Table of contents
  1. Story
  2. Slides
  3. Spotfire Dashboard
  4. Research Notes
    1. Brand Niemann
    2. Marc Wine
  5. NIH Digital Summit
    1. Keynote Speakers
      1. Susannah Fox, Chief Technology Officer
      2. Dr. Richard Besser
    2. What
    3. Why
    4. When
    5. Where
    6. Agenda
      1. October 19: Morning Session
      2. October 19: Afternoon Session
    7. More information
  6. Health Online 2013
    1. Summary ofFindings 
    2. Part One: Information triage
      1. For one-third of U.S. adults, the internet is a diagnostic tool
      2. Eight in ten online health inquiries start at a search engine
      3. Clinicians are a central resource for information or support during serious health episodes – and the care and conversation take place mostly offline
      4. Half of online health inquiries are on behalf of someone else
      5. Specific diseases and treatments continue to dominate people’s online queries
      6. Seeking health information online
      7. Internet access drives information access
      8. Looking online for health information: demographics
      9. Younger adults and minorities lead the way with mobile health information search
      10. Half of smartphone owners have used their phone to look up health information
      11. Who Owns Smartphones
      12. One in four people seeking health information online have hit a pay wall
    3. Part Two: Peer-to-peer Healthcare
      1. Some seek counsel from fellow patients and caregivers
      2. Health care reviews have not caught on among general consumers
      3. Reviews and rankings online, 2010-2012
      4. Consulting reviews and rankings online, by age
      5. Consulting reviews and rankings online, by urbanity
      6. Consulting reviews and rankings online, by education
      7. Consulting reviews and rankings online, by annual household income
      8. Consulting vs. posting online health reviews and rankings
    4. Appendix
          1. Additional details about who has searched for specific health topics.
      1. Health Topics, by Age
      2. Health Topics, by Education
      3. Health Insurance Coverage, by Type of Insurance
      4. Health insurance coverage, by demographic group
      5. Posting Online Health Reviews and Rankings
      6. Survey questions
      7. Q1 Overall, how would you rate the quality of life for you and your family today? Would you say it is excellent, very good, good, fair or poor?
      8. Q2 Switching topics... In general, how would you rate your own health — excellent, good, only fair, or poor?
      9. Q3 Are you now living with any of the following health problems or conditions?
      10. Q4 In the last 12 months, have you personally
      11. Q5 Thinking about the LAST time you had a serious health issue or experienced any significant change in your physical health
      12. Q7 Thinking about the LAST time you went online for health or medical information... Did you go online to look for information related to YOUR OWN health or medical situation or SOMEONE ELSE’S health or medical situation?
      13. Q8 Still thinking about the LAST time you went online to look for health information... How did you begin looking? Did you start
      14. There is no Question Q9.
      15. Q10 When looking for health information online, have you ever been asked to PAY for access to something you wanted to see on the internet?
      16. Q11 The last time you were asked to PAY to access health content online, what did you do? Did you
      17. Q12 Have you ever gone online specifically to try to figure out what medical condition you or someone else might have?
      18. Q13 Did the information you found online lead you to think that this was a condition that needed the attention of a doctor or other medical professional, or that it was something you could take care of at home?
      19. Q14 Did you happen to talk with a medical professional about what you found online?
      20. Q15 Did a medical professional confirm what you thought the condition was with a medical diagnosis, did they offer a different medical opinion or diagnosis, or did you not visit a doctor or other medical professional for a diagnosis?
      21. Q16 Apart from looking for information online, there are many different activities related to health and medical issues a person might do on the internet.
      22. Q17 Still thinking just about the last 12 months, have you posted a health-related question online or shared your own personal health experience online in any way?
      23. Q18 And what was it that you posted or shared online?
      24. Q19 And the LAST time you posted or shared health material online, did you post it somewhere specifically to get feedback from a health professional, or did you post it somewhere it would be read by a more general audience of friends or other internet users?
      25. Q20 Thinking again about health-related activities you may or may not do online, have you
      26. Q21 Do you receive any TEXT updates or alerts about health or medical issues, such as from your doctors or pharmacists?
      27. Q22 On your cell phone, do you happen to have any software applications or “apps” that help you track or manage your health, or not?
      28. Q23 What kind of health apps do you currently have on your phone?
    5. Methodology
      1. Summary
      2. Sample Design
      3. Contact Procedures
        1. Table 1. SAMPWT by Stratum
        2. Table 2. Sample Demographic
        3. Table 3. Design Effects and Margins of Sampling Error
        4. Table 4. Sample Disposition
  7. NEXT

Data Science for NIH Digital Summit

Last modified
Table of contents
  1. Story
  2. Slides
  3. Spotfire Dashboard
  4. Research Notes
    1. Brand Niemann
    2. Marc Wine
  5. NIH Digital Summit
    1. Keynote Speakers
      1. Susannah Fox, Chief Technology Officer
      2. Dr. Richard Besser
    2. What
    3. Why
    4. When
    5. Where
    6. Agenda
      1. October 19: Morning Session
      2. October 19: Afternoon Session
    7. More information
  6. Health Online 2013
    1. Summary ofFindings 
    2. Part One: Information triage
      1. For one-third of U.S. adults, the internet is a diagnostic tool
      2. Eight in ten online health inquiries start at a search engine
      3. Clinicians are a central resource for information or support during serious health episodes – and the care and conversation take place mostly offline
      4. Half of online health inquiries are on behalf of someone else
      5. Specific diseases and treatments continue to dominate people’s online queries
      6. Seeking health information online
      7. Internet access drives information access
      8. Looking online for health information: demographics
      9. Younger adults and minorities lead the way with mobile health information search
      10. Half of smartphone owners have used their phone to look up health information
      11. Who Owns Smartphones
      12. One in four people seeking health information online have hit a pay wall
    3. Part Two: Peer-to-peer Healthcare
      1. Some seek counsel from fellow patients and caregivers
      2. Health care reviews have not caught on among general consumers
      3. Reviews and rankings online, 2010-2012
      4. Consulting reviews and rankings online, by age
      5. Consulting reviews and rankings online, by urbanity
      6. Consulting reviews and rankings online, by education
      7. Consulting reviews and rankings online, by annual household income
      8. Consulting vs. posting online health reviews and rankings
    4. Appendix
          1. Additional details about who has searched for specific health topics.
      1. Health Topics, by Age
      2. Health Topics, by Education
      3. Health Insurance Coverage, by Type of Insurance
      4. Health insurance coverage, by demographic group
      5. Posting Online Health Reviews and Rankings
      6. Survey questions
      7. Q1 Overall, how would you rate the quality of life for you and your family today? Would you say it is excellent, very good, good, fair or poor?
      8. Q2 Switching topics... In general, how would you rate your own health — excellent, good, only fair, or poor?
      9. Q3 Are you now living with any of the following health problems or conditions?
      10. Q4 In the last 12 months, have you personally
      11. Q5 Thinking about the LAST time you had a serious health issue or experienced any significant change in your physical health
      12. Q7 Thinking about the LAST time you went online for health or medical information... Did you go online to look for information related to YOUR OWN health or medical situation or SOMEONE ELSE’S health or medical situation?
      13. Q8 Still thinking about the LAST time you went online to look for health information... How did you begin looking? Did you start
      14. There is no Question Q9.
      15. Q10 When looking for health information online, have you ever been asked to PAY for access to something you wanted to see on the internet?
      16. Q11 The last time you were asked to PAY to access health content online, what did you do? Did you
      17. Q12 Have you ever gone online specifically to try to figure out what medical condition you or someone else might have?
      18. Q13 Did the information you found online lead you to think that this was a condition that needed the attention of a doctor or other medical professional, or that it was something you could take care of at home?
      19. Q14 Did you happen to talk with a medical professional about what you found online?
      20. Q15 Did a medical professional confirm what you thought the condition was with a medical diagnosis, did they offer a different medical opinion or diagnosis, or did you not visit a doctor or other medical professional for a diagnosis?
      21. Q16 Apart from looking for information online, there are many different activities related to health and medical issues a person might do on the internet.
      22. Q17 Still thinking just about the last 12 months, have you posted a health-related question online or shared your own personal health experience online in any way?
      23. Q18 And what was it that you posted or shared online?
      24. Q19 And the LAST time you posted or shared health material online, did you post it somewhere specifically to get feedback from a health professional, or did you post it somewhere it would be read by a more general audience of friends or other internet users?
      25. Q20 Thinking again about health-related activities you may or may not do online, have you
      26. Q21 Do you receive any TEXT updates or alerts about health or medical issues, such as from your doctors or pharmacists?
      27. Q22 On your cell phone, do you happen to have any software applications or “apps” that help you track or manage your health, or not?
      28. Q23 What kind of health apps do you currently have on your phone?
    5. Methodology
      1. Summary
      2. Sample Design
      3. Contact Procedures
        1. Table 1. SAMPWT by Stratum
        2. Table 2. Sample Demographic
        3. Table 3. Design Effects and Margins of Sampling Error
        4. Table 4. Sample Disposition
  7. NEXT

  1. Story
  2. Slides
  3. Spotfire Dashboard
  4. Research Notes
    1. Brand Niemann
    2. Marc Wine
  5. NIH Digital Summit
    1. Keynote Speakers
      1. Susannah Fox, Chief Technology Officer
      2. Dr. Richard Besser
    2. What
    3. Why
    4. When
    5. Where
    6. Agenda
      1. October 19: Morning Session
      2. October 19: Afternoon Session
    7. More information
  6. Health Online 2013
    1. Summary ofFindings 
    2. Part One: Information triage
      1. For one-third of U.S. adults, the internet is a diagnostic tool
      2. Eight in ten online health inquiries start at a search engine
      3. Clinicians are a central resource for information or support during serious health episodes – and the care and conversation take place mostly offline
      4. Half of online health inquiries are on behalf of someone else
      5. Specific diseases and treatments continue to dominate people’s online queries
      6. Seeking health information online
      7. Internet access drives information access
      8. Looking online for health information: demographics
      9. Younger adults and minorities lead the way with mobile health information search
      10. Half of smartphone owners have used their phone to look up health information
      11. Who Owns Smartphones
      12. One in four people seeking health information online have hit a pay wall
    3. Part Two: Peer-to-peer Healthcare
      1. Some seek counsel from fellow patients and caregivers
      2. Health care reviews have not caught on among general consumers
      3. Reviews and rankings online, 2010-2012
      4. Consulting reviews and rankings online, by age
      5. Consulting reviews and rankings online, by urbanity
      6. Consulting reviews and rankings online, by education
      7. Consulting reviews and rankings online, by annual household income
      8. Consulting vs. posting online health reviews and rankings
    4. Appendix
          1. Additional details about who has searched for specific health topics.
      1. Health Topics, by Age
      2. Health Topics, by Education
      3. Health Insurance Coverage, by Type of Insurance
      4. Health insurance coverage, by demographic group
      5. Posting Online Health Reviews and Rankings
      6. Survey questions
      7. Q1 Overall, how would you rate the quality of life for you and your family today? Would you say it is excellent, very good, good, fair or poor?
      8. Q2 Switching topics... In general, how would you rate your own health — excellent, good, only fair, or poor?
      9. Q3 Are you now living with any of the following health problems or conditions?
      10. Q4 In the last 12 months, have you personally
      11. Q5 Thinking about the LAST time you had a serious health issue or experienced any significant change in your physical health
      12. Q7 Thinking about the LAST time you went online for health or medical information... Did you go online to look for information related to YOUR OWN health or medical situation or SOMEONE ELSE’S health or medical situation?
      13. Q8 Still thinking about the LAST time you went online to look for health information... How did you begin looking? Did you start
      14. There is no Question Q9.
      15. Q10 When looking for health information online, have you ever been asked to PAY for access to something you wanted to see on the internet?
      16. Q11 The last time you were asked to PAY to access health content online, what did you do? Did you
      17. Q12 Have you ever gone online specifically to try to figure out what medical condition you or someone else might have?
      18. Q13 Did the information you found online lead you to think that this was a condition that needed the attention of a doctor or other medical professional, or that it was something you could take care of at home?
      19. Q14 Did you happen to talk with a medical professional about what you found online?
      20. Q15 Did a medical professional confirm what you thought the condition was with a medical diagnosis, did they offer a different medical opinion or diagnosis, or did you not visit a doctor or other medical professional for a diagnosis?
      21. Q16 Apart from looking for information online, there are many different activities related to health and medical issues a person might do on the internet.
      22. Q17 Still thinking just about the last 12 months, have you posted a health-related question online or shared your own personal health experience online in any way?
      23. Q18 And what was it that you posted or shared online?
      24. Q19 And the LAST time you posted or shared health material online, did you post it somewhere specifically to get feedback from a health professional, or did you post it somewhere it would be read by a more general audience of friends or other internet users?
      25. Q20 Thinking again about health-related activities you may or may not do online, have you
      26. Q21 Do you receive any TEXT updates or alerts about health or medical issues, such as from your doctors or pharmacists?
      27. Q22 On your cell phone, do you happen to have any software applications or “apps” that help you track or manage your health, or not?
      28. Q23 What kind of health apps do you currently have on your phone?
    5. Methodology
      1. Summary
      2. Sample Design
      3. Contact Procedures
        1. Table 1. SAMPWT by Stratum
        2. Table 2. Sample Demographic
        3. Table 3. Design Effects and Margins of Sampling Error
        4. Table 4. Sample Disposition
  7. NEXT

