to a percentage value.

Percentile

Sets the value to a percentile value.

Custom Expression

Select this option to define the value with a custom expression. See To add a custom expression as an anchor point and To add a custom expression as a value in a rule to learn more. To get a basic understanding of custom expressions, see Custom Expressions Introduction.

See also:

Gradient Color Mode

Segments Color Mode

Details on Add/Edit Rule

Color Rules Overview

Rules in Color Overview

Color Rules

Rules can be very useful when you are setting up color schemes for your visualizations. Rules function as exceptions to the rest of the color scheme. You can use them in all kinds of visualizations, and in any color mode. The collection of available rules is different for categorical columns than for continuous columns. For instance, for categorical color schemes you can add a rule saying that all values starting with a certain letter should have a specific color. For continuous color schemes, you can, among many other things, define a rule stating that all items representing values below a certain value should have a certain color. Or, if you use a date column to color by, you can set up a rule stating that items representing values between two specific dates should get a certain color. See Details on Add/Edit Rule for descriptions of all the rule types.

Example:

When you add a rule, it is placed at the top of the color scheme in the legend and on the Colors page of the Visualization Properties. It always has higher priority than the rest of the color scheme. If you add more than one rule, the rules will be prioritized from top to bottom. The example below shows a scatter plot that is colored by the column Sales, and the color scheme is set up in Fixed color mode.

ColorRulesOverview.png

The example below shows the color scheme area for the scatter plot above.

 

Two rules have been added to the scheme. The first rule states that the items representing the five highest values should get a pink color. The second rule states that all values between average and max should get a green color. The order in which these rules are placed is essential. If the order had been reversed, then the Top 5 rule would not have had any effect since the other rule would include the items representing the five highest values as well. You can change the order of the rules by using drag-and-drop. You can add as many rules as you like to a color scheme, but a rule that does not have any effect on the visualization is not shown in the legend. For example, if you have filtered out all the data that was originally included in the rule, or if another rule overrides it, that rule will no longer be shown in the legend.

  • To add a rule to a color scheme:

  1. Open the Visualization Properties dialog, and go to the Colors page.

  2. Click on the Add Rule... button to the right of the color scheme area.

    Response: The Add rule dialog is opened.

  3. Select which rule to use from the Rule type drop-down list.

  4. In the Value field, click on the icon, ValueFieldIcon.png, to open the menu.

  5. Select which kind of value to use in the rule. If you select the menu option Value, you also need to provide a value in the field.

    Note: Which options are available in the menu depends on the selected rule type. See Details on Point/Value Menu to learn more.

  6. Open the Color selector and select a color to use for the rule.

  7. Click OK.

    Response: The rule is added at the top of the color scheme.

  • To edit a rule:

  1. Go to the Colors page of the Visualization Properties dialog.

  2. Locate the rule of interest in the color schemes area.

  3. Right-click on the rule, and select Edit Rule....

  4. Response: The Edit Rule dialog is opened.

    Note: You can also double-click on the rule to open the dialog.

  • To delete a rule:

  1. Go to the Colors page of the Visualization Properties dialog.

  2. Locate the rule of interest in the color schemes area.

  3. Right-click on the rule, and select Delete Rule.

  4. Response: The rule is deleted.

    Note: You can also click on the x to the right of the rule to delete it.

See also:

Details on Add/Edit Rule

Coloring Overview

Details on Add/Edit Rule

Use these dialogs to define or edit a color rule. See also Color Rules Overview to get an introduction to rules in color schemes. Note that the set of rule types available in these dialogs is different depending on whether the color scheme is categorical or continuous. Both sets of rules are described below.

  • To reach the Add/Edit Rule dialog:

  1. In the Visualization Properties dialog, go to the Colors page.

  2. Click on the Add Rule... button to add a rule. To edit an existing rule, double-click on the rule of interest in the list.

DetailsonAdd-EditRule.png

 

Option

Description

Rule type

Specifies which rule type to add. Which types are available depends on the data type of the column, or hierarchy that the rule is applied to. See below for descriptions of all available rule types.

Value

Defines the value or values the rule should apply to. The available options depend on the rule type selected. See Details on Point/Value Menu for descriptions of all the options in this menu.

Color

Specifies the color to use for the rule.

 

Available rule types for continuous coloring:

Rule Type

Description

Top

Colors the top number of items in the selected color. Specify the number of items to color in the Value field.

Note: In some cases more than the defined number of items may be colored. For example, if the rule states that the top three items should be yellow, and four items represent the highest value, then all four of these items will become yellow.

Bottom

Colors the bottom number of items in the selected color. Specify the number of items to color in the Value field.

Note: In some cases more than the defined number of items may be colored. For example, if the rule states that the bottom three items should be yellow, and four items represent the lowest value, then all four of these items will become yellow.

Between

Colors all the items representing values between the two specified values in the selected color. Specify the values in the two Value fields.

Equal to

Colors all the items representing values that are equal to the specified value in the selected color.

Not equal to

Colors all the items representing values that are not equal to the specified value in the selected color.

Greater than

Colors all the items representing values greater than the specified value in the selected color.

Greater than or equal to

Colors all the items representing values greater than or equal to the specified value in the selected color.

Less than

Colors all the items representing values less than the specified value in the selected color.

Less than or equal to

Colors all the items representing values less than or equal to the specified value in the selected color.

Boolean expression

Lets you define a boolean expression. All the items for which the expression is true will get the specified color. See To add a boolean expression as a rule for a description. To learn more about custom expressions in general, see Custom Expressions Introduction.

Available rule types for categorical coloring:

Note: Rules are case sensitive. This means that "Equal to Bananas" is not the same as "Equal to bananas". Note also that in rules you should not use quotation marks around strings. If you define a custom expression containing a string value, however, then quotation marks are necessary.

Rule Type

Description

Equal to

Colors all the items that correspond exactly to the specified string value in the selected color.

Not equal to

Colors all the items that do not correspond exactly to the specified string value in the selected color.

Contains

Colors all the items that contain the specified string value in the selected color.

Starts with

Colors all the items that start with the specified string value in the selected color.

Ends with

Colors all the items that end with the specified string value in the selected color.

Boolean expression

Lets you define a boolean expression. All the items for which the expression is true will get the specified color. See To add a boolean expression as a rule for a description. To learn more about custom expressions in general, see Custom Expressions Introduction.

See also:

Color Rules Overview

Coloring Overview

Color Schemes Overview

Color Modes Overview

Coloring in Tables, Cross-Tables, and Heat Maps

Coloring in Tables, Cross Tables and Heat Maps

Coloring is applied to tables, cross tables, and heat maps in a different way than other visualizations. The following two sections describe how to apply coloring to these visualizations.

  • Coloring in Tables

  • Coloring in Cross Tables and Heat Maps

See also:

Details on Add/Edit Color Scheme Grouping

Coloring Overview

Color Schemes Overview

Color Modes Overview

Coloring in Tables

For a table visualization, a color scheme is always applied to a color scheme grouping. A color scheme grouping functions as a container for one or more columns on which you want to apply the same color scheme. You can add many color schemes to the same table. In fact, you can add as many as one color scheme per column. When you create a new table it has no coloring applied to it. You must add color scheme groupings with the columns you want to color, and set up color schemes for each of the groupings. To learn more about color schemes and how to set them up in different color modes, see Color Schemes Overview and Color Modes Overview respectively.

Example:

The image below shows a table with two different color schemes applied to it.

ColoringinTables1.png

The color schemes are separated by a horizontal line in the legend. They are described separately below.

The upper color scheme in the legend contains the two columns Category and Type, both containing string values. The color scheme grouping for this color scheme is called Category and Type, as seen below where a part of the Colors page of the Table Properties dialog is shown.

ColoringinTables2.png

In the upper part of the dialog, the color scheme grouping Category and Type is selected, and in the lower part of the dialog, its corresponding color scheme is displayed. The color scheme is in Unique values color mode, and each of the values in the two columns has its own color.

The color scheme shown in the lower part of the legend contains the two columns Cost and Sales, which both contain integer values. The color scheme grouping for this color scheme is called Cost and Sales, as seen below where a part of the Colors page of the Table Properties dialog is shown.

ColoringinTables3.png

In the upper part of the dialog, the color scheme grouping Cost and Sales is selected, and in the lower part of the dialog, its corresponding color scheme is displayed. The color scheme is in Gradient color mode. The two columns share the same color scheme, but the scaling is separate for them. This means that the three color points Min, Average, and Max are calculated per column. If you want to use a common scale for the columns in the grouping, select the alternative (None) in the One scale per drop-down list. To see the scale for a column in the color scheme grouping, select it in the Color scheme groupings list. If the grouping itself is selected, as in the example, then the scale for the first column in the grouping is displayed.

  • To add a color scheme grouping:

  1. Open the Visualization Properties dialog, and go to the Colors page.

  2. Open the Add menu and select Color Scheme Grouping....

    Response: The Add Color Scheme Grouping dialog is opened.

  3. In the Name field, type a name to use for the new grouping.

  4. In the Available columns list, select the columns you want to include.

    Comment: A grouping can only contain columns with values of the same data type. The exception being the five numeric data types: Integer, LongInteger, Real, SingleReal, and Currency, which can be added to the same grouping. The “data type” in this case is called Numeric, but is a collection of these five data types rather than an actual data type.

  5. Click Add >.

    Response: The selected columns are added to the Selected columns list.

  6. Click OK.

    Response: The new color scheme grouping is added to the Color scheme groupings list.

    Comment: A column can only be included in one grouping at a time. If you add a column that is already included in an another color scheme grouping, the column will automatically be removed from the other grouping.

See also:

Details on Add/Edit Color Scheme Grouping

Color Modes Overview

Color Schemes Overview

Coloring Overview

Coloring in Cross Tables and Heat Maps

For cross tables and heat maps, a color scheme is always applied to a color scheme grouping. A color scheme grouping functions as a container for one or more axis values on which you want to apply the same color scheme. You can add many color schemes to the same cross table or heat map, and it is possible to color by the columns on any of the axes. However, you can only color a cross table and a heat map by one column at a time, and if the cell values axis contains more than one column, you can only color by the cell values axis. To learn more about color schemes and how to set them up in different color modes, see Color Schemes Overview and Color Modes Overview respectively. The examples below illustrate how coloring can be applied to cross tables and heat maps.

Example:

The cross table below shows the sum of sales (Sum(Sales)) for fruits and vegetables for the years 2001, 2002, and 2003. The horizontal axis has the two columns Category and Type. The column Category contains the two axis values Fruit and Vegetables, and the column Type contains the values Apples, Bananas, Pears, Cucumber, Lettuce, and Tomatoes. The cross table is colored by the column Category.

ColoringinCrossTablesandHeatMaps1.png

When you create a new cross table, one color scheme grouping (named Numeric) is created for each column represented on an axis in the cross table. The default grouping contains all the axis values in that column. Select a column in the Color by drop-down list to see its default color scheme grouping. In the example below, a part of the Colors page of the Cross Table Properties dialog is shown. The column Category was selected in the Color by drop-down list and its default color scheme grouping is displayed, as well as its two axis values Fruit and Vegetables.

ColoringinCrossTablesandHeatMaps2.png

In the lower part of the dialog, the color scheme for the Numeric color scheme grouping is displayed. The color scheme is in Gradient color mode. The two axis values Fruit and Vegetables share the same color scheme, but the scaling is separate for them. This means that the three color points, Min, Average, and Max, are calculated per axis value. If you want to use a common scale for the axis values in the grouping, select the alternative (None) in the One scale per drop-down list. To see the scale for a column in the color scheme grouping, select it in the Color scheme groupings list. If the grouping itself is selected, as in the example, then the scale for the first column in the grouping is displayed.