Story

Slides

Spotfire Dashboard

Research Notes

Brand Niemann

I have started to build a knowledge base at: http://semanticommunity.info/Data_Science/Data_Science_for_NIH_Digital_Summit

with the conference agenda and Pew Report by Susannah Fox and Maeve Duggan.

I do not think we could get Susannah Fox to attend our Meetup, but maybe Maeve Duggan and/or one of the panelists in Panels 3 and 4.

I asked this morning about the slides and got this response:

The event will be archived in a few days at http://www.videocast.nih.gov  so you will be able to see the slide presentations again that way. We have not discussed making the slide sets themselves available. If that changes, I will let you know.

I did screen captures for the afternoon slides so we can start to extract the URLs and start to find the actual data sets used in the apps.

For example in Slides 1 the URLs in the first few slides are:

http://phe.gov

http://asprtracle.hhs.gov

and so forth

The URLs in Slides 2

so we need to extract all the URLs from the slides and find the actual data sets.

We could also include any public health data sets that you have used previously or know about that would be appropriate here.

Marc Wine

Plus, please take a look at this, it is like what our friend Vivian Bernazi from NIH was discussing regarding electronic currency relative to the economics if the data commons environment.

"CONCLUSIONS: We find, theoretically, that developing such a HealthCoin may be feasible for a cure of diabetes. Extension of this work would explore how such HealthCoins can be traded within the private sector and also in other disease areas."

The Scientific Publications Database Index: http://www.ispor.org/RESEARCH_STUDY_DIGEST/research_index.asp

Can be digitized (see attached spreadsheet) and visualized in Spotfire. But the actual content is copyright so we cannot copy that into a Digital Commons.

NIH Digital Summit

Source: http://www.nih.gov/news/events/digital-summit.htm

Optimizing Digital To reach Patients, Scientists, Clinicians, and the Public

Keynote Speakers

Susannah Fox, Chief Technology Officer

SusannahFox.png

Source: http://www.hhs.gov/idealab/staff-ite...ology-officer/

Susannah Fox is the Chief Technology Officer of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Susannah most recently served as the Entrepreneur-in-Residence at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, helping to catalyze new ways to think about challenges and develop solutions that deliver impact. She has also advised organizations like the Collaborative Chronic Care Network as they work to improve care delivery by including people living with IBD, diabetes, and cystic fibrosis on their innovation teams.

From 2000-14, Susannah was an Associate Director of the Internet Project at the Pew Research Center where she helped quantify and explain the social impact of the internet. She pioneered participatory research methods at the Center in order to explore how information technology and social media affect the health care industry and the consumer health care experience, with a special focus on people living with chronic and rare conditions.

Susannah has a B.A. in Anthropology from Wesleyan University.

Email: Susannah [dot] Fox @ hhs [dot] gov

Dr. Richard Besser

abc_dr_richard_besser_thg_120416_wmain.jpg

Source: http://abcnews.go.com/News/dr-richar...ory?id=8214676

Dr. Richard Besser is ABC News' Chief Health and Medical Editor. In this role he provides medical analysis and reports for all ABC News programs and platforms, including "World News Tonight," "Good Morning America," “20/20,” "Nightline," ABC News Radio and “This Week with George Stephanopoulos.” His weekly health twitter chat #abcDrBchat and frequent Facebook chats reach millions.

Since joining ABC News in 2009, Dr. Besser has traveled all over the U.S. and the globe to cover major medical news stories. A pediatrician and infectious disease specialist, he walked the Ebola wards in Liberia on two trips in 2014, reporting from the center of the deadly epidemic, and continued to provide extensive coverage for months as cases were seen the United States. In 2012 Dr. Besser was the only journalist to be embedded with a team from the Center for Disease Control in Uganda, delivering a series of exclusive reports titled “Inside the Hot Zone: The Ebola Outbreak.” In 2011 Dr. Besser led ABC's global health coverage, "Be the Change: Save a Life," reporting on health issues vital to emerging nations from seven different countries.

Dr. Besser came to ABC News from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), where he served as director of the Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response. In that role he was responsible for all of the CDC's public health emergency preparedness and emergency response activities. He also served as acting director for the CDC from January to June 2009, during which time he led the CDC's response to the H1N1 influenza pandemic.

Dr. Besser began his career at the CDC in 1991 in the Epidemic Intelligence Service working on the epidemiology of food-borne diseases. He served for five years on the faculty of the University of California, San Diego as the pediatric residency director, while working for the county health department on the control of pediatric tuberculosis. He returned to CDC in 1998 as an infectious disease epidemiologist working on pneumonia, antibiotic resistance and the control of antibiotic overuse.

Dr. Besser volunteers as a pediatrician with the Children's Aid Society in New York City. He is currently a Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Harvard School of Public Health.

The author and coauthor hundreds of presentations, abstracts, chapters, editorials and publications, Dr. Besser has received many awards for his work in public health and volunteer service. He received the Surgeon General's Medallion for his leadership during the H1N1 response, and in 2011 he accepted the Dean's Medal for his contributions to public health from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. His investigative reporting into umbilical cord blood banking was nominated for an Emmy Award in 2011. In 2012 he received an Overseas Press Club award as part of ABC's coverage of global maternal health issues and two Peabody Awards as part of ABC News coverage of Hurricane Sandy and Robin Robert's health journey. His first book, Tell Me the Truth, Doctor: Easy-to-Understand Answers to Your Most Confusing and Critical Health Questions, was published by Hyperion in 2013.

Dr. Besser received his BA in economics from Williams College and his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania. He completed a residency and chief residency in pediatrics at John Hopkins University Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. Dr. Besser met his wife, Jeanne, a food writer, while on his first outbreak investigation in 1991. They have two sons, Alex and Jack.

What

The National Institutes of Health is hosting a summit to explore how digital is being used by government agencies, clinicians, scientists, patients, and the public to communicate information on health and science.

Why

According to a September 2012 Pew Research Center surveyExternal Web Site Policy 72% of internet users say they looked online for health information within the past year. As health information becomes increasingly accessible, it’s important to take a look at how these resources are being communicated and shared with the public, how and where clinicians and scientists are discussing important health topics in the digital sphere, and the challenges health communicators face with an ever-evolving digital landscape. The summit is designed to encourage discussion and to strengthen scientific communications communities around the digital and social media strategies used in health and science agencies.

When

Monday, October 19, 2015

Where

National Institutes of Health, Building 10, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD
Masur Auditorium
Visitor information is available at http://www.nih.gov/about/visitor.

Agenda

The morning will focus on digital health and the public. The afternoon will focus on how researchers and health professionals are using digital tools in their professional lives. There will be multiple opportunities throughout the day for the audience to ask questions of the various speakers.

Keynote Speakers: Susannah Fox, Chief Technology Officer of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Richard Besser, M.D., Chief Health and Medical Editor, ABC News.

October 19: Morning Session

Session Time Event Information
8:00 a.m. – 9:00 a.m. Registration
Masur Auditorium
9:00 a.m. – 9:10 a.m. Opening Remarks and Keynote Introduction
John Burklow, Associate Director, Office of Communications and Public Liaison (OCPL), National Institutes of Health (NIH)
9:10 a.m. – 9:30 a.m. Keynote Speaker
Susannah Fox, Chief Technology Officer, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
9:30 a.m. – 9:45 a.m. Q&A
  Master of Ceremonies
Scott Prince, Chief, Online Information Branch, OCPL, NIH
9:45 a.m. – 10:00 a.m. Panel 1: The Patient and Caregiver Perspective: Managing Health Conditions Using Digital Tools and Social Media
 
  • Anna McCollister-Slipp, founder and CEO, Galileo Analytics
  • Guy Anthony, author, Pos+tively Beautiful
  • Rebecca Spencer White, mother & advocate for son with Niemann-Pick Type C
Moderator: Anne Rancourt, Section Chief, Office of Communications and Government Relations, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH
10:00 a.m. – 10:30 a.m. Q&A
10:30 a.m. – 10:55 a.m. Break for Exhibitor Hall
FAES Terrace
11:00 a.m. – 11:30 a.m. Panel 2: Reaching Patients and the Public Where They Are: Sharing High Quality, Evidence-Based Information With the Public on Social Media, Blogs, and Mobile Apps
 
  • Erin Edgerton Norvell, M.A., Digital Edge Communications
    “When Health Communications and Content Marketing Collide”
  • Robert Burchard, M.A., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
    “EPA’s UV Index: A Public Health Information Campaign Gone Viral”
  • Erik Augustson, Ph.D., M.P.H., National Cancer Institute, NIH
    “Amplifying Quit Smoking Success Through Digital Media Intervention and Support: Examples From the Smokefree.gov Initiative”
Moderator: Brooke Leggin, Program Analyst, Office on Women's Health, Division of Strategic Communications, HHS
11:30 a.m. – 11:45 a.m. Q&A
11:45 a.m. – 12:45 p.m. LUNCH
Options include: Cafeteria and Au Bon Pain
Clinical Center
12:45 p.m. – 1:10 p.m. Break for Exhibitor Hall
FAES Terrace

October 19: Afternoon Session

Session Time Event Information
1:15 p.m. – 1:25 p.m. Afternoon Opening Remarks and Keynote Introduction
Masur Auditorium
1:25 p.m. – 1:45 p.m. Keynote Speaker
Richard Besser External Web Site Policy, M.D., Chief Health and Medical Editor, ABC News
1:45 p.m. – 2:00 p.m. Q&A
2:00 p.m. – 2:30 p.m. Panel 3: The Health Professional Perspective: Using Social Media To Get and Share Information and Interact With Other Professionals and Patients
 
  • Elizabeth Jarrett, M.A., Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), HHS, and Stacey Arnesen, M.S., National Library of Medicine, NIH
    “From Better Data to More Effective Tools: ASPR and NLM Collaborate to Create Resources that Promote Emergency Preparedness, Response and Recovery”
  • Corey Holland, R.D., U.S. Department of Agriculture
    “SuperTracker User Groups: Connecting Health Professionals With Patients Through Interactive Tools”
  • David Cooper, Psy.D, National Center for Telehealth & Technology
    “Digital Tools for Behavioral Health in the U.S. Military”
Moderator: Josephine Briggs, M.D., Director, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, NIH
2:30 p.m. – 2:45 p.m. Q&A
2:45 p.m. – 2:55 p.m. Break
3:00 p.m. – 3:30 p.m. Panel 4: The Scientist’s Perspective: Using Digital and Social Media To Collaborate, Share Ideas, and Communicate Research to the Public
 
  • John Didion, Ph.D., National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH
    “The Electronic Lab: Technologies for Digitizing Your Data”
  • Megan Moreno, M.D., M.S.Ed., M.P.H., Seattle Children’s Research Institute
    “Using Social Media to Investigate Adolescent Health”
  • Margaret M. Farrell, M.P.H., R.D, National Cancer Institute, NIH
    “From Content to Collaboration: How NCI Engages Researchers and Practitioners To Implement Cancer Control and Implementation Science Research Through a Virtual Community of Practice”
Moderator: Sheri Schully, Ph.D., Senior Advisor, Office of Disease Prevention, NIH
3:30 p.m. – 3:45 p.m. Q&A
3:45 p.m. – 3:50 p.m. Thank You and Closing

More information

This event is free and open to the public.

This event is currently sold out, but we encourage you to register to watch the summit remotely via live Webcast! Register here!

Videocast: If you are unable to attend in person, you can watch the summit live at videocast.nih.gov.

Questions: If you have any additional questions, please email Yasmine Kloth.

Social Media: Use #NIHDigital to join the conversation.

Health Online 2013

Source: http://www.pewinternet.org/2013/01/1...h-online-2013/ (PDF and Word)

JANUARY 15, 2013

Health Online 2013

35% of U.S. adults have gone online to figure out a medical condition; of these, half followed up with a visit to a medical professional

Susannah Fox

Associate Director, Pew Internet Project

Maeve Duggan

Research Assistant, Pew Internet Project

Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project 1615 L St., NW – Suite 700

Washington, D.C. 20036

Phone: 202-419-4500

http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2013/Health-online.aspx

Summary ofFindings

 

One in three American adults have gone online to figure out a medical condition

Thirty-five percent of U.S. adults say that at one time or another they have gone online specifically to try to figure out what medical condition they or someone else might have.

These findings come from a national survey by the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Throughout this report, we call those who searched for answers on the internet “online diagnosers.”

When asked if the information found online led them to think they needed the attention of a medical professional, 46% of online diagnosers say that was the case. Thirty-eight percent of online diagnosers say it was something they could take care of at home and 11% say it was both or in-between.

When we asked respondents about the accuracy of their initial diagnosis, they reported:
•    41% of online diagnosers say a medical professional confirmed their diagnosis. An additional 2% say a medical professional partially confirmed it.
•    35% say they did not visit a clinician to get a professional opinion.
•    18% say they consulted a medical professional and the clinician either did not agree or offered a different opinion about the condition.
•    1% say their conversation with a clinician was inconclusive.

Women are more likely than men to go online to figure out a possible diagnosis. Other groups that have a high likelihood of doing so include younger people, white adults, those who live in households earning
$75,000 or more, and those with a college degree or advanced degrees.

It is important to note what these findings mean – and what they don’t mean. Historically, people have always tried to answer their health questions at home and made personal choices about whether and when to consult a clinician. Many have now added the internet to their personal health toolbox, helping themselves and their loved ones better understand what might be ailing them. This study was not designed to determine whether the internet has had a good or bad influence on health care. It measures the scope, but not the outcome, of this activity.

Clinicians are a central resource for information or support during serious health episodes — and the care and conversation take place mostly offline

To try to capture a focused picture of people’s health information search and information-assessment strategies, we asked respondents to think about the last time they had a serious health issue and to whom they turned for help, either online or offline:
 
•    70% of U.S. adults got information, care, or support from a doctor or other health care professional.
•    60% of adults got information or support from friends and family.
•    24% of adults got information or support from others who have the same health condition.

The vast majority of this care and conversation took place offline, but a small group of people did communicate with each of these sources online. And, since a majority of adults consult the internet when they have health questions, these communications with clinicians, family, and fellow patients joined the stream of information flowing in.

Eight in 10 online health inquiries start at a search engine

Looking more broadly at the online landscape, 72% of internet users say they looked online for health information of one kind or another within the past year. This includes searches related to serious conditions, general information searches, and searches for minor health problems. For brevity’s sake, we will refer to this group as “online health seekers.”
When asked to think about the last time they hunted for health or medical information, 77% of online health seekers say they began at a search engine such as Google, Bing, or Yahoo. Another 13% say they began at a site that specializes in health information, like WebMD. Just 2% say they started their research at a more general site like Wikipedia and an additional 1% say they started at a social network site like Facebook.

Half of health information searches are on behalf of someone else

When asked to think about the last time they went online for health or medical information, 39% of online health seekers say they looked for information related to their own situation. Another 39% say they looked for information related to someone else’s health or medical situation. An additional 15% of these internet users say they were looking both on their own and someone else’s behalf.

One in four people seeking health information online have hit a pay wall

Twenty-six percent of internet users who look online for health information say they have been asked to pay for access to something they wanted to see online. Of those who have been asked to pay, just 2% say they did so. Fully 83% of those who hit a pay wall say they tried to find the same information somewhere else. Thirteen percent of those who hit a pay wall say they just gave up.

The social life of health information is a low-key but steady presence in American life

In past surveys, the Pew Internet Project has not defined a time period for health activities online. This time, the phrase “in the past 12 months” was added to help focus respondents on recent episodes. We
 
find once again that there is a social life of health information, as well as peer-to-peer support, as people exchange stories about their own health issues to help each other understand what might lie ahead:
•    26% say they read or watched someone else’s experience about health or medical issues in the last 12 months.
•    16% of internet users say they went online in the last year to find others who might share the same health concerns.
Health-related reviews and rankings continue to be used by only a modest group of consumers. About one in five internet users have consulted online reviews of particular drugs or medical treatments, doctors or other providers, and hospitals or medical facilities. And just 3-4% of internet users have posted online reviews of health care services or providers. 

About this study

The results reported here come from a nationwide survey of 3,014 adults living in the United States. Telephone interviews were conducted by landline (1,808) and cell phone (1,206, including 624 without a landline phone). The survey was conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International.
Interviews were done in English and Spanish by Princeton Data Source from August 7 to September 6, 2012. Statistical results are weighted to correct known demographic discrepancies. The margin of sampling error for the complete set of weighted data is ±2.4 percentage points.
The Pew Internet & American Life Project is an initiative of the Pew Research Center, a nonprofit “fact tank” that provides information on the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world. The Project is nonpartisan and takes no position on policy issues. Support for the Project is provided by the Pew Charitable Trusts.
Support for this study was provided by the California HealthCare Foundation, an independent philanthropy committed to improving the way health care is delivered and financed in California.

Part One: Information triage

For one-third of U.S. adults, the internet is a diagnostic tool

 

As of September 2012, 81% of U.S. adults use the internet and, of those, 72% say they have looked online for health information in the past year.

Since online personal diagnosis is a scenario that has intrigued observers for years – and caused some anxiety about people’s ability to navigate the online information landscape – the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project explored it in some depth in its most recent health survey. Of those who have looked online for health information, 59% say they have ever gone online specifically to try to figure out what medical condition they or someone else might have. That translates to 35% of U.S. adults.

Women are more likely than men to go online to figure out a possible diagnosis. Other groups that have a high likelihood of doing so include younger people, white adults, those in the highest income bracket, and those with more education (see the table below for details).

The following analysis is based on questions asked only of that 35% of the population who answered that they have gone online to figure out what they or someone else might have. We will refer to them as “online diagnosers.”

First, online diagnosers were asked if the information they found online led them to think that this was a condition that needed the attention of a doctor or other medical professional, or that it was perhaps something they could take care of at home:

  • 46% of online diagnosers say that the condition needed the attention of a doctor;
  • 38% say it could be taken care of at home; and
  • 11% said it was either both or in-between.

 

Fifty-three percent of online diagnosers say they talked with a medical professional about what they found online, 46% did not (see table below for details).

Separately, we asked if a medical professional confirmed what they thought the condition was and found that:

  • 41% of online diagnosers say yes, a medical professional confirmed their suspicions. An additional 2% say a medical professional partially confirmed them.
  • 35% say they did not visit a clinician to get a professional opinion.
  • 18% say a medical professional either did not agree or offered a different opinion about the condition.
  • 1% say their conversation with a clinician was inconclusive – the professional was unable to diagnose what they had.

 

 

Online diagnosis and professional follow-up

% of adults who looked online to diagnose a condition and the % of those online diagnosers who followed up with a medical professional about what they found

 

 

 

Looked online to diagnose a condition (N for all adults=3,014)

Followed up with medical professional after online diagnosis

(N for online diagnosers=1,003)

 

All

35%

53%

a

Men

30

50

b

Women

40a

55

 

Age

a

18-29

47cd

47

b

30-49

43cd

55

c

50-64

29d

58

d

65+

13

47

 

Race/ethnicity

a

White, Non-Hispanic

37bc

52

b

Black, Non-Hispanic

30

59

c

Hispanic

25

58

 

Annual household income

a

Less than $30,000/yr

25

44

b

$30,000-$49,999

37a

60a

c

$50,000-$74,999

44a

62a

d

$75,000+

51ab

53

 

Education level

a

Less than high school diploma

9

--

b

High school grad

26a

51

c

Some College

41ab

55

d

College +

49abc

51

 

Source: Pew Internet Health Survey, August 7 – September 6, 2012. N=3,014 adults ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. Margin of error is +/- 2.4 percentage point for all adults and +/- 3.6 percentage points for online diagnosers.

Note: Columns marked with a superscript letter (a) or another letter indicate a statistically significant

difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter. Statistical significance is determined inside the specific section covering each demographic trait.

 

There is no statistically significant difference between those who have health insurance and those who do not when it comes to using the internet to figure out an illness.

It is important to note what these findings mean – and what they don’t mean. Historically, people have always tried to answer their health questions at home and made personal choices about whether and when to consult a clinician. Many have now added the internet to their personal health toolbox, helping themselves and their loved ones better understand what might be ailing them. This study was not designed to determine whether the internet has had a good or bad influence on health care. It measures the scope, but not the outcome, of this activity.

Eight in ten online health inquiries start at a search engine

 

Again, 72% of internet users say they looked online for health information within the past year. For brevity’s sake, we will refer to this group as “online health seekers.”

When asked to think about the last time they did so, 77% of online health seekers say they began at a search engine such as Google, Bing, or Yahoo. Another 13% say they began at a site that specializes in health information, like WebMD. Just 2% say they started their research at a more general site like Wikipedia and an additional 1% say they started at a social network site like Facebook.

Using a search engine is somewhat associated with being younger. For example, 82% of online health seekers age 18-29 years old say they used Google, Bing, Yahoo, or another search engine, compared with 73% of those ages 50 and older.

Overall, this pattern matches what we found in our very first health survey, conducted in 2000, when just half of U.S. adults had internet access. Then, as now, eight in ten online health seekers started at a general search engine when looking online for health or medical information.

 

Clinicians are a central resource for information or support during serious health episodes and the care and conversation take place mostly offline

 

To try to capture an accurate picture of people’s health information seeking strategies, we asked respondents to think about the last time they had a serious health issue and to whom they turned for help:

  • 70% of U.S. adults got information, care, or support from a doctor or other health care professional.
  • 60% of adults got information or support from friends and family.
  • 24% of adults got information or support from others who have the same health condition. The vast majority of this care and conversation took place offline (see table below).

 

 

The last time you had a health issue, did you get information, care, or support from…

 

 

Total yes

 

 

Yes, online

 

 

Yes, offline

 

 

Yes, both

 

 

Not a source

A doctor or other health care professional

70%

1%

61%

8%

28%

Friends and family

60

1

39

20

39

Others who have the same health condition

24

2

15

7

73

Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, August 7-September 6, 2012 Survey. N=3,014 adults. Margin of error for internet users (N=2,392) is +/- 2.6 percentage points.