Example:

The example below shows a cross table with the same setup as in the example above except for the coloring. This cross table is colored by the column Type, and has two different color schemes applied to it.

ColoringinCrossTablesandHeatMaps3.png

The color schemes are separated by a horizontal line in the legend. Below is a part of the Colors page of the Cross Table Properties dialog for this cross table.

As can be seen in the upper part of the dialog, two color scheme groupings have been added. The first grouping is named Fruits, and the three axis values, Apples, Bananas, and Pears, have been added to that grouping. This is also the color scheme displayed first in the legend above. The second grouping is named Vegetables, and it contains the axis values Cucumber, Lettuce, and Tomatoes. The Numeric color scheme grouping is empty because all the axis values in the column Type have been added to either of the two new groupings. The default grouping cannot be deleted from the list of groupings. If you delete a grouping that you have added, then the axis values in that grouping will automatically be moved to the default grouping instead. Any added groupings will be shown in the list even if you change to another column to color by. The example below shows the Color scheme groupings list when the Color by column is set to Year.

ColoringinCrossTablesandHeatMaps4.png

The two groupings Fruits and Vegetables are still visible, but you cannot expand them unless you change Color by back to the column Type.

Example:

Coloring in heat maps works the same way as in cross tables. The example below shows a heat map where the Y-axis is set to the column Test, while the X-axis is set to (None). The individual cell values show the average of the three columns, Time 1, Time 2, and Time 3.

ColoringinCrossTablesandHeatMaps5.png

Below is a part of the Colors page of the Heat Map Properties dialog for the heat map above. The heat map is colored by (Cell Values), which is the only available option when the cell values axis contains more than one column.

ColoringinCrossTablesandHeatMaps6.png

  • To add a color scheme grouping:

  1. Open the Visualization Properties dialog, and go to the Colors page.

  2. Open the Add menu and select Color Scheme Grouping....

    Response: The Add Color Scheme Grouping dialog is opened.

  3. In the Name field, type a name to use for the new grouping.

  4. In the Available axis values list, select the columns you want to include.

  5. Click Add >.

    Response: The selected columns are added to the Selected axis values list.

  6. Click OK.

    Response: The new color scheme grouping is added to the Color scheme groupings list.

    Comment: An axis value can only be included in one grouping at a time. If you add an axis value that is already included in another color scheme grouping, the axis value will automatically be removed from the other grouping.

See also:

Details on Add/Edit Color Scheme Grouping

Color Modes Overview

Color Schemes Overview

Coloring Overview

Details on Add/Edit Color Scheme Grouping

Use these dialogs when you want to add a new color scheme grouping or edit an existing one.

  • To reach the Add/Edit Color Scheme Grouping dialog:

  1. In the Visualization Properties dialog for a table, a cross table, or a heat map, go to the Colors page.

  2. To add a new grouping, open the Add menu and select Color Scheme Grouping.... To edit an existing grouping, select the grouping of interest from the list, then click on Edit.... Only groupings that you have added to the list can be edited or deleted.

Note: If this dialog is opened from a heat map or cross table, the labels will read "Available axis values" and "Selected axis values" instead. This means that in the descriptions below, each reference to a "column" should be replaced by "axis value".

DetailsonAdd-EditColorSchemeGrouping.png

 

Option

Description

Name

Type a name to use for the color scheme grouping.

Available columns

Lists all columns and hierarchies available for selection.

Selected columns

Lists the columns selected to be used in this color scheme grouping.

Add >

Adds the selected columns to the Selected columns list.

< Remove

Removes the selected columns from the Selected columns list.

Remove All

Removes all columns from the Selected columns list.

Note: You cannot combine columns containing different data types in the same color scheme grouping. The exception being the five numeric data types: Integer, LongInteger, Real, SingleReal, and Currency, which can be added to the same grouping. The “data type” in this case is called Numeric, but is a collection of these five data types rather than an actual data type.

See also:

Coloring in Tables

Coloring in Cross Tables and Heat Maps

Coloring Overview

Custom Expressions for Coloring

You can use custom expressions in color schemes in a few different ways and some examples are described below. You can define an anchor point with a custom expression, or you can use expressions in rules. To get a basic understanding of custom expressions, see Custom Expressions Introduction. To learn more about using rules in color schemes, see Color Rules Overview.

  • To add a custom expression as an anchor point:

Anchor points are available when coloring continuous columns in a gradient or segments color mode. A custom expression can be used to determine where the breakpoint should be.

  1. Open the menu for the anchor point by clicking on the icon, ValueFieldIcon.png.

  2. Select Custom Expression.

    Response: The Custom Expression dialog is opened.

  3. In the Available columns list, select Axis.Color, and click Insert Columns to add it to the expression.

    Comment: Axis.Color represents the column you have selected to color by and it is most of the times the only "column" in the Available columns list. In table visualizations you will have access to all columns.

  4. Specify the custom expression of your choice.

    Note: The output from the custom expression must be an aggregated value.

  5. Click OK to close the dialog.

    Response: The custom expression is added as the anchor point. An icon, ToggleEditModeButton.png, indicating that the anchor point is a custom expression, is shown in the field.

  • To add a boolean expression as a rule:

A rule functions as an exception to the rest of the color scheme and can be specified using a boolean custom expression.

  1. Go to the Colors page of the Visualization Properties dialog.

  2. Click on the Add Rule... button to the right of the color scheme.

    Response: The Add Rule dialog is opened.

  3. In the Rule Type drop-down list, select Boolean expression.

  4. Click on the custom expression icon, ToggleEditModeButton.png, in the Value field.

    Response: The Custom Expression dialog is opened.

  5. Specify the custom expression of your choice. For example, use "[Axis.Color]=true" to color all rows with the boolean value "true" with a specified color.

    Comment: Axis.Color represents the column you have selected to color by. In table visualizations you will also have access to the columns themselves and you can make direct column comparisons, e.g., [Col1]>[Col2], in the expression.

    Note: The output from the custom expression must be a boolean value.

  6. Click OK to close the dialog.

  7. Select a Color to represent the rule.

  8. Click OK.

    Response: The rule is added to the color scheme.

  • To add a custom expression as a value in a rule:

The custom expression can specify a certain value at which the exception rule should take over.

  1. Go to the Colors page of the Visualization Properties dialog.

  2. Click on the Add Rule... button to the right of the color scheme.

    Response: The Add Rule dialog is opened.

  3. From the Rule type drop-down list, select the rule type you want to use.

    Comment: For example, the rule type could be "Greater than or equal to" a value defined by the custom expression. There are a number of different rule types to choose from.

  4. In the Value field, click on the icon, ValueFieldIcon.png, to open the menu.

  5. Select Custom Expression.

    Response: The Custom Expression dialog is opened.

  6. Specify the custom expression of your choice.

    Comment: Axis.Color represents the column you have selected to color by. For example, if the rule type is "Greater than or equal to", then the expression "Avg([Axis.Color])+2*StdDev([Axis.Color])" would color all rows where the value of the selected color column is greater than or equal to the average value plus two standard deviations with the rule color.

    Note: The output from the custom expression must be an aggregated value.

  7. Click OK to close the dialog.

  8. Select a Color to represent the rule.

  9. Click OK.

    Response: The rule is added to the color scheme.

Note: When you are setting up a custom expression with a string comparison included, you need to put quotation marks around the string (for example, [Axis.Color]="Bananas"). If you define a rule containing a string comparison, however, you should not use quotation marks.

See also:

Color Rules

Custom Expressions Introduction

Limiting What is Shown in Visualizations

When a new visualization is created, the default limitation setting is that the visualization is affected by the current filtering on the page where it resides. However, there are many alternatives for you to set up the visualization available on the Data page of the Visualization Properties dialog. (Not applicable to map charts.)

  • To limit a visualization by the union of two markings:

The default when limiting data by more than one marking is that data must be available in all markings (intersection) to be shown in the limited visualization. However, you can change Rows must be included in to Any marking on the Data page.

  • To set up a visualization to use a different filtering scheme than the one on the page:

  1. Right-click in the visualization to display the pop-up menu.

  2. Select Properties.

  3. Go to the Data page.

  4. Under Limit data using filterings, clear the Use the current filtering scheme from the page check box and select a different filtering scheme instead.

    Comment: The difference between selecting the Use the current filtering scheme from the page option and the filtering scheme annotated with (Currently used) is that in the first case, the filtering scheme of the visualization will change when the filtering scheme of the page is changed. In the latter case, it will not.

    Comment: It is possible to limit a visualization by more than one filtering scheme. In this case, the intersection of the filterings will be used. This means that the visualization will show only the data that is made visible by all of the filtering schemes.

  • To create an unfiltered visualization:

  1. Right-click in the visualization to display the pop-up menu.

  2. Select Properties.

  3. Go to the Data page.

  4. Clear all check boxes under Limit data using filterings.

  • To limit a visualization by an expression:

If you want to display data for a special category only, you can set up a "hard filter" on the visualization using a boolean expression.

  1. Right-click in the visualization to display the pop-up menu.

  2. Select Properties.

  3. Go to the Data page.

  4. Next to Limit data using expression, click Edit....

  5. Type a boolean expression in the dialog and click OK.

    Comment: Clear the expression field and click OK to remove the hard filter.

Note: If you use more than one type of limiting on the Data page, then the different types of limiting will be combined so that the result will be Marking limiting AND Filtering limiting AND Expression limiting.

See also:

What is a Details Visualization?

Details Visualization

What is a Details Visualization?

A details visualization is a special case of a limited visualization, slightly related to the Details-on-Demand. This means that the information shown in a details visualization depends on what is marked in one or more other visualizations. Details visualizations can be used to set up analyses where you can drill down into your data in multiple steps. The marking you perform in one visualization (the master visualization), determines what you will see in the next visualization, and so on. If nothing is marked, the details visualization will not contain any data at all.

In contrast to the Details-on-Demand, which is always a table, the details visualization can be any type of visualization and it can be placed anywhere within the page, just like any other visualization.

  • To create a details visualization:

  1. Load data for the master visualization and, if other data, for the details visualization.

    Comment: Note that all data tables you wish to use must be loaded, and a relation must have been set up between the data tables, before you create the details visualization. See How to Insert Multiple Data Tables into the Analysis for more information about how to add more data tables and define relations between them.

  2. Create the master visualization that you want to use to control the details visualization.

    Comment: This should be the visualization in which you want to be able to mark items and retrieve details about these items in the details visualization.

  3. Right-click in the visualization and select Create Details Visualization and the type of visualization to use as details visualization from the pop-up menu.

  4. If there are more than one related data table available in your analysis, the Create Details Visualization dialog will appear. Select which data table to use from the Related data table for new visualization drop-down list.

    Comment: If no related data tables are available, the details visualization will automatically use the same data table as the master visualization.

  5. Click OK in the Create Details Visualization dialog.

    Response: The new details visualization appears in the analysis.

  6. Set up the new details visualization to the desired view.

The Data page in the Visualization Properties dialog controls which markings will be used to limit the data shown in a visualization. Normally, no marking is selected here, but when you create a details visualization, the marking used by the master visualization is automatically selected to be limiting, and a new marking is created to enable marking in the details visualization.