Certain groups are significantly more likely to report calling upon a clinician for health advice: women, adults ages 50 and older, non-Hispanic whites, and adults with at least some college education. Fully three-quarters of people who have health insurance consulted a doctor or other health care professional, compared with half (49%) of the uninsured.

Women are more inclined than men to seek information, care, or support from friends and family: 68% vs. 53%. Non-Hispanic whites, adults with health insurance, and those with some college education are also more likely than other groups to turn to friends and family. Almost two-thirds (63%) of those with insurance approached friends and family, while half (48%) of the uninsured did so.

Differences among demographic groups are less apparent when looking at peer health support, but two groups stand out: women and people with health insurance. Twenty-eight percent of women have sought advice from others who have the same health condition, compared with 21% of men. One- quarter (26%) of the insured sought out others with the same health condition, compared to 19% of those without insurance.

 

These findings reflect differences we first observed in 2010, with little change over the past two years.

 

Half of online health inquiries are on behalf of someone else

 

When asked to think about the last time they went online for health or medical information, 39% of internet users who have done this type of research say they looked for information related to their own situation. Another 39% say they looked for information related to someone else’s health or medical situation. And 15% of these internet users say they were looking both on their own and someone else’s behalf.

Online health seekers age 65 and older are more likely than those in the middle age groups to say their last search was on their own behalf: 48%, compared with 39% of 50-64 year-olds, for example. Parents are more likely than non-parents to look on behalf of someone else: 44%, compared with 36%.

 

This trend has not changed significantly since we first began tracking it in 2000: more than half of health searches are conducted on behalf of someone not touching the keyboard.

 

Specific diseases and treatments continue to dominate people’s online queries

 

In past surveys, the Pew Internet Project has not defined a time period for health searches online. This time, the phrase “in the past 12 months” was added to help focus respondents on recent searches.

As one would expect, the percentages dipped for each of the topics we include in the list. For example, 55% of internet users say they looked online for information about a specific disease or medical problem in the past year, compared with 66% of internet users who, in 2010, said they had ever done such a search.

The % of adult internet users who have looked online in the last 12 months for information about…

55%

Specific disease or medical problem

43

Certain medical treatment or procedure

27

How to lose weight or how to control your weight

25

Health insurance, including private insurance, Medicare or Medicaid

19

Food safety or recalls

16

Drug safety or recalls

16

A drug you saw advertised

15

Medical test results

14

Caring for an aging relative or friend

12

Pregnancy and childbirth

11

How to reduce your health care costs

20

Any other health issue

72

at least one of the above topics

Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, August 7-September 6, 2012 Survey. N=3,014 adults. Margin of error for internet users (N=2,392) is +/- 2.6 percentage points.

Women are more likely than men to seek health information online, as are internet users with higher levels of education:

 

Sex

Education level

 

Health topic

All internet users

 

Men

 

Women

Some high school

High school grad

Some college

College grad

 

N=2,392

N=1,084

N=1,308

N=107

N=574

N=656

N=1,046

 

 

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Specific disease or medical problem

55

48

62a

34

43

58ab

67abc

Certain medical treatment or procedure

43

37

49a

22

36a

45ab

52abc

How to lose weight or how to control your weight

27

19

34a

23

20

29b

32b

Health insurance, including private insurance, Medicare or Medicaid

 

25

 

25

 

25

 

17

 

17

26b

32ab

Food safety or recalls

19

19

19

16

16

19

23b

Drug safety or recalls

16

14

18a

10

13

17

20ab

A drug you saw advertised

16

15

16

9

13

18a

17a

Medical test results

15

13

16

3

8

15ab

23abc

Caring for an aging relative or friend

14

15

13

8

12

15

16ab

Pregnancy and childbirth

12

11

13

17

9

14b

12

How to reduce your health care costs

11

11

11

11

8

11

13b

Any other health issue

20

16

25a

12

15

22ab

25ab

At least one of the above topics

72

65

79a

57

63

74ab

81abc

Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, August 7-September 6, 2012 Survey. N=3,014 adults and the margin of error is +/- 2.6 percentage points for internet users. Margins of error for sub-populations are higher.

Note: Columns marked with a superscript letter (a) or another letter indicate a statistically significant

difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter. Statistical significance is determined inside the specific section covering each demographic trait.

 

There are only four significant differences among white, African American, and Latino internet users when it comes to health topics: specific diseases, weight control, a drug seen in advertising, and pregnancy. Differences among age groups are a much more mixed bag of topics.

 

 

 

Race/ethnicity

Age

 

Health topic

All internet users

 

White

 

Black

 

Latino

 

18-29

 

30-49

 

50-64

 

65+

 

N=2,392

N=1,531

N=348

N=314

N=454

N=759

N=668

N=463

 

 

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Specific disease or medical problem

55

58bc

47

48

53d

59d

59d

43

Certain medical treatment or procedure

43

45

42

39

39

48ad

44d

36

How to lose weight or how to control your weight

 

27

 

23

34a

35a

32cd

32cd

21d

 

11

Health insurance, including private insurance, Medicare or Medicaid

 

25

 

24

 

23

 

26

 

26

 

28d

 

23

 

19

Food safety or recalls

19

18

18

20

18

24acd

17

12

Drug safety or recalls

16

16

20

16

14d

20d

17d

8

A drug you saw advertised

16

15

22a

15

16

15

18d

11

Medical test results

15

16

12

15

13

15

19ad

10

Caring for an aging relative or friend

14

14

15

15

13

16d

15d

8

Pregnancy and childbirth

12

10

11

17a

25bcd

13cd

2

-

How to reduce your health care costs

11

10

13

12

10d

13d

11d

5

Any other health issue

20

21

16

17

17

24ad

22d

14

At least one of the above topics

72

73

69

66

76d

75d

71d

58

Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, August 7-September 6, 2012 Survey. N=3,014 adults and the margin of error is +/- 2.6 percentage points for internet users. Margins of error for sub-populations are higher.

Note: Columns marked with a superscript letter (a) or another letter indicate a statistically significant

difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter. Statistical significance is determined inside the specific section covering each demographic trait.

 

Internet users with health insurance are significantly more likely than those without health insurance to research certain topics, such as a specific disease or treatment. Other topics, such as food and drug safety, are moderately more popular among internet users with health insurance, compared with those who do not report having insurance coverage.

Seeking health information online

% of insured vs. uninsured internet users who have looked for information online about …

 

 

Insured

(n=2,066)

Uninsured

(n=326)

 

Specific disease or medical problem

60%*

35%

Certain medical treatment or procedure

48*

24

How to lose or control weight

27

24

Health insurance

25

25

Food safety or recalls

20*

15

Drug safety or recalls

17*

12

Medical test results

17*

6

Advertised drug

16

12

Caring for an aging loved one

15

11

Pregnancy and childbirth

11

15

Reduce personal health care costs

11

11

Other health issue

22*

13

Any of the above

75*

59

Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, August 7-September 6, 2012 Survey. N=3,014 adults. Margin of error for internet users (N=2,392) is +/- 2.6 percentage points.

* Statistically significant difference compared with others in the same group.

 

 

Internet access drives information access

 

Since one in five U.S. adults do not go online, the percentage of online health information seekers is lower when calculated as a percentage of the total population: 59% of all adults in the U.S. say they looked online for health information within the past year.

There are two forces at play: access to the internet and interest in health information. For example, women and men are equally likely to have access to the internet, but women are more likely than men to report gathering health information online, which explains the gender gap in the chart below. For the other groups, their overall lower rate of internet adoption combined with lower levels of health information seeking online drives their numbers down significantly when compared with other adults.

Looking online for health information: demographics

 

 

 

% of adults who go online

 

% of internet users who look online for health information

% of all adults who look online for health information

Total

81%

72%

59%

 

Gender

a

Male

81

65

53

b

Female

81

79a

64a

 

Race

a

White

83bc

73

60bc

b

African American

74

69

51

c

Latino

73

66

48

 

Age

a

18-29

95bcd

76d

72cd

b

30-49

89cd

75d

67cd

c

50-64

77d

71d

54d

d

65+

52

58

30

 

Education

a

Some high school

47

57

27

b

High school

72a

63

45a

c

Some college

90ab

74ab

67ab

d

College graduate

96abc

81abc

78abc

 

Household income

a

< $30,000

68

65

45

b

$30,000 - $49,999

86a

71

61a

c

$50,000 - $74,999

95ab

81ab

77ab

d

$75,000+

97ab

80ab

78ab

Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, August 7-September 6, 2012 Survey. N=3,014 adults and the margin of error is +/- 2.4 percentage points for the full sample. Margins of error for sub-populations are higher.

Note: Columns marked with a superscript letter (a) or another letter indicate a

statistically significant difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter. Statistical significance is determined inside the specific section covering each demographic trait.

 

 

(See the Appendix for more detailed information on specific health topics.)

Younger adults and minorities lead the way with mobile health information search

 

Some 85% of U.S. adults own a cell phone and, of those, 31% say they have used their phone to look for health or medical information online. Some groups are more likely than others to look for health information on their phones: Latinos, African Americans, those between the ages of 18 and 49, and those who have attended at least some college education.

 

Mobile health information: demographics

% of cell phone owners within each group who use their phones to look for health or medical information online

 

 

All cell phone owners (n=2,581)

31%

a

Men (n=1,163)

29

b

Women (n=1,418)

33

 

Age

 

a

18-29 (n=451)

42cd

b

30-49 (n=770)

39cd

c

50-64 (n=710)

19d

d

65+ (n=599)

9

 

Race/ethnicity

 

a

White, Non-Hispanic (n=1,586)

27

b

Black, Non-Hispanic (n=434)

35a

c

Hispanic (n=351)

38a

 

Annual household income

 

a

Less than $30,000/yr (n=690)

28

b

$30,000-$49,999 (n=456)

30

c

$50,000-$74,999 (n=345)

37a

d

$75,000+ (n=646)

37a

 

Education level

 

a

No high school diploma (n=187)

17

b

High school grad (n=681)

26a

c

Some College (n=679)

33ab

d

College + (n=1020)

38ab

Source: Pew Internet/CHCF Health Survey, August 7-September 6, 2012. N=3,014 adults ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish, on landline and cell phones. Margin of error is +/- 2.6 percentage points for results based on cell phone owners.

Note: Columns marked with a superscript letter (a) or another letter indicate a

statistically significant difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter. Statistical significance is determined inside the specific section covering each demographic trait.

 

Half of smartphone owners have used their phone to look up health information

Half of cell phone owners in the U.S. (53%) say that they own a smartphone. This translates to 45% of all American adults. Younger people are more likely than older adults to own a smartphone, as are people with higher income and education levels.

 

Who Owns Smartphones

% of U.S. adults within each group who have a smartphone

 

 

All adults (n=3,014)

45%

a

Men (n=1,337)

46

b

Women (n=1,677)

45

 

Age

 

a

18-29 (n= 478)

66cd

b

30-49 (n=833)

59cd

c

50-64 (n=814)

34d

d

65+ (n=830)

11

 

Race/ethnicity

 

a

White, Non-Hispanic (n=1,864)

42

b

Black, Non-Hispanic (n=497)

47

c

Hispanic (n=427)

49a

 

Annual household income

 

a

Less than $30,000/yr (n=876)

35

b

$30,000-$49,999 (n=523)

42

c

$50,000-$74,999 (n=371)

56ab

d

$75,000+ (n=680)

68abc

 

Education level

 

a

No high school diploma (n=269)

21

b

High school grad (n=830)

36a

c

Some College (n=778)

50ab

d

College + (n=1,115)

61abc

 

Geographic location

 

a

Urban (n=1,095)

48c

b

Suburban (n=1,406)

49c

c

Rural (n=396)

29

 

Source: Pew Internet/CHCF Health Survey, August 7-September 6, 2012. N=3,014 adults ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish, o landline and cell phones. Margin of error is +/- 2 percentage points for results based on all adults.