Tip: An already created visualization can also be converted to a details visualization by changing the limiting markings on the Data page. In that case, you should also make sure that the visualization in itself does not use the same marking as is used to limit the data shown.

Example:

Imagine having a master visualization showing the sales of different fruits and vegetables during a couple of years. The master visualization in this example is a line chart with each line representing a fruit or a vegetable:

WhatisaDetailsVisualization1.png

Then, we want to investigate the carbohydrate content of the different fruits and vegetables in a details visualization where only the data for the type that we clicked on is shown.

Right-click on the master visualization and select Create Details Visualization > Bar Chart.... In this example, the details data comes from a different data table than the one used in the master visualization, but it could also be the same data table.

This details visualization is set up to show the content of Glucose, Fructose, Maltose and Saccharose on the value axis and (Column Names) on the category axis. If nothing is marked in the master visualization, then no data is shown in the details visualization:

WhatisaDetailsVisualization2.png

When a line is marked in the master visualization, the bar chart is updated to show data about that fruit or vegetable. In this example, we mark Apples, the second line from the bottom:

The details visualization shows the carbohydrate content of apples:

Clicking on the Bananas line will show the carbohydrate content of bananas, etc.

A details visualization can, in turn, be used as a master visualization  for another details visualization, so that you can drill down deeper and deeper into your data, by marking elements in a series of visualizations.

See also:

Details on Create Details Visualizations

Loading Data on Demand

Master-Detail Visualizations

Limiting What is Shown in Visualizations

Details on Create Details Visualization

Details visualizations are limited to showing data marked in another visualization (the master visualization) only. See What is a Details Visualization? to learn more. The Create Details Visualization dialog is shown if the master visualization is based on a data table that is related to one or more other data tables in the analysis. You must then select which data table the details visualization should be based on.

  • To reach the Create Details Visualization dialog:

  1. Create a master visualization.

    Comment: This is the visualization that you want to use to control the details visualization.

  2. Right-click in the master visualization to display the pop-up menu.

  3. Select Create Details Visualization and determine which type of visualization you want to use.

    Response: The Create Details Visualization is displayed. Note that it will only appear if there are related data tables in the analysis.

DetailsonCreateDetailsVisualization.png

Option

Description

Related data table for new visualization

Select the data table to use for the details visualization. You can only select from data tables that are related to the one used in the master visualization.

New data tables are added via File > Add Data Tables... or File > Add On-Demand Data Table....

See also:

What is a Details Visualization?

How to Insert Multiple Data Tables

Loading Data on Demand

Master-Detail Visualizations

Custom Expressions

Custom Expressions Introduction

The ability to create custom expressions is a powerful and advanced tool in TIBCO Spotfire. Custom expressions allow you to create your own aggregation methods for the visualizations.

The custom expression functionality is accessed by right-clicking on the column selector in the visualization and selecting the Custom Expression… option from the pop-up menu.

CustomExpressionsIntroduction.png

This section of the help contains the following information on how to create custom expressions:

  • An overview explaining what custom expressions are

  • Basic custom expressions

  • Information about the OVER keyword in custom expressions

  • Advanced custom expressions

  • How to insert a custom expression

  • Details on the Custom Expression dialog

See also:

Properties in Expressions

Troubleshooting Property Expressions

Custom Expressions Overview

As mentioned, custom expressions are powerful and useful, but also advanced. The purpose of this overview is to introduce you to some basic concepts regarding custom expressions. What they are, how they can be used, and why they affect the visualizations the way they do. This overview includes some examples of how to use custom expressions, and more examples can be found in the following help sections: Basic Custom Expressions, OVER in Custom Expressions, and Advanced Custom Expressions.

What are markers?

Before creating custom expressions, it is vital to know what the markers in a visualization represent, since it makes it easier to understand why custom expressions behave the way they do. Particularly affected are custom expressions containing the OVER statement. See OVER in Custom Expressions to learn more.

Markers are, quite simply, a representation of how you have divided your data into different slices. A marker can represent everything from all rows in your data to a single row, depending on how you have set up your visualization. These slices can, of course, be represented by not only markers in a scatter plot, but also segments of a bar chart or a pie chart and so on.

In the example below, the marker contains all rows in the data. It shows the sum of all sales of all products for all time periods.

CustomExpressionsOverview1.png

If you start slicing the data into smaller parts, the result could look like the example below, where each marker represents the sum of the sales for each product for each year.

 

Setting up a visualization

Setting up a visualization is basically deciding how the data is to be divided and how the data is to be aggregated over the slices. In the examples above, the aggregation method is Sum(), which in this case means that the total value of all sales for each product and year are summed up in one marker.

The aggregation method Sum() can actually be seen as a custom expression, the only difference is that it is provided in the aggregation menu. When you want to use an aggregation method that is not listed, you can create your own using custom expressions.

When you change the visualization, for example using the filters, the markers and scales will automatically update. The aggregation will automatically be revaluated based on the contents of each marker. This works the same way for the provided aggregation methods as well as for the basic custom expressions.

Note: If you apply <> around an expression, it becomes categorical. Similarly, you can right-click on the axis and select Categorical Scale from the pop-up menu. If an aggregated value is made categorical, it will not change value when data are being filtered.

Example

Just to show that custom expressions and the predefined aggregations really are the same thing, consider the aggregationAvg(Cost), an aggregation that shows you the average cost for each product each year.

CustomExpressionsOverview2.png

The same visualization can be created using custom expressions. Start by right-clicking on the axis selector for the Y-axis and select Custom Expression...

In the Custom Expression dialog, enter the expression Sum([Cost])/Count([Cost]), either by typing it directly in the Expression field or by inserting columns and functions from the lists, and click OK.

CustomExpressionsOverview3.png

As you can see, the resulting visualization is the same as when you chose the aggregation Avg(Cost), but you have now done it yourself by creating a simple custom expression.

Note: This is just an example to show that custom expressions work the same way as the predefined aggregation methods. The main purpose with the custom expressions is to create aggregations that are not listed, rather than to recreate the predefined ones.

CustomExpressionsOverview4.png

For more examples of custom expressions, continue to the Basic Custom Expressions page.

See also:

Custom Expressions Introduction

Basic Custom Expressions

OVER in Custom Expressions

Advanced Custom Expressions

How to Insert a Custom Expression

Properties in Expressions

Details on Custom Expression

Basic Custom Expressions

Now that you know what custom expressions are, it is time to look at some basic examples of how they can be used.

Example

Let us start with a simple custom expression. Consider again the visualization from the overview page that shows the sales of fruits and vegetables.

This trellised bar chart shows the sum of the sales per Year and Category.

BasicCustomExpressions1.png

It shows that the sum of the sales of all vegetables and all fruits has increased each year.

Using a simple custom expression, Sum([Sales])/Sum([Cost]), you can see the ratio of how much higher the sales are compared to the cost for each category and year.

It is now possible to see that even though the generated sales have increased each year, the sum of the sales compared to the sum of the cost has mostly decreased.

Example

The previous example showed that the sum of the sales had decreased relative to the sum of the cost. If you want to see the amount of money earned for each product and year, simply subtract the sum of the cost from the sum of the sales using the custom expression Sum([Sales])-Sum([Cost]).

BasicCustomExpressions2.png

Now, assume that tax has not been subtracted from the sales price, and that five percent of the money received from customers cannot be counted as a profit. Simply change the custom expression to (Sum([Sales])*0.95)-Sum([Cost]) and you have the actual profit for each product each year.

Example

Consider another data set with sales data for a number of stores. In this data set, each row represents a specific purchase made by a customer. If you want to know how much money an average customer spends on different product types, this bar chart does not give you the correct answer.

BasicCustomExpressions3.png

This is because the aggregation Avg() returns the average sales figure for each row, which means this is an average of the money spent on a single purchase. However, since each customer can make several purchases, you have to use a simple custom expression.

Since each row in the data also contains information on which customer has made the purchase (and in this case all customers have unique names), the custom expression to use is:
 

Sum([Sales])/UniqueCount([Buyer]) which gives you the visualization below.

Note how much smaller the bar representing vegetables is compared to bar in the first visualization. These two charts show that people spend more money on vegetables than they do on fruit or spices each time they make a purchase of either category. But overall, the average customer spends about the same amount of money on spices that they do on vegetables, and much more on fruit, meaning they must make many more individual purchases of vegetables.

Example

This data set is a record of orders and deliveries of Cable TV and Broadband Internet installations for customers in different cities. The fist image shows the number of installations that have been performed in the different cities. The visualization is colored according to which installation has been performed.

BasicCustomExpressions4.png

If you are interested in analyzing the number of days it takes for the cable TV and broadband Internet to be delivered and installed from the day it was ordered, this can be done with a bit more advanced custom expression. For this, we will use theDateDiff() function, found under Date and Time functions in the Custom Expression dialog. This function returns the difference between two date columns, in this case the columns Order Date and Delivery Date. You must also specify which part of the date you want to compare, and in this case it is the number of days we are interested in. Therefore, the base of the custom expression is: DateDiff("day",[Order Date],[Delivery Date]). This returns the number of days from order to delivery for each order. The complete custom expression looks like this: Avg(DateDiff("day",[Order Date],[Delivery Date])), and shows the average delivery time for both products in each city.

From this, it is possible to see that the average delivery time for cable TV in New York is much higher than in the other cities.

For more advanced custom expressions, the OVER statement is often used. It is described in the OVER in Custom Expressionstopic.

Hierarchies

If you are using a predefined hierarchy (in the example called MyHierarchy) on an axis and select Custom Expression you will see the expression <PruneHierarchy([Hierarchy.MyHierarchy],0)>. This syntax must always be used when  a hierarchy is included in an expression. It specifies that this part of the expression is a hierarchy and it determines which level of the hierarchy slider to set. 0 is the leftmost level on the hierarchy slider, and the number of levels in the hierarchy determines how high a value you can specify. If the hierarchy expression is to be used together with another categorical column or hierarchy, each subset must be separated with NEST or CROSS, as for all categorical expressions. For example, <PruneHierarchy([Hierarchy.MyHierarchy],0) NEST [Another category column]>.

Column Names

If the Column Names option is used on the axis, the underlying expression will be <[Axis.Default.Names]>. If the Column Names expression is to be used together with another categorical column or hierarchy, each subset must be separated with NEST or CROSS. For example, <[Axis.Default.Names] NEST [Another category column]>.

See also:

Custom Expressions Introduction

Custom Expressions Overview

OVER in Custom Expressions

Advanced Custom Expressions

How to Insert a Custom Expression

Details on Custom Expression

OVER in Custom Expressions

The OVER statement is used in many of the more advanced custom expressions. To understand how it works, consider again how markers represent slices of your data, and that the visualization properties, such as color or aggregations, determine how the data is sliced. Custom expressions work on each of the already defined slices in the visualization.

Note: This is the fundamental difference between OVER in custom expressions and in calculated columns. When you add a calculated column with OVER, OVER defines how the data is to be sliced. Since custom expressions work on the individual slices, OVER in custom expressions actually does quite the opposite. When used in Custom Expressions the OVER method is telling the visualization to ignore specific slices that are already built into the visualization .

Example

To demonstrate what OVER does in custom expressions, consider the data set used in the overview and the first basic expressions.

This visualization shows the sum of sales for the two categories fruits and vegetables for each year.

OVERinCustomExpressions1.png

Change Sum(Sales) on the Y-axis to the custom expression Sum([Sales]) OVER (All([Axis.X])). Note that the X-axis must be categorical when OVER expressions are used to reference it. The expression might seem a bit confusing, but the terminology used will be explained shortly. Now look at the resulting visualization. It has the same number of markers as before, but the sum of the sales is equal for all of the markers of a certain category.

OVERinCustomExpressions2.png

The sum of sales is the same because you told the aggregation to look outside of the individual slices. In the first visualization the sum of the sales was calculated for each year, but the OVER statement told the aggregation to ignore the slicing on the X-axis. This means that the method Sum([Sales]) simply calculated the sum of the sales for all three years. But since you defined the X-axis to be divided by year, the number of markers remains the same, but the value for the Y-axis has changed. More information on the All Method used can be found on the Advanced Custom Expressions page.

It is important to note that the term used is [Axis.X] instead of the name of the column (in this case, Year). When using the OVER statement, you cannot refer to explicit column names, but you should instead use [Axis.X] or [Axis.Color], for example, to refer to the column on the X-axis and the Color by, respectively. Since the custom expressions work on the actual slices in the data (in this case, markers in the visualization), allowing them to refer to columns that are not defined as visualization properties (for example, X-axis or Color by), would demand further slicing. Therefore, the custom expressions using the OVER statement can only be defined for columns used as visualization properties, and refer to the properties instead of the names. This also allows for changing the properties on the axes or the Color by, without making the custom expression invalid. See Axes in Expressions for a list of what to refer to in different visualizations.

Nodes

Another way to explain the OVER statement is this tree hierarchy.

OVERinCustomExpressions3.png

A marker or slice can include all data, for instance the data for 2003, or the data for January of 2003. Each of the slices in this hierarchy is called a node. Using the OVER statement, you can compare data from one node with the data of other nodes. For instance, you can compare January 2003 with February 2003, you can compare March 2005 with March 2004, or you can compare data from a single month with the data from that entire year. For more examples of expressions using the OVER statement, see the Advanced Custom Expressions topic.

What to refer to in different visualization types

An axis in a visualization can be used as a part of an OVER expression, provided that the axis is categorical (this can be specified in the Advanced Settings dialog). See Axes in Expressions for a table defining what terms to use to specify a calculation on a property. The syntax when referring to axes in an expression is [Axis.Axis Name]. For example, if the Axis Name is "X", the expression should refer to [Axis.X]. Note that the actual names to use may be different in two similar looking visualizations. For example, in the cross table you would refer to Axis.Columns whereas in a heat map you would use Axis.X for similarly set up visualizations.

Limitations

  • It is not allowed to refer to the Color axis in the size expression in a pie chart.

Syntax

The syntax for the OVER statement is the same for custom expressions and calculated columns:

<method>(<method arguments>) over (<over methods>)

All OVER methods can be used with dot notation or as a normal function call, for example, [Axis.Color].Parent orParent([Axis.Color]). If nothing else is specified, the calculations are always based on the current node.

See also:

Custom Expressions Introduction

How to Insert a Custom Expression

Details on Custom Expression

Axes in Expressions

When creating custom expressions, you may need to refer to an axis from the visualization in the expression. Below is a list of the available axes for different visualization types. Some of the axes can be useful in OVER expressions, whereas others are only used when defining rules or reference lines.

The term axis, in this context, does not only refer to the X and Y axes, but is a general term for the mapping of data to a dimension represented in the visualization: coloring is controlled by the Color axis, marker shape by the Shape axis and so on.

The syntax when referring to axes in an expression is [Axis.Axis Name]. For example, if the Axis Name is "X", the expression should refer to [Axis.X]. Note that the actual names to use may be different in two similar looking visualizations. For example, in the cross table you would refer to Axis.Columns whereas in a heat map you would use Axis.X for similarly set up visualizations.

It does not make any sense to include the axis you are creating the expression for in an OVER expression. Instead, you would probably want to use the categorization on the X-axis or the Color axis when defining an OVER expression on the Y-axis.

Axes to use in OVER expressions and other expressions:

Visualization

Axis (Property)

Axis Name Used in Expression

Cross Table

Columns

Rows

Columns

Rows

Sparkline

Rows

X-axis

Rows*

X

Calculated Value

Rows

Rows*

Icon

Rows

Rows*

Bar Chart

Category axis

Color by

X

Color

Line Chart

X-axis

Color by

Line by

Line by + Color by

X

Color

Line

Feature

Combination Chart

X-axis

Color

X

Color

Pie Chart

Color by

Color

Scatter Plot

X-axis

Y-axis

Color by

Marker by

Shape by

Label by

Line by

X

Y

Color

Marker

Shape

Label

Line

3D Scatter Plot

X-axis

Y-axis

Z-axis

Color by

Marker by

Shape by

Label by

X

Y

Z

Color

Marker

Shape

Label

Map Chart

X-axis

Y-axis

Color by

Marker by

Shape by

Label by

Line by

Identifier

X

Y

Color

Marker

Shape

Label

Line

Identifier

Treemap

Hierarchy

Hierarchy

Heat Map

X-axis

Y-axis

X

Y

Parallel Coordinate Plot

Line by

Color by

Line

Color

Trellis

Columns

Rows

Pages

Panels

Columns

Rows

Pages

Panels

* The Rows axis in a graphical table can be used in OVER expressions in dynamic item columns included in that graphical table.

Example:

Sum([Sales]) OVER (AllPrevious([Axis.X]))

See OVER in Custom Expressions and Advanced Custom Expressions for more information about OVER expressions.

Axes to use in rules and reference lines only:

When defining rules (for example, for coloring, icons or calculated values) or when setting up a reference line in a visualization, you will define an expression directly using the value on that very axis. (The way to refer to the axes is slightly different in those two contexts.)

Visualization

Axis (Property)

Axis Name Used in Expression

Sparkline

Y-axis

Y

Calculated Value

Value

Value

Icon

Icon

Icon

Bar Chart

Value axis

Y

Scatter Plot

X-axis

Y-axis

X

Y

Line Chart

Y-axis

Y

Combination Chart

Y-axis

Y

Examples in rules:

[Axis.Color]="West"

[Axis.Value]> 10000

Example in reference line:

Avg([Y])*10

See also:

Custom Expressions Introduction

Custom Expressions Overview

Advanced Custom Expressions

The OVER statement is used in many of the more advanced custom expressions. In this section, several node and time period methods are explained.

In the examples below, a bar chart with a Year/Month hierarchy on the category axis is used, and in most cases it is colored by Product.

AdvancedCustomExpressions1.png

For some of the methods, there is more than one example and many have a more general illustration of how they work.

Node methods

Node methods can refer to other nodes relative to the current node based on the position in the hierarchy.

Method

Description

Parent Method

Uses the parent subset of the current node to perform the calculation. If the node does not have a parent, all rows are used as the subset.

 

It can be used to show how much of the total sales each product category represent each month.

Sum([Sales]) / Sum([Sales]) OVER (Parent([Axis.Color]))

AdvancedCustomExpressions2.png

Note: In this example, Parent refers to what the color is set to, which is Product.

 

As an additional example, if you wish to see the percentage of all sales for each month of each year, regardless of product category, you can create the following custom expression.

Sum([Sales]) / Sum([Sales]) OVER (Parent([Axis.X])) * 100

AdvancedCustomExpressions3.png

Next Method

Compares the current node with the next node on the same level in the hierarchy.

AdvancedCustomExpressions4.png

If there is no next node, that is, if the current node is the last node for the current level, the resulting subset will not contain any rows.

 

Sum([Sales]) - Sum([Sales]) OVER (Next([Axis.X]))

AdvancedCustomExpressions5.png

If the current node is 2004.Jan, in the figure at the top of the page, 'next' in this case will refer to 2004.March, since 2004.February is missing in the data. See Next Period method for value based reference.

Previous Method

 

Uses the previous node on the same level as the current node to compare the result of the current node with the previous one.

AdvancedCustomExpressions6.png

 

If there is no previous node, that is, if the current node is the first node for the current level, the resulting subset will not contain any rows.

 

Sum([Sales]) - Sum([Sales]) OVER (Previous([Axis.X]))

AdvancedCustomExpressions7.png

All Method

 

The All method uses all the nodes in the referenced hierarchy:

AdvancedCustomExpressions8.png

 

This can be useful when intersecting the current node with more than one hierarchy.

 

In this example, the bar chart shows the relative sales of the different product categories for each month.

Sum([Sales]) / Sum([Sales]) OVER (Intersect(All([Axis.Color]), [Axis.X]))

AdvancedCustomExpressions9.png

Note: See the Intersect Method for information on that method.

 

Another example is if you want to see the percentage of all sales for each month over the years. Regardless of product category.

Sum([Sales]) / Sum([Sales]) OVER (All([Axis.X])) * 100

AdvancedCustomExpressions10.png

All Previous Method

 

Uses all nodes, including the current, from the start of the level.

 

AdvancedCustomExpressions11.png

This can be used to calculate the cumulative sum.

Sum([Sales]) OVER (AllPrevious([Axis.X]))

AdvancedCustomExpressions12.png

Tip: A basic Cumulative Sum expression can easily be created using the shortcut in the Aggregation menu on the axis selector.

 

If you want to limit the cumulative sum for current year you can combine the All Previous Method with the Intersect Method:

Sum([Sales]) OVER (Intersect(Parent([Axis.X]), AllPrevious([Axis.X])))

AdvancedCustomExpressions13.png

Note: See the Intersect Method for information on that method.

All Next Method

Uses all nodes, including the current, to the end of the level.

AdvancedCustomExpressions14.png

Intersect Method

Returns the intersected rows from nodes in different hierarchies.

AdvancedCustomExpressions15.png

 

See also the All Previous Method and the All Method for examples of how it works.
Intersect(Parent([Axis.X]), All([Axis.Color]), Parent([Axis.Rows]), ...)

Time period methods

Time period methods can refer to other nodes relative to the current node based on the value in the current node and the other relative nodes.

Method

Description

Next Period Method

Uses the next node which has the next value (defined as the next value index) on the same level as the current node to perform the calculation. If there is no next node, that is, if the current node is the last node for the current level, the resulting subset will not contain any rows.

Sum([Sales]) OVER (NextPeriod([Axis.X]))

AdvancedCustomExpressions16.png

 

If the current node is 2004.Jan, in the figure at the top of the page, NextPeriod will return an empty subset, since February is missing.

Previous Period Method

Uses the previous node which has the previous value (defined as the previous value index) on the same level as the current node to perform the calculation. If there is no previous node, that is, if the current node is the first node for the current level, the resulting subset will not contain any rows.

Sum([Sales]) OVER (PreviousPeriod([Axis.X]))

AdvancedCustomExpressions17.png

Parallel Period Method

 

Uses the previous parallel node with the same value (defined as having the same value index) on the same level as the current node.

AdvancedCustomExpressions18.png

Note: The method only looks for a node with the same value as the current node in the children to the previous parent node. That means that it only looks one level above the current node. Therefore, a hierarchy with year as the parent node and quarter OR month as nodes on the lower level will work since the nodes under each year will have the same values. However, a hierarchy with all three levels would not work for this method since the months under Q2 and Q3, for example, do not have the same values.

 

This can be used to compare sales results for each month with the corresponding months the previous year.

Sum([Sales])-Sum([Sales]) OVER (ParallelPeriod([Axis.X]))

AdvancedCustomExpressions19.png

Last Periods Method

Includes the current node and the n - 1 previous nodes (as defined by the each node value index).

AdvancedCustomExpressions20.png

 

This can be used to calculate moving averages.