Note: Columns marked with a superscript letter (a) or another letter indicate a

statistically significant difference between that row and the row designated b that superscript letter. Statistical significance is determined inside the specific section covering each demographic trait.

 

Fifty-two percent of smartphone owners have looked up health information on their phone, compared with just 6% of other cell phone owners.

A person’s likelihood to use his or her cell phone to look for health information is amplified by each of the characteristics identified in the tables above: relative youthfulness, having a higher level of education, living in a higher-income household, being Latino, being African American – and owning a smartphone. Each of these observations holds true under statistical analysis isolating each factor. In other words, it is not just that smartphone owners are likely to be younger than other American adults and both groups are likely to use their phones to look up health information. Each characteristic has an independent effect on mobile health information consumption.

One in four people seeking health information online have hit a pay wall

 

Twenty-six percent of internet users who look online for health information say they have been asked to pay for access to something they wanted to see online. Seventy-three percent say they have not faced this choice while seeking health or medical information online.

Of those who have been asked to pay, just 2% say they did so. Fully 83% of those who hit a pay wall say they tried to find the same information somewhere else. Thirteen percent of those who hit a pay wall say they just gave up.

 

Men, women, people of all ages and education levels were equally likely to report hitting a pay wall when looking for health information. Respondents living in lower-income households were significantly more likely than their wealthier counterparts to say they gave up at that point. Wealthier respondents were the likeliest group to say they tried to find the same information elsewhere. No income group was more likely to say they paid the fee.

Part Two: Peer-to-peer Healthcare

Some seek counsel from fellow patients and caregivers

 

We have been interested in the social aspect of online health resources since the very beginning of our project. In 2000, we asked people if they had emailed a doctor and if they participated in an online support group for people who shared the same health issues. As social tools proliferated, we adapted our survey questions to fit the current reality.

 

Now, instead of naming certain websites or services, we describe an activity and track people’s use of these resources over time. For example, in the current survey, we did not ask specifically about Facebook, instead focusing on more general social interaction which may take place on a variety of sites. We trust that people know what we mean when we ask if they have, for example, posted a health- related question online and we do not particularly need to know how or where they posted it.

 

The social life of health information is a steady presence in American life. As we noted above, one in four adults (24%) says that they turned to others who have the same health condition during their last bout with illness, essentially the same finding as in our 2010 survey. One in four internet users (26%) have read or watched someone else’s experience about health or medical issues in the last 12 months. And 16% of internet users have gone online to find others who might share the same health concerns in the last year. We explored this phenomenon in greater depth in the 2011 report, Peer-to-peer Healthcare.1

 

Eleven percent of internet users say they have signed up to receive email updates or alerts about health or medical issues in the past year. Twelve percent of internet users have downloaded forms online or applied for health insurance online in the past year, including private insurance, Medicare, or Medicaid. Some of the most striking differences were between those who have health insurance and those who do not (see table below).

Online health activities, by insurance status

% of insured vs. uninsured internet users who have gone online in the past year to….

 

 

Insured

(n=2,601)

Uninsured

(n=413)

Read/watch someone else’s health or medical experience online

22%*

17%

Find others who might have similar health concerns

13

11

Download forms online or applied for health insurance online

10*

6

Receive any email updates or alerts about health or medical issues

9*

6

Any of the above

33*

26

Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, August 7-September 6, 2012 Survey. N=3,014 adults and the margin of error is +/- 2.6 percentage points for internet users.

*Statistically significant difference between groups.

 

 

 

Eight percent of internet users say they have, in the past 12 months, posted a health-related question online or shared their own personal health experience online in any way.  Of those:

  • 40% say they posted comments or stories about personal health experiences
  • 19% say they posted specific health questions
  • 38% say they posted both

 

In addition, 78% of those who posted a comment, story, or question about their health say that they did so to reach a general audience of friends or other internet users. Eleven percent say they posted somewhere specifically to get feedback from a health professional. Four percent replied that they posted for both a general and a professional audience and 5% said neither of those choices fit.

 

Health care reviews have not caught on among general consumers

 

The Pew Internet Project has tracked the use of online consumer reviews since 2000 and it has always ranked among the most popular activities in the commercial realm: 8 in 10 internet users say they have researched a product or service online. By contrast, only about one in five internet users have consulted online reviews and rankings of health care service providers and treatments.

When it comes to writing reviews of general-interest items, 37% of internet users say they have rated a product, service, or person online and 32% have posted a comment or review online about product they bought or service they received. People are much less likely to post a review of a treatment, hospital, or clinician – between 3-4% of internet users have done so.

The results for health-related reviews are comparable to those we recorded in 2010. Consulting online reviews of particular drugs or medical treatments, however, took a noticeable dip in the last two years. Some 18% of internet users do so today, compared to 24% in 2010.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1  http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2011/P2PHealthcare.aspx

Reviews and rankings online, 2010-2012

% of internet users who consulted or posted online reviews or rankings for the following health-related subjects

 

 

2010

(n=2,065)

2012

(n=2,392)

Consulted online reviews of particular drugs or medical treatments

24%*

18%

Consulted online ranking or reviews of doctors or other providers

16

17

Consulted online rankings or reviews of hospitals or medical facilities

15

14

Posted a review online of a doctor

4

4

Posted a review online of a hospital

3

3

Posted your experiences with a particular drug or medical treatment online

4

3

Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Margins of error are +/- 2.6 percentage points for internet users.

* Statistically significant difference between years.

 

 

Internet users between the ages of 30-64 years old are the most likely group to say they have consulted online reviews and rankings of health treatments and services. Suburban internet users are more likely than rural internet users to consult online health care reviews.

 

Consulting reviews and rankings online, by age

% of internet users within each age group who consulted online reviews or rankings for the following health-related subjects

Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, August 7-September 6, 2012 Survey. N=3,014 adults and the margin of error is +/- 2.6 percentage points for internet users.

 

 

Consulting reviews and rankings online, by urbanity

% of internet users within each group who consulted online reviews or rankings for the following health-related subjects

 

 

Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, August 7-September 6, 2012 Survey. N=3,014 adults and the margin of error is +/- 2.6 percentage points for internet users.

 

 

 

Internet users with higher levels of education were more likely to consult online reviews and rankings than their less-educated counterparts. Those with an annual household income below $30,000 were less likely than all other income brackets to consult or post health-related reviews and rankings online.

Consulting reviews and rankings online, by education

% of internet users within each group who consulted online reviews or rankings for the following health-related subjects

Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, August 7-September 6, 2012 Survey. N=3,014 adults and the margin of error is +/- 2.6 percentage points for internet users.

 

Consulting reviews and rankings online, by annual household income

% of internet users within each group who consulted online reviews or rankings for the following health- related subjects

 

Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, August 7-September 6, 2012 Survey. N=3,014 adults and the margin of error is +/- 2.6 percentage points for internet users.

 

 

 

Posting online health reviews and rankings is comparatively infrequent. Just 7% of internet users have ever posted reviews or rankings on any of the the three health topics we surveyed: drugs and medical treatments, doctors, and hospitals.  This translates into 6% of American adults.

Consulting vs. posting online health reviews and rankings

% of internet users who consulted vs. posted online reviews or rankings for the following health- related subjects

 

Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, August 7-September 6, 2012 Survey. N=3,014 adults and the margin of error is +/- 2.6 percentage points for internet users.

 

 

 

Unlike consulting online health rankings and reviews, there are no clear demographic trends when it comes to posting.  (See Appendix for details.)

Appendix

Additional details about who has searched for specific health topics.

Health Topics, by Age

% of all adults who have ever looked online for information about various health topics, by age

 

 

All Adults

N=3,014

Age

18-29

N=478

30-49

N=833

50-64

N=814

65+

N=830

 

 

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Specific disease or medical problem

45

50d

52cd

45d

23

Certain medical treatment or procedure

35

38d

43cd

34d

19

Health insurance, including private insurance, Medicare or Medicaid

20

24cd

25cd

18d

10

Pregnancy and childbirth

10

24cde

12de

1

0

Food safety or recalls

16

17d

22de

14d

7

Drug safety or recalls

13

14d

17d

13d

4

Medical test results

12

12d

14d

14d

5

How to lose weight or control your weight

22

31de

28de

16d

6

How to reduce health care costs

9

10d

12d

9d

3

Caring for an aging relative or friend

12

12d

15d

11d

4

Drug you saw advertised

13

15d

14d

14d

6

Any other health issue

17

17d

21d

17d

8

 

Source: Pew Internet Health Survey, August 7 – September 6, 2012. N=3,014 adults ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. Margin of error is +/- 2.4 percentage points for all adults.

Note: Columns marked with a superscript letter (a) or another letter indicate a statistically significant difference

between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter. Statistical significance is determined inside the specific section covering each demographic trait.

Health Topics, by Education

% of all adults who have ever looked online for information about various health topics, by education level

 

 

 

All Adults

N=3,014

Education

LT HS

N=269

HS

N=830

Some Coll. N=778

Coll+

N=1,115

 

 

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Specific disease or medical problem

45

16

31a

52ab

64abc

Certain medical treatment or procedure

35

10

26a

40ab

50abc

Health insurance, including private insurance, Medicare or Medicaid

20

8

12

24ab

30abc

Pregnancy and childbirth

10

8

6

12ab

11b

Food safety or recalls

16

8

11

18ab

22ab

Drug safety or recalls

13

5

9a

15ab

19ab

Medical test results

12

2

6a

13ab

22abc

How to lose weight or control your weight

22

11

14

26ab

30ab

How to reduce health care costs

9

5

6

10ab

13ab

Caring for an aging relative or friend

12

4

8a

13ab

16ab

Drug you saw advertised

13

4

9a

16ab

17ab

Any other health issue

17

6

11a

20ab

24ab

 

Source: Pew Internet Health Survey, August 7 – September 6, 2012. N=3,014 adults ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. Margin of error is +/- 2.4 percentage points for all adults.

Note: Columns marked with a superscript letter (a) or another letter indicate a statistically significant difference

between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter. Statistical significance is determined inside the specific section covering each demographic trait.

Additional details about the health insurance landscape in the U.S.

Health Insurance Coverage, by Type of Insurance

% of Americans who report having the following types of health insurance…

 

 

All adults (n=3,014)

Private health insurance offered through an employer or union

51%

Medicare

21

Medicaid or some other type of state medical assistance for low-income people

14

Private health insurance paid by the individual

17

Health insurance through any other source, including military or veteran’s coverage

12

Total insured

82

Not insured

18

 

Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, August 7- September 6, 2012 Survey. N=3,014 adults and the margin of error is +/- 2.4 percentage points for the full sample.

Women are more likely to have health insurance than men, along with whites and African-Americans compared to Hispanics. Those with a higher income and level of education are also more likely to have health insurance.  Very nearly all adults over 65 have health insurance (99%), mostly due to Medicare.

Health insurance coverage, by demographic group

% of adults within each group who have health insurance

 

All adults (n=3,014)

82%

a

Men (n=1,337)

79

b

Women (n=1,677)

86a

 

Age

 

a

18-29 (n=478)

64

b

30-49 (n=833)

83a

c

50-64 (n=814)

86a

d

65+ (n=830)

99abc

 

Race/ethnicity

 

a

White, Non-Hispanic (n=1,864)

87bc

b

Black, Non-Hispanic (n=497)

81c

c

Hispanic (n=427)

63

 

Annual household income

 

a

Less than $30,000/yr (n=876)

67

b

$30,000-$49,999 (n=523)

84a

c

$50,000-$74,999 (n=371)

95ab

d

$75,000+ (n=680)

96ab

 

Education level

 

a

No high school diploma (n=269)

67

b

High school grad (n=830)

78a

c

Some College (n=778)

82a

d

College + (n=1,115)

94abc

Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, August 7 September 6, 2012 Survey. N=3,014 adults and the margin of error is +/-

2.4 percentage points for the full sample. Margins of error for sub- populations are higher.