Sum([Sales]) OVER (LastPeriods(3, [Axis.X]))/3

AdvancedCustomExpressions21.png

Note: All time period methods return the resulting visualization item subset, so the use of aggregation methods like average might not produce the expected result. See also Working with Time Hierarchies for more information about missing values in time series.

See also:

Properties in Expressions

Custom Expressions Introduction

Custom Expressions Overview

Basic Custom Expressions

OVER in Custom Expressions

Axes in Expressions

How to Insert a Custom Expression

Details on Custom Expression

How to Insert a Custom Expression

TIBCO Spotfire supports two different types of expressions: Insert Calculated Column, which creates a new column in the data table, and Custom Expression, which is used to dynamically modify the expression used on an axis or to define a setting. Both types of expressions are created with a similar user interface.

  • To create a custom expression:

  1. Right-click on a column selector on an axis, in a Visualization Properties dialog, or in the Legend, to display the pop-up menu.

    Comment: You can also create custom expressions for rules and reference lines. See Custom Expressions for Coloring,Details on Horizontal/Vertical Line, Details on Curve Draw, or Details on Curve from Data Table for more information.

  2. Select Custom Expression....

  3. Specify a suitable expression by either typing it directly into the Expression text field, or by selecting columns, properties and functions from the list.
    An example of an expression could be: [Exports m$]/[Population].

    Comment: You can always modify the expression by editing the text in the Expression field using cut-and-paste, or by typing text. For a detailed description of the expression language, see General Syntax and other topics under Expression Language in the Insert Calculated Column chapter. For details on the syntax to use when adding properties, see Properties in Expressions.

  4. Type a Display name for the expression.

  5. Click OK.

    Comment: If an error message is shown, there is a problem with the expression. Go back and modify the expression until the desired result is achieved.

    Response: The expression is used on the specified axis or setting.

Tip: If you have previously created a suitable expression, you may select it from the Recent expressions list and click the Insert button.

  • To reach the Insert Calculated Column dialog:

  1. Select Insert > Calculated Column....

    Comment: See How to Insert a Calculated Column for more information.

See also:

Custom Expressions Introduction

Custom Expressions Overview

Basic Custom Expressions

OVER in Custom Expressions

Advanced Custom Expressions

Details on Custom Expression

What is a Calculated Column?

Details on Custom Expression

TIBCO Spotfire supports two different types of expressions: Insert Calculated Column, which creates a new column in the data table, and Custom Expression, which is used to dynamically modify the expression used on an axis or to define a setting. Both types of expressions are created with a similar user interface.

  • To reach the Custom Expression dialog:

  1. Right-click on a column selector on an axis, in a Visualization Properties dialog, or in the Legend, to display the pop-up menu.

  2. Select Custom Expression....

DetailsonCustomExpression.png

Option

Description

Available columns

Shows all columns that you can use in the calculation of your custom expression.

Select a column by clicking on it in the list and then click on the Insert Columns button, or double-click on the column to send it to the Expression field. Press Ctrl or Shift to select multiple columns.

You can narrow down the list of available columns by typing a part of a name in the "Type to search" field. You can also enter an expression in the field using the rules described on the Searching in TIBCO Spotfire page.

Insert Columns

Inserts the columns selected in the Available columns list at the current cursor position in the Expression field.

Available properties for column

Shows all properties that you can use in the calculation of a custom expression. You can narrow down the list of available properties by using the search field. The column properties shown are specific to the column selected in the Available columns list to the left.

Select a property by clicking on it in the list and then click on the Insert Properties button; or double-click on the property to send it to the Expression field. The property will automatically be inserted as text. However, there may be occasions where you need to insert the property as a function to receive the desired result. See Properties in Expressions for more information. Use the pop-up menu in this field to select how to insert the property or type the correct syntax manually.

If you want to define a new property to use in the expression, right-click in the Available properties field and select New > [Property Type] Property... from the pop-up menu. You can also edit or delete custom properties by using the pop-up menu.

Insert Properties

Inserts the properties selected in the Available properties for column list at the current cursor position in the Expression field.

Category

Select a category of functions to limit the choices in the Function list:

All functions

Binning functions

Conversion functions

Date and Time functions

Logical functions

Math functions

Operators

Property functions

Ranking functions

Spatial functions

Statistical functions

Text functions

Function

Select a function by clicking on it in the list and then click on the Insert Function button, or double-click on the function to send it to the Expression field.

Type a search string in the text field to limit the number of items in the Functions list.

You can also click on any function and type the first letter of the desired function name to jump to a specific location in the list.

Description

Shows a brief description of the selected function. For more detailed descriptions, see the Functions chapter.

Note: When you are using in-db (external) data tables the functions available depend on which functions are available in the external data source. See the documentation of your data source for more information about data source specific functions.

Insert Function

Inserts the selected function at the current cursor position in the Expression field.

Expression

This is the text field in which you build your expression. You can insert columns and functions from the lists, or enter text as in any standard text editor.

Cut/Copy/Paste works in the field using standard Ctrl+X/Ctrl+C/Ctrl+V.

Also, it is possible to undo/redo the last action by pressing Ctrl+Z.

Recent expressions

Displays the ten expressions you have most recently created. You can select one of these and click the Insert button to insert the expression into the Expression field.

Insert

Inserts the selected Recent expression into the Expression field. This will replace the entire content of the Expression field.

Resulting expression

Of interest when preprocessor functions (such as ${PropertyName}) are used in the expression only. Displays the expression after all occurrences of the property have been replaced with its current value or values.

Display name

The name of the new expression.

See also:

Custom Expressions Introduction

Custom Expressions Overview

Basic Custom Expressions

OVER in Custom Expressions

Advanced Custom Expressions

How to Insert a Custom Expression

Lines and Curves

Lines and Curves

Some of the visualization types can display additional information in reference lines or several different types of curves. This is set up in the properties dialog of each appropriate visualization type. Here, the Lines and Curves page of the scatter plot properties is shown:

LinesandCurves1.png

For example, you may want to show how well your data points adapt to a certain polynomial curve fit or to a logistic regression curve fit.

Curve fit (regression analysis) allows you to summarize a collection of sample data points by fitting them to a model that will describe the data and display a curve or a straight line on top of a visualization. The curve is normally not a fixed curve, but rather a line that can be changed upon changing the input data during filtering. However, you can always select to "freeze" the updating of a curve and only allow it to be updated manually.

Curve fitting can be used either to determine the parameter values of a known regression model or to find a model that fits the data better than other models. TIBCO Spotfire allows you to define your own curves, either directly from an expression or from an expression which is linked to a data table containing curve parameters. Note that whenever there is a reference to X or Y in lines or curves for a bar chart, X always refers to the category axis while Y refers to the value axis.

Transformations

The X- and Y-values used in the curve fitting are the plotted values, hence, they are affected by scaling. This means that if you use log scale you may want to apply a different curve fitting model than you would otherwise. For example, if you want to do logistic regression and have either log10-values or log10-scaled values on the X-axis, you should make sure to apply the setting "Assume that X is log10-transformed" in the Edit Curve dialog in order to obtain the expected results.

Limitations on data

Not all types of input data can be used to calculate curves using all different types of models.

All models require:

  • more than one data point to use in the calculation

  • that not all data points have the same X- and Y-values (lie on top of each other)

  • that not all data points have the same X-value

In addition, the logarithmic model, the power model and the logistic regression model require that all data points have positive X-values. The power model and the exponential model also require that all Y-values have the same sign (positive or negative).

The logistic regression requires that not all data points have the same Y-value. If any of the above limitations occur, no curve will be drawn and a notification will be displayed in the title bar of the visualization.

LinesandCurves2.png

If you choose to export your calculation, any error message shown in this tooltip will also appear in the column "Notes" of the resulting export file. Note that this column always exists in the export file. If there are no errors, it will be empty.

For more information about exporting Lines and Curves, see Lines & Curves properties of the appropriate visualizations.

See also:

Scatter Plot Properties - Lines & Curves

Line Chart Properties - Lines & Curves

Box Plot Properties - Lines & Curves

Bar Chart Properties - Lines & Curves

Combination Chart Propterties - Lines & Curves

Curve Fit Models

Curve Fit Theory

Curve Fit Models

There are several different models available for curve fitting. See Lines and Curves for information about how to apply the various curves.

Straight Line

The straight line fit is calculated by choosing the line that minimizes the least square sum of the vertical distance d, of all the selected markers (see picture below) by using the following equation:

CurveFitModels1.png

where a is the intercept and b is the slope.

For example, you could plot days along the X-axis and have one marker for each day. The distance between the markers along the X-axis is the same, thus making straight line fit appropriate.

 

images/dsb_straight_line_fit2.png

Logarithmic

The logarithmic fit calculates the least squares fit through points by using the following equation:

CurveFitModels3.png

where a and b are constants and ln is the natural logarithm function. This model requires that x>0 for all data points.  Spotfire uses a nonlinear regression method for this calculation. This will result in better accuracy of the calculation compared to using linear regression on transformed values only.

Exponential

The exponential fit calculates the least squares fit through points by using the following equation:

CurveFitModels4.png

where a and b are constants, and e is the base of the natural logarithm.

Exponential models are commonly used in biological applications, for example, for exponential growth of bacteria. Spotfire uses a nonlinear regression method for this calculation. This will result in better accuracy of the calculation compared to using linear regression on transformed values only.

Power

The Power fit calculates the least squares fit through points by using the following equation:

CurveFitModels5.png

where a and b are constants. This model requires that x>0 for all data points, and either that all y>0 or all y<0. Spotfire uses a nonlinear regression method for this calculation. This will result in better accuracy of the calculation compared to using linear regression on transformed values only.

Logistic Regression

The logistic regression fit is a dose response ("IC50") model, also known as sigmoidal dose response. The four parameter logistic model is the most important one.

Dose-response curves describe the relationship between response to drug treatment and drug dose or concentration. These types of curves are often semi-logarithmic, with log (drug concentration) on the X-axis. On the Y-axis one can show measurements of enzyme activity, accumulation of an intracellular second messenger or measurements of heart rate or muscle contraction.

Note: The logistic regression model of Spotfire is implemented with a setting where you can select whether or not to assume that X is log10-transformed. The default setting is a selected check box, which means that if your input data is not logarithmic, you should make sure to clear the check box in the Edit Curve dialog. You might also want to select the Log scale check box on the X-axis page in the Visualization Properties dialog, to show the values on a logarithmic scale.

 

Log10-transformed X-values:

The logistic regression on logged X-values fit uses the following equation:

CurveFitModels6.png

The LoggedX50 value is interpreted as the Log10(X50). For example, if the H30+ concentration at IC50 has a pH of 3, then the LoggedX50 = -3.

Note: With this model, it is the logged X50 values that are estimated and not the actual X50.

 

Non-logarithmic X-values:

The logistic regression fit when not assuming logged X-values uses the following equation:

CurveFitModels7.png

where min and max are the lower and upper asymptotes of the curve, Hill is the slope of the curve at its midpoint and X50 is the x-coordinate of the inflection point (x, y). This model requires that x>0 for all data points and that you use at least four records to calculate the curve.

CurveFitModels8.png

Polynomial

The polynomial curve fit calculates the least squares fit through points by using the following equation:

CurveFitModels9.png

where a0, a1, a2, etc., are constants. The default order is a 2nd order polynomial, but you can change the degree in the Edit Curve dialog. This model requires that you use at least three markers to calculate the curve for a 2nd order polynomial model, and four markers for a 3rd order polynomial, etc.