Note: Columns marked with a superscript letter (a) or another letter

indicate a statistically significant difference between that row and the ro designated by that superscript letter. Statistical significance is determined inside the specific section covering each demographic trait.

Additional details about those who post reviews online.

Posting Online Health Reviews and Rankings

% of adults within each group who post online health reviews or rankings

 

 

 

All internet users (n=2,392)

7%

a

Men (n=1,084)

7

b

Women (n=1,208)

8

 

Age

 

a

18-29 (n=454)

5

b

30-49 (n=759)

9ad

c

50-64 (n=668)

8d

d

65+ (n=463)

4

 

Race/ethnicity

 

a

White, non-Hispanic (n=1,531)

7

b

Black, non-Hispanic (n=348)

7

c

Hispanic (n=314)

9

 

Annual household income

 

a

Less than $30,000/yr (n=559)

5

b

$30,000-$49,999 (n=439)

11a

c

$50,000-$74,999 (n=352)

6

d

$75,000+ (n=660)

9a

 

Education Level

 

a

No high school diploma (n=107)

4

b

High school grad (n=574)

6

c

Some college (n=656)

7

d

College+ (n=1,046)

9b

Source: Pew Internet Health Survey, August 7 – September 6, 2012. N=3,014 adults ages 18+. Interviews were conducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. Margin of error is +/- 2.4 percentage points for all adults.

Note: Columns marked with a superscript letter (a) or another letter

indicate a statistically significant difference between that row and the row designated by that superscript letter. Statistical significance is determined inside the specific section covering each demographic trait.

Survey questions

 

Health Tracking Survey 2012

 

Revised Topline

 

11/27/2012

Data for August 7–September 6, 2012

 

 

Princeton Survey Research Associates International for

the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project

Sample: n=3,014 national adults, age 18 and older, including 1,206 cell phone interviews Interviewing dates: 08.07.2012 – 09.06.2012

Margin of error is plus or minus 2.4 percentage points for results based on total [n=3,014]

Margin of error is plus or minus 2.6 percentage points for results based on internet users [n=2,392] Margin of error is plus or minus 2.6 percentage points for results based on cell phone owners [n=2,581] Margin of error is plus or minus 3.1 percentage points for results based on online health seekers [n=1,741] Margin of error is plus or minus 3.8 percentage points for results based on caregivers [n=1,171]

Q1 Overall, how would you rate the quality of life for you and your family today? Would you say it is excellent, very good, good, fair or poor?

 

EXCELLENT

VERY GOOD

GOOD

FAIR

POOR

DON'T KNOW 2

REFUSED

Current

17

26

32

19

5

*

*

2 For this question and many others throughout the topline, results for “Don’t know” often reflect combined “Don’t know”

and “Refused” percentages.  DK and REF are reported separately where available.

INTUSE Do you use the internet, at least occasionally?

EMLOCCDo you send or receive email, at least occasionally?

INTMOBDo you access the internet on a cell phone, tablet or other mobile handheld device, at least occasionally?3

 

 

USES INTERNET

DOES NOT USE

INTERNET

Current

81

19

     

 

 

QL1         Do you have a cell phone... or a Blackberry or iPhone or other device that is also a cell phone?4

 

 

YES

NO

DON’T KNOW

REFUSED

85

15

*

0

Current

 

 

 

 

 

SMPH     Some cell phones are called “smartphones” because of certain features they have. Is your cell phone a smartphone, such as an iPhone, Android, Blackberry or Windows phone, or are you not sure?5

 

Based on cell phone owners

 

 

 

CURRENT

 

%

53

Yes, smartphone

 

40

No, not a smartphone

 

6

Not sure/Don’t know

 

*

Refused

[

n=2,581]

 

 

3 The definition of an internet user varies from survey to survey. From January 2005 thru February 2012, an internet user is someone who uses the internet at least occasionally or sends/receives email at least occasionally (two-part definition with question wording “Do you use the internet, at least occasionally?” OR “Do you send or receive email, at least occasionally?”). Prior to January 2005, an internet user is someone who goes online to access the internet or to send and receive email (question wording “Do you ever go online to access the Internet or World Wide Web or to send and receive email?”).

4 Question was asked of landline sample only. Results shown here have been recalculated to include cell phone sample in the "Yes" percentage. In past polls, question was sometimes asked as an independent question and sometimes as an item

in a series. In January 2010, question wording was “Do you have...a cell phone or a Blackberry or iPhone or other handheld device that is also a cell phone.” In Dec 2008, Nov 2008, May 2008, January 2005 and Nov 23-30 2004, question wording was "Do you happen to have a cell phone?" In August 2008, July 2008 and January 2008, question wording was "Do you have a cell phone, or a Blackberry or other device that is also a cell phone?" In April 2008, Dec 2007, Sept 2007 and April 2006, question wording was “Do you have a cell phone?” Beginning December 2007, question/item was not asked of the cell phone sample, but results shown here reflect Total combined Landline and cell phone sample.

5 Prior to the current survey, question wording was slightly different: “Some cell phones are called ‘smartphones’ because of certain features they have. Is your cell phone a smartphone or not, or are you not sure?”

 

CELL1 Please tell me if you ever use your cell phone to do any of the following things. Do you ever use your cell phone to [INSERT ITEMS; ALWAYS ASK a-b FIRST in order; RANDOMIZE c-f]?6

 

Based on cell phone owners

 

 

YES

NO

DON’T KNOW

REFUSED

 

a.     Send or receive email

 

 

 

50

50

*

0

Current [N=2,581]

 

 

 

b.     Send or receive text messages

 

 

 

80

20

*

0

Current

 

 

 

c.     Take a picture

 

 

 

82

18

*

*

Current

 

 

 

d.     Access the internet7

 

 

 

56

44

0

0

Current

 

 

 

e.     Look for health or medical information online8

 

 

 

31

69

*

*

Current

 

 

 

f.      Check your bank account balance or do any online banking9

 

 

 

29

70

*

*

Current

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6 In May 2011, the question was asked of all Form B cell phone owners and Form A cell phone owners who said in CELL7 that they do more than make calls on their phone. The percentages shown here are based on all cell phone users, counting as “no” Form A cell phone owners who said in CELL7 they use their phones only for making calls. Prior to May 2011, question was asked of all cell phone owners. Prior to January 2010, question wording was “Please tell me if you ever use your cell phone or Blackberry or other device to do any of the following things. Do you ever use it to [INSERT ITEM]?” In January 2010, question wording was “Please tell me if you ever use your cell phone or Blackberry or other handheld device to do any of the following things. Do you ever use it to [INSERT ITEMS]?” For January 2010, December 2009, and September 2009, an answer category “Cell phone can’t do this” was available as a volunteered option; “No” percentages for those trends reflect combined “No” and “Cell phone can’t do this” results.

7 In December 2007, item wording was “Access the internet for news, weather, sports, or other information”

8 In April 2012, question was asked of cell phone owners who use the internet or email on their cell phone or download apps to their cell phone [N=953]; results are re-percentaged on all cell phone owners. In September 2010, question was a

standalone question with the following question wording: “Do you ever use your cell phone to look up health or medical information?”

9 In April 2012, question was asked of Form A cell phone owners who use the internet or email on their cell phone or download apps to their cell phone [N=953]; results are re-percentaged on all Form A cell phone owners.

 

Q2 Switching topics... In general, how would you rate your own health — excellent, good, only fair, or poor?

 

 

 

CURRENT

 

%

28

Excellent

 

52

Good

 

16

Only fair

 

4

Poor

 

*

Don’t know

 

*

Refused

 

Q3 Are you now living with any of the following health problems or conditions?

First, [INSERT ITEM; RANDOMIZE a-e; ITEM f ALWAYS LAST]? And what about... [INSERT ITEM]? [IF NECESSARY: Are you now living with [INSERT ITEM]?]

 

 

YES

NO

DON’T KNOW

REFUSED

 

a.     Diabetes or sugar diabetes

 

 

 

 

 

11

88

*

*

Current

 

 

 

b.     High blood pressure

 

 

 

25

74

1

*

Current

 

 

 

c.     Asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, or other lung conditions

 

 

 

13

86

*

*

Current

 

 

 

d.     Heart disease, heart failure or heart attack

 

 

 

7

92

*

*

Current

 

 

 

e.     Cancer

 

 

 

3

96

*

*

Current

 

 

 

f.      Any other chronic health problem or condition I haven’t already mentioned

 

 

 

16

83

*

*

Current

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q4 In the last 12 months, have you personally

[INSERT ITEMS IN ORDER]?

 

 

YES

NO

DON’T KNOW

REFUSED

a.     Faced a serious medical emergency or cr           10

isis

 

 

 

11

89

*

*

Current

 

 

 

b.     Gone to the emergency room or been hospitalized unexpectedly

 

 

 

17

83

*

*

Current

 

 

 

 

 

 

10 In September 2010, question was asked as a standalone question. For December 2008 and earlier, trend question wording was: “And in the last 12 months, have you or has someone close to you faced a serious medical emergency or crisis?”

 

c.     Experienced any significant change in your

physical health, such as gaining or losing a lot of weight, becoming pregnant, or quitting smokin 11

g

 

 

 

18

81

*

*

Current

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q5 Thinking about the LAST time you had a serious health issue or experienced any significant change in your physical health

Did you get information, care or support from... [INSERT ITEM; RANDOMIZE]? [IF YES AND INTERNET USER: Did you interact with them ONLINE through the internet or email, OFFLINE by visiting them in person or talking on the phone, or BOTH online and offline?]12

 

 

YES,

ONLINE

YES,

OFFLINE

 

YES, BOTH

NO, NOT A

SOURCE

DON’T

KNOW

 

REFUSED

a.     A doctor or other health care professional

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

61

8

28

1

1

Current

 

 

 

 

 

b.     Friends and family

 

 

 

 

 

1

39

20

39

*

1

Current

 

 

 

 

 

c.     Others who have the same health condition

 

 

 

 

 

2

15

7

73

1

1

Current

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11 In September 2010, question was asked as a standalone question with the following question wording: “And in the last 12 months, have you experienced any other significant change in your physical health, such as gaining or losing a lot of weight, becoming pregnant, or quitting smoking?”

12 September 2010 question wording was slightly different: “Thinking about the LAST time you had a health issue, did you get information, care or support from… [INSERT; RANDOMIZE]? [IF YES AND INTERNET USER: Did you interact with them ONLINE through the internet or email, OFFLINE by visiting them in person or talking on the phone, or BOTH online and offline?]”

 

[READ TO ALL:] On another topic...

 

 

CARE2 In the past 12 months, have you provided UNPAID care to an adult relative or friend 18 years or older to help them take care of themselves? Unpaid care may include help with personal needs or household chores. It might be managing a person’s finances, arranging for outside services, or visiting regularly to see how they are doing. This person need not live with you.

 

[IF R ASKS IF GIVING MONEY COUNTS, ASK:] Aside from giving money, do you provide any other type of unpaid care to help them take care of themselves, such as help with personal needs, household chores, arranging for outside services, or other things?

 

 

CURRENT

%

36

Yes

 

64

No

 

*

Don’t know

 

*

Refused

 

 

 

 

 

CARE3 Do you provide this type of care to just one adult, or do you care for more than one adult?

 

Based on those who provide unpaid care to adults

 

 

CURRENT

%

66

One adult only

 

34

Provide care to multiple adults

 

*

Don’t know

 

*

Refused

[n=1,085]

 

 

CARE4 [ASK IF PROVIDE UNPAID CARE TO ONE ADULT:] Is this person your parent or your mother-in-law or father-in-law, or not?13

 

CARE5   [ASK IF PROVIDE UNPAID CARE TO MULTIPLE ADULTS, DON’T KNOW OR REFUSED:]

Are any of the adults you care for your parent or your mother-in-law or father-in-law, or not?14

 

Based on those who provide unpaid care to adults

 

 

CURRENT

%

47

Yes, parent or mother-in-law/father-in-law

 

53

No, not a parent or mother-in-law/father-in-law

 

*

Don’t know

 

*

Refused

[n=1,085]

 

 

 

 

CARE6 In the past 12 months, have you provided UNPAID care to any CHILD under the age of 18 because of a medical, behavioral, or other condition or disability? This could include care for ongoing medical conditions or serious short-term conditions, emotional or behavioral problems, or developmental problems, including mental retardation.

 

 

CURRENT

%

8

Yes

 

92

No

 

*

Don’t know

 

*

Refused

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13 September 2010 question wording was slightly different: “Is this person a parent of yours, or not?”

14 September 2010 question wording was slightly different: “Are any of the adults you care for a parent of yours, or not?”

 

Now, we’d like to know if you’ve looked for information ONLINE about certain health or medical issues, either for yourself or someone else. Specifically, in the last 12 months, have you looked online for information about... [INSERT FIRST ITEM; ASK a-b FIRST IN ORDER THEN RANDOMIZE c-k; ITEM L ALWAYS LAST]? In the last 12 months, have you looked online for information about...  [INSERT NEXT ITEM]?15

 

Based on all internet users [N=2,392]

 

YES, HAVE

DONE THIS

NO, HAVE NOT

DONE THIS

 

DON’T KNOW

 

REFUSED

 

a.     A specific disease or medical problem

 

 

 

55

44

*

*

Current

 

 

 

b.     A certain medical treatment or procedure

 

 

 

43

56

*

*

Current

 

 

 

c.      Health insurance, including private insurance, Medicare or Medicaid

 

 

 

25

75

*

*

Current

 

 

 

d.     Pregnancy and childbirth

 

 

 

12

88

0

*

Current

 

 

 

e.     Food safety or recalls

 

 

 

19

80

*

*

Current

 

 

 

f.      Drug safety or recalls

 

 

 

16

84

*

*

Current

 

 

 

g.     Medical test results

 

 

 

15

85

*

*

Current

 

 

 

h.     How to lose weight or how to control your weight

 

 

 

27

73

*

*

Current

 

 

 

i.      How to reduce your health care costs

 

 

 

11

89

*

*

Current

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15 Prior to the current survey, question wording was: “Now, we’d like to ask if you’ve looked for information ONLINE about certain health or medical issues. Specifically, have you ever looked online for… [INSERT ITEM]?” List of items may vary from survey to survey. The phrase “in the last 12 months” was added in the 2012 survey.

 

 

YES, HAVE

DONE THIS

NO, HAVE NOT

DONE THIS

 

DON’T KNOW

 

REFUSED

 

j.      Caring for an aging relative or friend

 

 

 

14

86

*

*

Current

 

 

 

k.     A drug you saw advertised

 

 

 

16

84

*

*

Current

 

 

 

l.      Any other health issue

 

 

 

20

79

*

*

Current

 

 

 

 

72

 

 

 

Total yes to any item above

 

 

 

28

 

 

 

Total no to all items

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Q7 Thinking about the LAST time you went online for health or medical information... Did you go online to look for information related to YOUR OWN health or medical situation or SOMEONE ELSE’S health or medical situation?

 

Based on online health seekers

 

 

CURRENT

%

39

Own

 

39

Someone else’s

 

15

Both (VOL.)

 

3

Don’t know

 

3

Refused

 

[n=1,741]

 

Q8 Still thinking about the LAST time you went online to look for health information... How did you begin looking? Did you start

[READ 1-4 IN ORDER]

 

Based on online health seekers [N=1,741]

 

 

CURRENT

%

77

At a search engine such as Google, Bing or Yahoo

 

13

At a site that specializes in health information, like WebMD

 

2

At a more general site like Wikipedia, that contains information on all kinds of topics, OR

 

1

At a social network site like Facebook?

 

3

(VOL.) Other (SPECIFY)

 

2

(VOL.) Don’t know

 

2

(VOL.) Refused

 

 

 

 

 

There is no Question Q9.

Q10 When looking for health information online, have you ever been asked to PAY for access to something you wanted to see on the internet?

 

Based on online health seekers [N=1,741]

 

 

CURRENT

%

26

Yes

 

73

No

 

1

Don’t know

 

*

Refused

 

 

 

 

 

Q11 The last time you were asked to PAY to access health content online, what did you do? Did you

[READ 1-3; READ CATEGORIES IN REVERSE ORDER FOR HALF THE SAMPLE]

 

Based on online health seekers who have been asked to pay for health content online [N=456]

 

 

CURRENT

%

2

Pay for access

 

83

Try to find the same information somewhere else

 

13

Give up

 

1

(VOL.) Other

 

*

(VOL.) Don’t know

 

*

(VOL.) Refused

 

 

 

 

 

Q12 Have you ever gone online specifically to try to figure out what medical condition you or someone else might have?

 

Based on online health seekers [N=1,741]

 

 

CURRENT

%

59

Yes

 

40

No

 

*

Don’t know

 

*

Refused

 

Q13 Did the information you found online lead you to think that this was a condition that needed the attention of a doctor or other medical professional, or that it was something you could take care of at home?

 

Based on online health seekers who have gone online to figure out what medical condition they or someone else might have [N=1,003]

 

 

CURRENT

%

46

Needed attention of doctor

 

38

Could take care of at home

 

11

Both/in-between (VOL.)

 

4

Don’t know

 

1

Refused

 

Q14 Did you happen to talk with a medical professional about what you found online?

 

Based on online health seekers who have gone online to figure out what medical condition they or someone else might have [N=1,003]

 

 

CURRENT

%

53

Yes

 

46

No

 

1

Don’t know

 

1

Refused

 

Q15 Did a medical professional confirm what you thought the condition was with a medical diagnosis, did they offer a different medical opinion or diagnosis, or did you not visit a doctor or other medical professional for a diagnosis?

 

Based on online health seekers who have gone online to figure out what medical condition they or someone else might have [N=1,003]

 

 

CURRENT

%

41

Yes, confirmed

 

18

No, did not confirm/offered different diagnosis

 

35

Did not visit a doctor or medical professional for a diagnosis

 

2

Confirmed part but not all of R’s diagnosis (VOL.)

 

1

Medical professional was unable to diagnose (VOL.)

 

1

Don’t know

 

1

Refused

 

Q16 Apart from looking for information online, there are many different activities related to health and medical issues a person might do on the internet.

I’m going to read a list of online health-related activities you may or may not have done in the last 12 months.

Just tell me if you happened to do each one, or not. (First,) in the last 12 months, have you... [INSERT ITEM; RANDOMIZE]? In the last 12 months, have you...[INSERT ITEM]?

 

 

YES

NO

DON’T KNOW

REFUSED

a.     Signed up to receive email updates or alerts about health or medical issues

 

 

 

11

89

*

*

Current internet users [N=2,392]

 

 

 

b.     Read or watched someone else's commentary or personal experience about health or medical issues online

 

 

 

26

74

*

*

Current internet users

 

 

 

c.     Gone online to find others who might have health concerns similar to yours

 

 

 

16

84

*

*

Current internet users

 

 

 

d.     Downloaded forms online or applied for health insurance online, including private insurance, Medicare, or Medicaid

 

 

 

12

88

*

0

Current internet users

 

 

 

 

 

Q17 Still thinking just about the last 12 months, have you posted a health-related question online or shared your own personal health experience online in any way?

 

Based on all internet users [N=2,392]

 

 

CURRENT

%

8

Yes

 

92

No

 

*

Don’t know

 

0

Refused

 

Q18 And what was it that you posted or shared online?

Was it a specific QUESTION about your health, a COMMENT or STORY about your personal health experience, or BOTH a question and a comment?

 

Based on internet users who have posted about a health topic or shared a health experience online [N=173]

 

 

CURRENT

%

19

Specific health question

 

40

Comments/Stories about personal health experiences

 

38

Both

 

2

Neither/Something else (VOL.)

 

1

Don’t know

 

0

Refused

 

 

 

 

 

Q19 And the LAST time you posted or shared health material online, did you post it somewhere specifically to get feedback from a health professional, or did you post it somewhere it would be read by a more general audience of friends or other internet users?

 

Based on internet users who have posted about a health topic or shared a health experience online [N=173]

 

 

CURRENT

%

11

Health professional

 

78

More general audience

 

4

Both (VOL.)

 

5

Neither/Something else (VOL.)

 

1

Don’t know

 

0

Refused

 

Q20 Thinking again about health-related activities you may or may not do online, have you

[INSERT ITEM; RANDOMIZE]? (Next,) have you...[INSERT ITEM]?16

 

 

YES

NO

DON’T KNOW

REFUSED

a.     Consulted online rankings or reviews of doctors or other providers17

 

 

 

17

83

*

*

Current internet users [N=2,392]

 

 

 

b.     Consulted online rankings or reviews of hospitals or other medical facilities18

 

 

 

14

86

*

0

Current internet users

 

 

 

c.     Consulted online reviews of particular drugs or medical treatments

 

 

 

18

82

1

*

Current internet users

 

 

 

d.     Posted a review online of a doctor

 

 

 

4

96

0

0

Current internet users

 

 

 

e.     Posted a review online of a hospital

 

 

 

3

97

*

*

Current internet users

 

 

 

f.      Posted your experiences with a particular drug or medical treatment online

 

 

 

3

97

*

0

Current internet users

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16 Current question was asked of all internet users. September 2010 trend question was also asked of all internet users, with items asked in rotated order. December 2008 trend question was asked of online health seekers, with the following question wording: “There are many different activities related to health and medical issues a person might do on the internet. I’m going to read a list of things you may or may not have ever done online related to health and medical issues. Just tell me if you happened to do each one, or not. Have you… [INSERT ITEM; ROTATE]?”

17 December 2008 trend item wording was “Consulted rankings or reviews online of doctors or other providers”

18 December 2008 trend item wording was “Consulted rankings or reviews online of hospitals or other medical facilities”

 

[READ TO CELL PHONE OWNERS:] Now thinking about how you might use your cell phone to help manage your health...

 

Q21 Do you receive any TEXT updates or alerts about health or medical issues, such as from your doctors or pharmacists?

 

Based on cell phone owners who text message [N=1,896]

 

 

CURRENT

%

9

Yes

 

91

No

 

*

Don’t know

 

*

Refused

 

 

 

 

 

Q22 On your cell phone, do you happen to have any software applications or “apps” that help you track or manage your health, or not?

 

Based on cell phone owners

 

 

CURRENT

%

11

Yes

 

88

No

 

1

Don’t know

 

*

Refused

[n=2,581]

 

 

Q23 What kind of health apps do you currently have on your phone?

[IF NECESSARY, CLARIFY: What health issue or topic do your apps deal with?] [DO NOT READ; PRECODED OPEN-END]

 

Based on those who have health apps on their cell phone [N=254]

 

 

 

CURRENT

 

%

38

Exercise, fitness, pedometer or heart rate monitoring (includes specific types of exercise like running, ab workouts, yoga, etc.)

 

31

Diet, food, calorie counter

 

12

Weight

 

7

Period or menstrual cycle

 

5

Blood pressure

 

4

WebMD

 

3

Pregnancy

 

2

Blood sugar or diabetes

 

2

Medication management (tracking, alerts, etc.)

 

*

Mood

 

*

Sleep

 

14

Other (SPECIFY)

 

6

Don’t know

 

*

Refused

 

Note: Total may exceed 100% due to multiple responses.