If you have a low number of unique x-values, a polynomial curve can be calculated in an unlimited number of ways. This means that you may end up with a curve that does not look as expected. If this should happen, you probably should not apply this model to your data.

Some of the models have been partially solved by using the LAPACK software package, see References.

Gaussian

The Gaussian curve fit calculates a bell curve suitable to describe normal distributions using the following equation:

CurveFitModels10.png

where A is the amplitude of the curve, E is the position of the center of the curve and G is the width.

In TIBCO Spotfire, you have the possibility to let the application calculate values on the parameters A, E and G automatically from the available data. You can also specify one or more of the parameters yourself.

See also:

Lines and Curves

Curve Fit Theory

Curve Fit Theory

Generally, curve fit algorithms determine the best-fit parameters by minimizing a chosen merit function. In order to optimize the merit function, it is necessary to select a set of initial parameter estimates and then iteratively refine the merit parameters until the merit function does not change significantly between iterations. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm has been used for nonlinear least squares calculations in the current implementation.

The goodness of fit is shown as an R2-value. A value of R2=1.0 indicates a perfect fit, whereas R2=0.0 indicates that the regression model might be unsuitable for this type of data.

R2

The R2-value measures how much of the variation in the data points can be explained by the selected regression model:

 

CurveFitTheory.png       

where

(the regression sum of squares)

 (the residual or error sum of squares)

 (the total sum of squares, SST= SSE+SSR)

and CurveFitTheory1.png represents the ith fitted value (calculated using the selected model) of the dependent variable Y.

Limitations to curve fitting

Since the calculation of the curve is an iterative process, the calculation must stop somewhere. In some cases, the maximum number of iterations might be reached before the best possible curve has been calculated. In that case, a message in the title bar of the visualization will inform you of this. In some cases, for example if the data is widely scattered or too few data points are available, the iterative process might also result in a curve that converges on a false minimum.

When a model is applied during data analysis, it is important not only to look at the R2-value and how well the curve fits the current markers in the scatter plot, but also to consider what the curve would look like for more extreme values and determine whether the model is reasonable in a scientific or statistical context. The number of unique x-values must be larger than, or equal to, the number of degrees of freedom in order to obtain a unique curve. If the curve can be solved in an infinite number of ways, it is not certain that the presented curve will be relevant to your data.

References

Heath, M.T., (2002), Scientific Computing: An Introductory Survey, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.

Anderson, E., Bai, Z., Bischof, C., Blackford, S., Demmel, J., Dongarra, J., Du Croz, J., Greenbaum, A., Hammarling, S., McKenney, A., Sorensen, D., (1999), LAPACK Users' Guide, 3rd ed., Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, PA, ISBN = 0-89871-447-8

See also:

Lines and Curves

Curve Fit Models

Details

Details on Horizontal/Vertical Line

Lines can currently be shown in the bar chart, line chart, combination chart, scatter plot and box plot visualizations.

  • To reach the Horizontal Line or Vertical Line dialog:

  1. In the Visualization Properties dialog of any of the above mentioned visualizations, go to the Lines & Curves page.

  2. Click on Add and select to add either a horizontal or vertical line.

    Comment: Selecting a previously added horizontal or vertical line and clicking on Edit... also opens this dialog.

DetailsonHorizontal-VerticalLine.png

Option

Description

Line position

Specifies the type of line that you wish to add.

   Fixed value

Adds a straight line at the defined value for the selected axis.

   Aggregated value

Adds a straight line at the selected aggregation of values for the selected values.

   Column property value

Adds a straight line at the specified column property value. All numerical column properties, both predefined and custom properties, are available for selection.

   Custom expression

Adds a line at the specified custom expression.

   Edit...

Opens the Custom Expression dialog, where you can select between columns and functions to define your expression.

   Use axis transform in line calculation

Select this check box to apply the same axis transform, i.e., a log scale, to the reference line as has been previously specified on the page for the axis. A reversion of the axis is always applied.

Line name

Specifies whether an Automatic line name should be created, or whether you instead wish to type a Custom line name.

Note: If you change the orientation of the bars in a bar chart, any added lines will automatically switch orientation as well. For example, if you have added a horizontal line to a vertical bar chart and then switch to horizontal bars, the line will automatically become a vertical line.

See also:

Lines and Curves

Details on Naming Curve

This dialog is shown when you add or edit a Straight Line Fit, a Power Curve Fit, a Logarithmic Curve Fit or an Exponential Curve Fit from the Lines & Curves page of the Visualization Properties dialog.

This dialog allows you to name your curve automatically or to set a custom name. The other Lines and Curves have additional settings.

DetailsonNamingCurve.png

Option

Description

Curve name

Specifies whether an Automatic line name should be created, or whether you instead wish to type a Custom line name.

See also:

Curve Fit Models

Details on Logistic Regression Curve Fit

Details on Polynomial Curve Fit

Details on Logistic Regression Curve Fit

This dialog is shown when you add or edit a Logistic Regression curve fit from the Lines & Curves page of the Visualization Properties dialog (only available for some visualization types).

DetailsonLogisticRegressionCurveFit.png

Option

Description

Min

Allows you to specify a minimum value to be used in the calculation.

Max

Allows you to specify a maximum value to be used in the calculation.

Assume that X is log10-transformed

Select this check box if the X-axis values are log10-transformed. Clear the check box if the values are non-logarithmic.

Curve name

Specifies whether an Automatic curve name should be created, or whether you instead wish to type a Custom curve name.

Leaving the fields blank will let the application automatically create min and max values based on the currently available data used for calculation.

See also:

Lines and Curves

Curve Fit Models

Details on Polynomial Curve Fit

This dialog is shown when you add or edit a polynomial curve fit from the Lines & Curves page of the Visualization Properties dialog (only available for some visualization types).

DetailsonPolynomialCurveFit.png

Option

Description

Degree

Specifies the order of the polynomial to use in the curve fit.

Curve name

Specifies whether an Automatic line name should be created, or whether you instead wish to type a Custom line name.

See also:

Lines and Curves

Curve Fit Models

Details on Curve Draw

DetailsonCurveDraw.png

Option

Description

Category

Select a category of functions to limit the choices in the Function list:

Binning functions

Conversion functions

Date and Time functions

Logical functions

Math functions

Operators

Property functions

Ranking functions

Statistical functions

Text functions

Function

Select a function by clicking on it in the list and then click on the Insert Function button to send it to the Curve expression field.

Type a search string in the text field to limit the number of items in the Functions list.

You can also click on any function and type the first letter of the desired function name to jump to a specific location in the list.

Description

Shows a brief description of the selected function. For more detailed descriptions, see the Functions chapter.

Insert Function

Inserts the selected function at the current cursor position in the Curve expression field.

Curve expression y(x)

This is the text field in which you build your expression. You can insert functions from the lists, or enter text as in any standard text editor.

Cut/Copy/Paste works in the field using standard Ctrl+X/Ctrl+C/Ctrl+V.

It is also possible to undo/redo the last action by pressing Ctrl+Z.

Status

Displays the status of the current expression. If this field shows an error, there is a problem with the expression.

Curve name

Specifies whether an Automatic curve name should be created, or whether you instead wish to type a Custom curve name.

See also:

Lines and Curves

Curve Fit Models

Details on Curve from Data Table

This dialog is shown when you add or edit a curve from data table from the Lines & Curves page of the Visualization Properties dialog (only available for some visualization types). It allows you to specify a custom curve expression which makes use of parameters available in a specified data table.

DetailsonCurvefromDataTable.png

Option

Description

Data table with curve parameters

Lists the available data tables in the analysis. Select the data table that contains the curve parameters you wish to use in the definition of the curve.

Expression

Type the curve expression containing the independent variable (normally x) and any other parameters that are defined in the selected data table.

All variables in the expression, except for the independent variable, must have corresponding columns in the parameter table.

Note: The columns that are used for relations between the data table and the parameter table cannot be used as variables in the expression or as result variables.

Edit...

Opens the Edit Expression dialog where you can select between columns and functions to define your expression.

Columns for label and tooltip

Lists the columns from the data table selected above that also should be used in the label and/or tooltip for the curve. You can change whether to display the contents from the column in the label, in the tooltip or in both using the Label and Tooltip dialog.

Select...

Opens the Select Columns dialog where you can select the columns that should be possible to use in the label and/or tooltip for a curve.

Curve name

Specifies whether an Automatic line name should be created, or whether you instead wish to type a Custom line name.

See also:

Lines and Curves

Curve Fit Models

Details on Line from Column Values

Use this alternative if you want to display lines based on X and Y coordinates that already exist in two columns of your analysis. For example, coordinate values could be calculated from the input data using a statistical calculation in a data function and the output result could be presented as coordinate values for a curve.

When the line is drawn from column values it is also possible to show predictive values, if these are available:

DetailsonLinefromColumnValues.png

Note that lines cannot be drawn when categorical scales are used on the axes.

 

Option

Description

Data table with line values

Lists the available data tables in the analysis. Select the data table with the coordinate values.

X-values column

Select the column in the data table that holds the X-axis coordinate values.
(In a bar chart, this refers to the category axis coordinate values.)

Y-values column

Select the column in the data table that holds the Y-axis coordinate values.
(In a bar chart, this refers to the value axis coordinate values.)

Sorted by column

If desired, select a column to sort the values by. If none is selected, the line is drawn in the order of appearance of all values.

Empty values

 

   Ignore (skip) empty values

Click this radio button to ignore any missing values and continue the line using the next coordinate pair.

   Split curve at empty values

Click this radio button to split the curve once an empty value is encountered.

Curve name

 

  Automatic

Sets an automatic name for the line.

  Custom

Allows you to set a custom name for the line by typing a name in the text field.

See also:

Lines and Curves

Details on Line from Data Table

Use this alternative if you want to add lines to a visualization based on an existing data table in your analysis. A simple example is if you have a data table with number of sales for two different products on different dates, you can also have a data table with the minimum acceptable number of sales on any given day for the different products. If the data with number of sales is set as a visualization, you can add lines from the minimum number of sales data table. This gives you an easy way of seeing whether any products have fewer sales than you expect.

DetailsonLinefromDataTable.png

Option

Description

Data table with line positions

Lists the available data tables in the analysis.

Column

Select the column in the data table from which you want to create your reference line.

Columns for label and tooltip

Lists the columns from the data table selected above that should also be used in the label and/or tooltip for the line. You can change whether to display the contents from the column in the label, in the tooltip or in both using the Label and Tooltip dialog.

Select...

Opens the Select Columns dialog where you can select the columns that should be possible to use in a line's label and/or tooltip.

Curve name

 

  Automatic

Sets an automatic name for the line.

  Custom

Allows you to set a custom name for the line by typing a name in the text field.

See also:

Lines and Curves

Details on Gaussian Curve Fit

This dialog is shown when you add or edit a Gaussian curve fit from the Lines & Curves page of the Visualization Properties dialog (only available for some visualization types).

DetailsonGaussianCurveFit.png

Option

Description

Gaussian curve parameters

 

   Position (E)

Allows you to specify the position of the center point for the Gaussian distribution curve.

   Width (G)

Allows you to specify the width of the Gaussian distribution curve.

   Amplitude (A)

Allows you to specify the altitude (height) of the Gaussian distribution curve.

Curve name

Specifies whether an Automatic curve name should be created, or whether you instead wish to type a Custom curve name.

Leaving the curve parameter fields blank will let the application automatically create curve parameter values based on the currently used data.

Note that if you specify curve parameters that are very far away from the data values, no curve will be drawn.

See also:

Lines and Curves

Curve Fit Models

Details on Edit Expression

This dialog is shown when you add or edit a curve from data table from the Lines & Curves page of the Visualization Properties dialog (only available for some visualization types) and you click Edit... in the Curve from Data Table dialog.

DetailsonEditExpression.png

Option

Description

Available variables

Shows all variables found in the data table that you can use in the calculation of the curve.

Select a column by clicking on it in the list and then click on the Insert Columns button, or double-click on the column to send it to the Expression field. Press Ctrl or Shift to select multiple columns.

Insert Variable

Inserts the variables selected in the Available variables list at the current cursor position in the Expression field.

Category

Select a category of functions to limit the choices in the Function list:

Binning functions

Conversion functions

Date and Time functions

Logical functions

Math functions

Operators

Property functions

Ranking functions

Statistical functions

Text functions

Function

Select a function by clicking on it in the list and then click on the Insert Function button to send it to the Curve expression field.

Type a search string in the text field to limit the number of items in the Functions list.

You can also click on any function and type the first letter of the desired function name to jump to a specific location in the list.

Description

Shows a brief description of the selected function. For more detailed descriptions, see the Functions chapter.

Insert Function

Inserts the selected function at the current cursor position in the Curve expression field.

Curve expression y(x):

This is the text field in which you build your expression. You can insert functions from the lists, or enter text as in any standard text editor.

Cut/Copy/Paste works in the field using standard Ctrl+X/Ctrl+C/Ctrl+V.

Also, it is possible to undo/redo the last action by pressing Ctrl+Z.

Status

Displays the status of the current expression. If this field shows an error, there is a problem with the expression.

See also:

Lines and Curves

Curve Fit Models

Details on Label and Tooltip

This dialog handles what should be shown in the label and/or tooltip of a selected line, curve or point.

  • To reach the Label and Tooltip dialog:

  1. In the Visualization Properties dialog of a visualization that supports lines and curves, go to the Lines & Curves page.

  2. Click to select the line or curve of interest in the Visible lines and curves list.

  3. Click on the Label and Tooltip... button under Settings.

DetailsonLabelandTooltip.png

Option

Description

Display the following values

Lists the available values that can be selected to be displayed in the label, tooltip or both.

For Line from Data Table and Curve from Data Table you can make columns from the additional data table available here while setting up the line or curve using the Columns for label and tooltip field.

Select the corresponding check box to include a value in the label or tooltip.

Format...

Opens the Formatting dialog where you can change the value formatting of the values in the curve expression.

See also:

Lines and Curves

Formatting

Formatting Overview

Formatting is giving a value meaning by adding units of measurements, thousands and decimal separators, and other information. Locale settings, determined by Windows Regional Settings, are used to determine formatting, but you can also make certain changes yourself, such as whether to show thousands separators or how many decimals to show.

Formatting does not include visual properties, such as color, font, or size.

Example: If you have Windows Regional Settings set to Swedish and select to show thousands separators and the numbers are in US currency, you will get formatted values such as $1.000.000,00. If you change your locale settings to US English, the value will be re-formatted into $1,000,000.00.

Which formatting options are available depends on the data type of the value. Text cannot be formatted at all, while an integer has several different possibilities. An integer can, among other things, be formatted as a number, currency and as percentage. You can set the number of decimals to be displayed, as well as whether or not to use a thousands separator. Another possibility is to use short number format, which is a way to shorten values to take up less space by replacing powers of tens with symbols. See Short Number Format to learn more. You can apply formatting to your data on different levels and you can access the settings in different ways as described below.

Default axis formatting

In the Options dialog you can set default formatting for data types on the visualization axes. For example, if you set the data type integer to be formatted as US currency ($) with two decimals, then each time you create a new visualization in Spotfire, values on an axis with integers will be displayed as US currency with two decimals. Note that these default formatting settings do not affect the columns or the data tables in any way, only the axes in the visualizations.

To reach the default settings, open the Tools menu, select Options and go to the Axis Formatting page in the dialog.

Column formatting

If you want a specific column in a data table to be formatted in a certain way throughout the analysis, you can format values on a column level. For example, if you format a column called "Cost" as US currency ($) with two decimals, the values in the column "Cost" will be displayed as US currency with two decimals every time that column is used. These settings affect all the places where the column is used in the analysis, including axes in visualizations, filters, tooltips, etc., and changes take effect immediately. Column formatting overrides formatting on default axis formatting level.

To change formatting settings on column level, open the Edit menu, select Column Properties and go to the Formatting tab. You can also right-click on a filter in the filters panel, and then select Format Values... from the menu to format on column level.

Formatting in visualizations

You can format values in individual visualizations. For example, if you format the values on the X-axis of a scatter plot as Number with no decimals, the values on the X-axis in that scatter plot will be instantly updated with the new formatting settings. The Y-axis in the scatter plot will not be affected by the new settings, and no other visualizations in the analysis will adopt the changes. Formatting on this level overrides settings on both the default axis level and on the column level. You can define formatting settings on the axes in many of the visualizations, but not all. Formatting on visualization level is similar in all kinds of visualizations, but the cross table differs slightly and is described in Formatting in the Cross Table.

To change formatting settings on the visualization level, right-click in the visualization, select Properties from the pop-up menu, and then open the Formatting page. You can also right-click directly on the scale labels of a visualization to open a pop-up menu, then select Formatting and the formatter you want to use for the axis.

If you use multiple scales in a visualization, you can format each of the scales individually the same way you format an axis in a visualization. However, if there is more than one scale on the same side of an axis in a visualization, you cannot format the scales on that side separately by right-clicking directly on the scale. This will instead change the settings for all scales. However, you can still format the scales separately from the Formatting page in the properties dialog.

No matter on which level you format, the options are the same. See Formatting Settings to get a full description of all the options.

See also:

Formatting Settings

Details on Column Properties - Formatting

Axis Formatting

Short Number Format

Formatting Settings

FormattingSettings.png

The image above shows the Formatting page of a Scatter Plot Properties dialog. The lower part of the dialog contains the formatting settings and is the same for all the dialogs where you can change formatting settings. The Category list displays the available categories for the selected axis, column or data type depending on whether you are changing formatting settings on visualization level, column level, or default settings level respectively. Each category in this list has separate settings, as shown below. What categories are available depends on the data type of the selected column. For general information about formatting, see Formatting Overview.

Option

Description

General

A general, non-configurable format, with a variable number of decimals and no thousands separator. The number is converted to the most compact of either fixed-point or scientific notation. A minus sign is always used for negative values.

Examples:

1

12345

1.23456E-6

-12345

Currency

A number format for currencies. A currency culture may be other than the current culture. In this case number formatting is according to current culture, but currency symbol and pattern is defined by the specified currency culture.

Examples:

$ 1234.45

¥1,234

-1,234.45 kr

($ 1,234.45)

      Decimals

Specifies the number of decimals (0-15) to display. An additional alternative (Auto) is also available. If you select (Auto), the number of decimals will be different from one number to another since trailing zeros will not be included.

Examples:

1,234.560700 (Six decimals)

1,234.560 (Three decimals)

1,234.56 (Two decimals)

1,234.5607 (Auto)

      Use thousands separator

Specifies whether to use a thousands separator (digit grouping symbol in Windows Regional Settings) or not. The grouping symbol cannot be explicitly specified (only through Windows Regional Settings).

      Currency

Specifies the currency type (kr, £, $, etc.) and placement.

      Negative numbers

Specifies the pattern used for displaying negative numbers [-1.23 or (1.23)]. Note: The negative number format setting in Windows Regional Settings is ignored.

      Use short number format

Use this option if you want to shorten numerical values to take up less space. For example, 1,000 can be formatted to 1k. Select which symbol set to use from the drop-down list. To learn more, see Short Number Format.

Percentage

A percentage number format, where percentage symbol and format pattern is culture specific. The converted number is multiplied by 100 in order to be presented as percentage. A minus sign is always used for negative values.

Examples:

100.00 %

- 99 %

      Decimals

Specifies the number of decimals (0-15) to display. An additional alternative (Auto) is also available. If you select (Auto), the number of decimals will be different from one number to another since trailing zeros will not be included.

Examples:

1,234.560700 (Six decimals)

1,234.560 (Three decimals)

1,234.56 (Two decimals)

1,234.5607 (Auto)

      Use thousands separator

Specifies whether to use a thousands separator (digit grouping symbol in Windows Regional Settings) or not. The grouping symbol cannot be explicitly specified (only through Windows Regional Settings).

Scientific

A number format for scientific notation with a fixed number of decimals. A minus sign is always used for negative values.

Examples:

1.00000E+099

5.6E-001

-5.6E-001

      Decimals

Specifies the number of decimals to display (0-15).

Number

A configurable number format.

Examples:

1234.45

1,234.45

-1,234.45

(1,234.45)

      Decimals

Specifies the number of decimals (0-15) to display. An additional alternative (Auto) is also available. If you select (Auto), the number of decimals will be different from one number to another since trailing zeros will not be included.

Examples:

1,234.560700 (Six decimals)

1,234.560 (Three decimals)

1,234.56 (Two decimals)

1,234.5607 (Auto)

      Use thousands separator

Specifies whether to use a thousands separator (digit grouping symbol in Windows Regional Settings) or not. The grouping symbol cannot be explicitly specified (only through Windows Regional Settings).

      Negative numbers

Specifies the pattern used for displaying negative numbers [-1.23 or (1.23)]. Note: The negative number format setting in Windows Regional Settings is ignored.

      Use short number format

Use this option if you want to shorten numerical values to take up less space. For example, 1,000 can be formatted to 1k. Select which symbol set to use from the drop-down list. To learn more, see Short Number Format.

Custom

A highly configurable number format, which supports custom format specifiers (similar to Excel).

Examples:

(1.234E+099)

999,999.00 Dollars

      Format string

Allows you to specify a custom format string. For details on how you can write these strings, see the Format String page.

Text

A text format used for strings. It cannot be configured.

DateTime

A format which can be used to display dates, times or both dates and times.

      Type

Allows you to select the form on which the date and/or time should be displayed from a predefined list (what you will see in the list is dependent on the locale).

Examples:

• Short date: 10/16/2009

• Long date: Friday, October 16, 2009

• Short time: 3:25 PM

• Long time: 3:25:55 PM

• Short date/short time: 10/16/2009 3:25 PM

• Short date/long time: 10/16/2009 3:25:55 PM

• Long date/short time: Friday, October 16, 2009 3:25 PM

• Long date/long time: Friday, October 16, 2009 3:25:55 PM

• Month day: October 16

• RFC1123 : Fri, 16 Oct 2009 15:25:55 GMT

• Sortable (ISO 8601): 2009-10-16T15:25:55

• Year month: October, 2009

      Custom

Allows you to specify a custom format string. For details on how you can write these strings, see the Format String page.

Examples:

"d" Short date pattern

"T" Long time pattern

"G" General date/time pattern

Date

A format which can be used to display dates.

      Type

Allows you to select the form on which the date should be displayed from a predefined list (what you will see in the list is dependent on the locale).

Examples:

• 10/16/2009

• Friday, October 16, 2009

• October 16

• October, 2009

• 16/Oct/09

• 16/Oct/2009

• 16-Oct-09

• 16-Oct-2009

      Custom

Allows you to specify a custom format string. For details on how you can write these strings, see the Format String page.

Time

A format which can be used to display times.

      Type

Allows you to select the form on which the time should be displayed from a predefined list (what you will see in the list is dependent on the locale).