[READ TO ALL:] A few last questions for statistical purposes only...

 

 

INS1       Now I would like to ask you about any health insurance you CURRENTLY have that helps pay for the cost of health care. I’m going to read a list of a few types of health insurance, and I’d like you to tell me which of these you have, if any. (First,) are you now PERSONALLY covered by [INSERT ITEMS IN ORDER]?

 

[IF RESPONDENT NOT SURE WHICH INSURANCE IS INCLUDED: Please think about

insurance plans that cover the costs of doctor and hospital bills IN GENERAL, and NOT those that cover ONLY dental or eye care or the costs of caring for specific diseases.]

 

[IF RESPONDENTS TRY TO TELL TYPE THEY HAVE INSTEAD OF GOING THROUGH THE

LIST: I’m sorry but I have to ask about each type of insurance for the survey. Just tell me ‘no’ if you don’t have this type.]

 

 

 

YES

NO

DON’T KNOW

REFUSED

a.     Private health insurance offered through an employer or union [IF “NO”: This could be insurance through a current job, a former job, your job or someone else’s job.]

 

 

51

 

 

47

 

 

1

 

 

1

b.     A private health insurance plan that you bought yourself

17

82

1

1

c. Medicaid, [IF STATE CALIFORNIA: Medi-Cal], or some other type of state medical assistance for low-income people

 

14

 

85

 

1

 

*

d.     Medicare, the government program that pays health care bills for people over age 65 and for some disabled people

 

21

 

78

 

1

 

*

Item E: Based on those who are not insured through private health insurance, Medicaid, or Medicare [N=526]

 

 

 

 

e.     Health insurance through ANY other source, including military or veteran’s coverage

12

87

*

1

INS2       Medicare is health insurance coverage most people receive when they turn 65 and are eligible for Social Security. This includes different kinds of health plans offered THROUGH the Medicare program — like the plans called H-M-Os. Are you now covered by Medicare or by ANY Medicare plan?

 

Based on those age 65 and older who are not covered by Medicare [N=82]

 

 

CURRENT

%

38

Yes, covered

 

56

No, not covered

 

3

Don’t know

 

3

Refused

 

INS3       Does this mean you personally have NO health insurance now that would cover your doctor or hospital bills?

 

Based on those who are not covered by any health insurance or are undesignated [N=450]

 

 

CURRENT

%

91

I do NOT have health insurance

 

7

I HAVE some kind of health insurance

 

1

Don’t know

 

2

Refused

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY OF INSURANCE STATUS (BASED ON INS1, INS2, INS3)

 

 

CURRENT

%

82

Insured

 

18

Not insured

 

 

 

 

The remaining demographic questions are not reported in this topline.

Methodology

Summary

The 2012 Health Survey, sponsored by the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project and the California HealthCare Foundation, obtained telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 3,014 adults living in the United States. Telephone interviews were conducted by landline (1,808) and cell phone (1,206, including 624 without a landline phone). The survey was conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International. Interviews were done in English and Spanish by Princeton Data Source from August 7 to September 6, 2012. Statistical results are weighted to correct known demographic discrepancies. The margin of sampling error for the complete set of weighted data is ±2.4 percentage points.

DESIGN AND DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES

 

Sample Design

 

A combination of landline and cell random digit dial (RDD) samples was used to reach a representative sample of all adults the United States who have access to either a landline or cellular telephone. Both samples were disproportionately-stratified to increase the incidence of African-American and Hispanic respondents. Within strata, phone numbers were drawn with equal probabilities. The landline samples were list-assisted and drawn from active blocks containing three or more residential listing while the cell samples were not list-assisted, but were drawn through a systematic sampling from dedicated wireless 100-blocks and shared service 100-blocks with no directory-listed landline numbers.

 

Contact Procedures

 

Interviews were conducted from August 7 to September 6, 2012. As many as 7 attempts were made to contact every sampled telephone number. Sample was released for interviewing in replicates, which are representative subsamples of the larger sample. Using replicates to control the release of sample ensures that complete call procedures are followed for the entire sample. Calls were staggered over times of day and days of the week to maximize the chance of making contact with potential respondents. Each phone number received at least one daytime call.

 

For the landline sample, interviewers asked to speak with either the youngest male or youngest female currently at home based on a random rotation. If no male/female was available at the time of the call, interviewers asked to speak with the youngest adult of the opposite sex. This systematic respondent selection technique has been shown to produce samples that closely mirror the population in terms of age and gender when combined with cell sample.

 

For the cell sample, interviews were attempted with the person who answered the phone. Interviewers first verified that the person was and adult and in a safe place before continuing with the interview.

 

WEIGHTING AND ANALYSIS

 

Weighting is generally used in survey analysis to adjust for effects of the sample design and to compensate for patterns of nonresponse that might bias results. The weighting was accomplished in 

multiple stages to account for the disproportionately-stratified sample, the overlapping landline and cell sample frames and differential non-response associated with sample demographics.

 

The first-stage of weighting compensated for the disproportionate sample design. This adjustment (called SAMPWT in the dataset) was computed by dividing the proportion of the population from each stratum by the proportion of sample drawn from the stratum. The landline and cell samples were drawn using the same relative sampling fractions within strata so the. Table 1 shows the SAMPWT values by strata.

Table 1. SAMPWT by Stratum

 

 

    Strata           

Population Dist'n            

Sample Dist'n       

 

SAMPWT  

1

10.8%

4.1%

2.63

2

9.0%

3.4%

2.63

3

9.8%

3.7%

2.63

4

9.5%

3.6%

2.63

5

10.6%

8.1%

1.31

6

9.0%

10.2%

0.88

7

9.7%

11.1%

0.88

8

11.4%

17.4%

0.66

9

9.3%

17.8%

0.53

        10             

10.7%           

20.5%           

0.53       

 

The second stage of weighting corrected for different probabilities of selection based on the number of adults in each household and each respondents telephone use (i.e., whether the respondent has access to a landline, to a cell phone or to both types of phone).

The second-stage weight can be expressed as:  

 

 

 

 

 

LLi

=1 if respondent has a landline phone and =0 if respondent has no landline phone

CP

=1 if respondent has a cell phone and =0 if respondent has no cell phone

SLL

the size of the landline sample

SCP

the size of the cell sample

R

the estimated ratio of the size of the landline sample frame to the size of the cell sample frame. For this survey R=0.55.

 

 

Both adjustments were incorporated into a first-stage weight that was used as an input weight for post- stratification. The data was raked to match sample distributions to population parameters. The African- American and White/Other samples were raked to match parameters for sex by age, sex by education, age by education and region. Hispanics were raked to match population parameters for sex by age, sex by education, age by education and region. In addition, the Hispanic group was raked to a nativity parameter.

The combined data was then raked to match population parameters for sex by age, sex by education, age by education, region, household phone use and population density. The white, non-Hispanic subgroup was also balanced by age, education and region. The telephone usage parameter was derived from an analysis of recently available National Health Interview Survey data19. The population density parameter is county-based and was derived from Census 2000 data. All other weighting parameters were derived from the Census Bureau’s 2011 Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC).

This stage of weighting, which incorporated each respondent's first-stage weight, was accomplished using Sample Balancing, a special iterative sample weighting program that simultaneously balances the distributions of all variables using a statistical technique called the Deming Algorithm. The raking corrects for differential non-response that is related to particular demographic characteristics of the sample. This weight ensures that the demographic characteristics of the sample closely approximate the demographic characteristics of the population. Table 2 compares full sample weighted and unweighted sample demographics to population parameters.

19 Blumberg SJ, Luke JV. Wireless substitution: Early release of estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, July-December, 2011. National Center for Health Statistics. June 2012.

Table 2. Sample Demographic

 

Parameter

Unweighted

Weighted

Gender

 

 

 

Male

48.6

44.4

48.9

Female

51.4

55.6

51.1

Age

 

 

 

18-24

12.8

10.0

12.8

25-34

18.0

12.4

17.5

35-44

17.2

13.2

17.3

45-54

19.0

17.8

19.2

55-64

16.0

18.5

16.0

65+

17.0

28.1

17.3

Education (changed)

 

 

 

Less than HS Graduate

13.3

9.0

11.7

HS Graduate

30.4

27.7

30.6

Some College/Assoc

Degree

28.5

26.0

28.8

College Graduate

27.8

37.3

28.9

Race/Ethnicity

 

 

 

White/not Hispanic

67.8

63.0

68.1

Black/not Hispanic

11.5

16.8

11.8

Hisp - US born

6.6

7.6

6.6

Hisp - born outside

7.4

6.8

7.0

Other/not Hispanic

6.7

5.7

6.5

Region

 

 

 

Northeast

18.3

16.4

19.2

Midwest

21.7

19.0

22.1

South

36.8

41.5

36.1

West

23.2

23.0

22.6

 

 

 

(continued…)

 

  Table 2. Sample Demographics (…continued)                                                      

County Pop. Density

 

 

 

1 - Lowest

20.1

18.8

20.4

2

20.0

18.0

20.1

3

20.1

18.9

20.2

4

20.2

20.0

19.9

5 - Highest

19.6

24.4

19.3

Household Phone Use

 

 

 

LLO

7.0

7.9

7.2

Dual - few,some cell

39.0

54.4

40.3

Dual - most cell

18.8

16.9

18.9

CPO

35.2

20.8

33.6

 

Effects of Sample Design on Statistical Inference

Post-data collection statistical adjustments require analysis procedures that reflect departures from simple random sampling. PSRAI calculates the effects of these design features so that an appropriate adjustment can be incorporated into tests of statistical significance when using these data. The so-called "design effect" or deff represents the loss in statistical efficiency that results from a disproportionate sample design and systematic non-response. The total sample design effect for this survey is 1.75.

PSRAI calculates the composite design effect for a sample of size n, with each case having a weight, wi

as:

 

In a wide range of situations, the adjusted standard error of a statistic should be calculated by multiplying the usual formula by the square root of the design effect (√deff ). Thus, the formula for computing the 95% confidence interval around a percentage is:

where pˆ is the sample estimate and n is the unweighted number of sample cases in the group being considered.

The survey’s margin of error is the largest 95% confidence interval for any estimated proportion based on the total sample— the one around 50%. For example, the margin of error for the entire sample is

±2.4 percentage points. This means that in 95 out of every 100 samples drawn using the same methodology, estimated proportions based on the entire sample will be no more than 2.4 percentage points away from their true values in the population. It is important to remember that sampling fluctuations are only one possible source of error in a survey estimate. Other sources, such as respondent selection bias, question wording and reporting inaccuracy may contribute additional error of greater or lesser magnitude. Table 3 shows design effects and margins of error for key subgroups.

Table 3. Design Effects and Margins of Sampling Error

 

Sample

Size

Design

Effect

 

Margin of Error

Total Sample

3,014

1.75

2.4 percentage points

White, not Hispanic

1,864

1.75

3.0 percentage points

African American, not Hispanic

497

1.62

5.6 percentage points

Hispanic

427

1.56

5.9 percentage points

 

RESPONSE RATE

Table 4 reports the disposition of all sampled telephone numbers ever dialed from the original telephone number samples. The response rate estimates the fraction of all eligible sample that was ultimately interviewed. 20

Table 4. Sample Disposition

Landline

Cell

1807

1205

I=Completes

8660

10980

R=Refusal and breakoff

3941

5570

NC=Non contact

164

87

O=Other

40051

13668

OF=Business/computer/not working/child's cell phone

4225

619

UH/UO=Unknown household/Unknown other

0.27

0.57

AAPOR's e=(I+R+NC+O)/(I+R+NC+O+OF)

11.5%

6.6%

AAPOR RR3=I/[I+R+NC+O+(e*UH/UO)]

 

20 The sample disposition codes and reporting are consistent with the American Association for Public Opinion Research standards.

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