Examples:

• Short time: 8:32 AM

• Long time: 8:32:24 AM

      Custom

Allows you to specify a custom Time format string. For details on how you can write these strings, see the Format String page.

TimeSpan

A format which can be used to display time spans.

      Type

Allows you to select the form on which the time span should be displayed from a predefined list.

Examples:

• 25 d

• 25 d 09 h 03 m 07 s 015 ms

• 25 days 09 hours 03 minutes 07 seconds 015 milliseconds

• 25.9:3:7:015

• 09:03:07.015

      Custom

Allows you to specify a custom TimeSpan format string. For details on how you can write these strings, see the Format String page.

Boolean

A format used to display boolean data.

      Type

Allows you to select the form on which the boolean values should be displayed.

Examples:

• True / False

• 1 / 0

Sample

Displays a sample of what a value in the column would look like with the current settings applied.

See also:

Formatting Overview

Axis Formatting

Column Properties - Formatting

Short Number Format

Cross Table Properties - Formatting

Bar Chart Properties - Formatting

Line Chart Properties - Formatting

Parallel Coordinate Plot Properties - Formatting

Scatter Plot Properties - Formatting

3D Scatter Plot Properties - Formatting

Box Plot Properties - Formatting

Combination Chart Properties - Formatting

Data Types

Format String

If the format you want to use cannot be created with the given settings, the custom format string allows you to create your own formats using a code explained in the examples below.

The special characters allow you to multiply, divide, separate numbers, etc. Other characters are printed out in the resulting data.

Custom Numeric Format Strings

Special characters:

Character

Description

0

Always returns a value for the position it is written in. If there is no number in its place in the data, 0 (zero) will be used.

#

Returns values if there are numbers in its place in the data.

If used to the left of the decimal point, all digits are returned even if there is one # in the format string and three digits in the data.

If used to the right of the decimal point, the same number of digits are returned as there are # to the right of the decimal point, and the number gets rounded up or down.

See example below.

,

If used before a decimal point, divide the number in the data by 1000.

Note: A difference from Excel is that Excel allows for "," as divider after the decimal point as well.

%

Multiplies the number by 100 and inserts a "%" in the number in the location it is written in the format string.

.

Decimal point.

Note: If no decimal point is used and there are decimals in the value you apply the format string on, the value gets rounded up or down.

;

Used to divide a format string if different formats are to be used for positive numbers, negative numbers and 0 (zero).

 

If no semicolon is used, the format string is used for all numbers.

 

If one semicolon is used, it divides the format string like this:

String for positive numbers and zero;String for negative numbers

 

If two semicolons are used, they divide the format string like this:

String for positive numbers;String for negative numbers;String for zero

\

If a "\" is added before a special character that character will not modify the number, the character will only be added to the value.

Examples:

Note: All these examples use the number 12345.67 as the value from the data.

Format string

Result

# ####

1 2346

#.#

12345.7

#.000

12345.670

#,.#

12.3

#,,.##

.01

#%

1234567%

#\%

12345.67%

$#

$12346

#.##E+0

1.23E+4

#.#;(#.#)

12345.7

Note: Had the number been negative, the result would be:

(12345.7)

23

23

See literature about custom numeric format strings, for example, on MSDN, for more information.

Custom DateTime Format Strings

Below are some examples of custom format strings for datetime formats. See literature about custom datetime format strings, such as that on MSDN, for more information.

Character

Description

yy

Returns the year, measured as a number between 0 and 99.

yyyy

Returns the year as a four-digit number.

M

Returns the month, measured as a number between 1 and 12, with one or two digits depending on the value.

MM

Returns the month with two digits, measured as a number between 1 and 12. This means that June will be written as '06', when this format string is applied.

MMM

Returns the abbreviated name of the month. For example, 'Jun'.

MMMM

Returns the full name of the month. For example, 'June'.

d

Returns the day of the month, measured as a number between 1 and 31, with one or two digits depending on the value.

dd

Returns the day of the month with two digits, measured as a number between 1 and 31. This means that the 6th of a month will be written as '06', when this format string is applied.

ddd

Returns the abbreviated name of the day of the week. For example, 'Fri'.

dddd

Returns the full name of the day of the week. For example, 'Friday'.

h

Returns the hour using a 12-hour clock, with one or two digits depending on the value.

hh

Returns the hour using a 12-hour clock, with two digits. This means that 6 o'clock will be written as '06', when this format string is applied.

H

Returns the hour using a 24-hour clock, with one or two digits depending on the value.

HH

Returns the hour using a 24-hour clock, with two digits. This means that 6 o'clock in the morning will be written as '06' and 6 o'clock in the evening will be written as '18', when this format string is applied.

m

Returns the minute with one or two digits, depending on the value.

mm

Returns the minute with two digits. This means that six minutes will be written as '06', when this format string is applied.

s

Returns the second with one or two digits, depending on the value.

ss

Returns the second with two digits. This means that six seconds will be written as '06', when this format string is applied.

f

Returns the tenths of a second.

ff

Returns the hundredths of a second.

fff

Returns the milliseconds.

tt

Returns the AM/PM designator.

:

Returns the time separator.

/

Returns the date separator.

You can also add any custom string value, but if any of the specifier characters are included in the string, they need to be escaped by a backslash (\).

Examples:

Note: All the examples below use the following value from the data: Friday, October 16, 2009, at 25 minutes past three in the afternoon.

Format string

Result

dd\t\h o\f MMMM yyyy

16th of October 2009

MMM d yyyy, HH:mm

Oct 16 2009, 15:25

\year: YY, \mon\t\h: MM, \da\y: dd

year: 09, month: 10, day: 16

hh:mm tt

03:25 PM

m \minu\te\s pa\s\t h, MMM d

25 minutes past 3, Oct 16

Custom TimeSpan Format Strings

There are five different data values included in the TimeSpan format: day, hour, minute, second and fractions of seconds. These can be combined to a suitable format using a format string built by the following specifier characters:

Character

Description

d

Returns the number of days.

h

Returns the number of hours with one or two digits, depending on the value.

hh

Returns the number of hours with two digits. This means that six hours will be written as '06', when this format string is applied.

m

Returns the number of minutes with one or two digits, depending on the value.

mm

Returns the number of minutes with two digits. This means that six minutes will be written as '06', when this format string is applied.

s

Returns the number of seconds with one or two digits, depending on the value.

ss

Returns the number of seconds with two digits. This means that six seconds will be written as '06', when this format string is applied.

f

Returns the fractions of seconds. You can also add a number between 1 and 3 after the 'f', defining how many decimals will be shown. If no number has been specified, three numbers will be shown, if available.

Between each specifier character, you need to supply some kind of separator. This could be a custom string value, but if any of the specifier characters are included in the string, they need to be escaped by a backslash (\). You can also include an initial and a conclusive string.

Examples:

Note: All the examples below use the following value from the data:  -5 days, 7 hours, 11 minutes 3.1234 seconds.

Format string

Result

d.h:m:s.f

-5.7:11:3.123

d.hh:mm:ss.f2

5.07:11:03.12

Ti\me\span i\s d \day\s

Timespan is -5 days

d \day\s h \hour\s m \minute\s s \secon\d\s

-5 days 7 hours 11 minutes 3 seconds

f s m h d

123 3 11 7 -5

See also:

Formatting Overview

Formatting Settings

Details on Formatting

Short Number Format

If the values on an axis or a column are numerical, you can choose to display them in short number format. This means that values with many digits can be shortened to take up less space. For example, by using short number format you can set the number 1,000 to be displayed as 1k.

A standard symbol set is already defined and available to use. The defined symbols in the standard symbol set are M for 10^6, and k for 10^3. You cannot delete or change the standard symbol set. However, you can add your own symbol sets and define symbols of your choice.

As with other formatting settings, you can apply short number formatting in different ways and on different levels. For general information about formatting, see Formatting Overview.

  • To add a symbol set

  1. Open the Axis Formatting page in the Tools > Options dialog.

  2. Click on the Edit Symbol Sets... button.

  3. Click on the Add...  button in the upper part of the dialog.

  4. Type a name to use for the symbol set in the text field and click OK.

    Response: The new symbol set is added to the drop-down list.

  5. Click on the Add... button next to the Defined symbols list to add symbols to the symbol set.

  6. Enter an exponent and a symbol to replace it with.

    Response: The new Symbol is added to the list of Defined symbols.

See also:

Formatting Overview

Axis Formatting

Details on Add/Edit Symbol

Details on Add Symbol Set/Rename Symbol Set

Details on Edit Symbol Sets

Error Bars

Error bars are used to indicate the estimated error in a measurement. In other words, an error bar indicates the uncertainty in a value.

In Spotfire, you can use error bars in bar charts, line charts, and scatter plots. Bar charts and line charts can display vertical errors. Scatter plots can display both vertical and horizontal errors. The image below shows all four possible error bars on a scatter plot marker. However, upper and lower errors refer to the underlying data. This means that if you use reversed scales in a visualization, or change orientation of the bars in a bar chart, the error bars will also be reversed or change orientation respectively. For example, for a scatter plot with a reversed Y-axis, an upper vertical error will be displayed below the marker instead of above the marker. For a bar chart with horizontal bars and non-reversed scale, an upper horizontal error will be displayed to the right of the bar.

ErrorBars1.png

You can choose to show only one of the error bars, or any combination of them.

The length of an error bar indicates the uncertainty of the value. For example, for an average value, a long error bar means that the concentration of the values the average was calculated on is low, and thus that the average value is uncertain. Conversely, a short error bar means that the concentration of values is high, and thus, that the average value is more certain.

There are two different ways to set up error bars in Spotfire. For aggregated values, you can use one of the existing measures, such as standard error or standard deviation. The length of the error bars will then be calculated in Spotfire. In the example below, a bar chart shows the average sales for each month during one year. The statistical measure standard error was used to calculate the length of the upper error bars. No lower error bars were defined in this graph.

ErrorBars2.png

The other way to define error bars is to use the values in existing data table columns. You may, for example, have a data table where average values and error values have already been calculated, as in the table below. You can then use these columns to set up the error bars. In the scatter plot below, the Y-axis represents the column Average, and the upper and lower errors represent the two columns Upper Error and Lower Error respectively.

ErrorBars3.png               

By default, error bars are drawn relative to the marker position in the visualization, but for some measures this may not be what you want to display. Custom expressions could be helpful in those cases.

For example, if a marker represents an aggregated value such as sales average, you may want to display the maximum and minimum values as error bars. However, if you select the measure Min for the lower error, and the measure Max for the upper error, the error bars will not show the minimum and maximum values, since the bars are shown relative to the marker position. Instead, the upper error shows the average plus the maximum value, and the lower error shows the average minus the minimum value. To display the absolute minimum and maximum values, you need to use a custom expression. In this case the custom expression for the upper error should be Max([Sales])-Avg([Sales]), and for the lower error Avg([Sales])- Min([Sales]).

To learn more about using custom expressions, see Custom Expressions Introduction.

See one of the following sections to learn how to set up error bars for different visualization types: To add error bars to the bar chart, To add error bars to the line chart, or To add error bars to the scatter plot.

Note: When you are working with error bars in bar charts, make sure that the bar chart is displayed using Side-by-side bars. Open the Appearance page in the Bar Chart Properties dialog if you need to change the bar chart layout.

See also:

Bar Chart Properties - Error Bars

Line Chart Properties - Error Bars

Scatter Plot Properties - Error Bars

Custom Expressions Introduction

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