Table of contents
  1. Story
    1. Introduction
    2. Publication Matrix Graphic
    3. Peter Morosoff Expertise
    4. Frequency of Terms
    5. Some Conclusions
    6. Activity-based Information
  2. Joint Doctrine Pubs Interface
    1. Legend
    2. Publication Matrix
  3. Slides
    1. Slide 1 Data Science for Joint Doctrine
    2. Slide 2 Overview
    3. Slide 3 Yosemite Project for Healthcare Information Interoperability & New Ontology Book
    4. Slide 4 Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology
    5. Slide 5 Information Meeting on Joint Doctrine
    6. Slide 6 Joint Electronic Library
    7. Slide 7 Data Mining-Science-Questions-Publication Process
    8. Slide 8 DoD Joint Doctrine MindTouch Knowledge Base
    9. Slide 9 DoD Joint Doctrine Spreadsheet Knowledge Base
    10. Slide 10 DoD Data Dictionaries-Spotfire
    11. Slide 11 DoD Joint Doctrine Knowledge Bases
    12. Slide 12 Conclusions and Recommendations
  4. Spotfire Dashboard
  5. Research Notes
  6. Joint Doctrine Ontology: A Benchmark for Military Information Systems Interoperability
    1. Abstract
    2. I. JOINT DOCTRINE
    3. II. BATTLE MANAGEMENT LANGUAGE (BML)
    4. III. INTEROPERABILITY
    5. IV. FAILURES OF INTEROPERABILITY AND REQUIREMENT FOR EFFECTIVE GUIDANCE TO IT DEVELOPERS IN THE FUTURE
    6. V. THE SOLUTION
    7. VI. UNIFIED ACTION OF HUMAN WARFIGHTERS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS
    8. VII. RULES FOR DEFINITIONS IN INSTRUCTION 5705.01D
      1. Table 1: Examples of errors in JP 1-02 (from June 15, 2015)
    9. VIII. PROPOSED SUPPLEMENTARY RULES FOR DEFINITIONS
    10. IX. BUILDING THE JDO
      1. Figure 1: OBO Foundry strategy for modular coordination
      2. Figure 2: Common Core and associated domain ontologies
    11. X. POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF THE JDO TO THE WARFIGHTER
      1. Figure 3: Examples of CCO and JP 1 terms descending from BFO in the JDO
    12. XI. POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF JDO TO THE DOCTRINE STAFF
      1. Figure 4: Fragment of the JP 1-02 network generated by the relation is used to define.
    13. APPENDIX: EXAMPLES OF PRIOR WORK
    14. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    15. REFERENCES
  7. Information Meeting Notes
    1. Introduction by Barry Smith
    2. MAMA Jason Bryant
    3. Grizelda Loy-Kroft Agile and Secure Information Capabilities
    4. Brian Campbell MAMA Applied to Air Mobility Command
    5. BREAK
    6. William Tagliaferri CUBRC MAMA Applied to the Space Mission
    7. Erik Thomson Ontological Support for Living Plan Specification
    8. Ron Rudnicki Common Core Ontologies
    9. LUNCH
    10. Lt Col James McArthur USMC Joint Staff J-7 Joint Doctrine Support for AFRL
    11. Col William Mandrick PhD War Fighting Ontology
    12. Barry Smith NCOR and Alex Cox CUBRC
    13. BREAK
    14. Bill Betts DoD Terminologist
    15. Feedback and General Discussions
  8. Information Meeting on Joint Doctrine Ontology
    1. Background
    2. Examples of Potential Benefits
  9. DoD Dictionary of Military Terms
  10. Joint Doctrine
  11. The Joint Publications
    1. Capstone
      1. Capstone Publications, PDF
    2. Reference
      1. Reference Publications, PDFs
        1. CJCSI 5120.02D, Joint Doctrine Development System, 05 January 2015
        2. CJCSI 5705.01D, Standardization of Military and Associated Terminology, 10 November 2010
        3. CJCSM 5120.01A, Joint Doctrine Development Process, 29 December 2014
        4. JP 1-02, DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 08 November 2010, as amended through 15 June 2015
    3. 1-0: Personnel Series
      1. Personnel, Series 1-0 Publications, PDFs
        1. JP 1-0, Joint Personnel Support, 24 October 2011
        2. JP 1-04, Legal Support to Military Operations,17 August 2011
        3. JP 1-05, Religious Affairs in Joint Operations, 20 November 2013
        4. JP 1-06, Financial Management Support in Joint Operations, 02 March 2012
    4. 2-0: Intelligence Series
      1. Intelligence, Series 2-0 Publications, PDFs
        1. JP 2-0, Joint Intelligence, 22 October 2013
        2. JP 2-01, Joint and National Intelligence Support to Military Operations, 05 January 2012
        3. JP 2-01.3, Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment, 21 May 2014
        4. JP 2-03, Geospatial Intelligence Support to Joint Operations, 31 October 2012
    5. 3-0: Operations Series
      1. Operations, Series 3-0 Publications, PDFs
        1. JP 3-0, Joint Operations, 11 August 2011
        2. JP 3-01, Countering Air and Missile Threats, 23 March 2012
        3. JP 3-02, Amphibious Operations, 18 July 2014
        4. JP 3-02.1, Amphibious Embarkation and Debarkation, 25 November 2014
        5. JP 3-03, Joint Interdiction, 14 October 2011
        6. JP 3-04, Joint Shipboard Helicopter and Tiltrotor Aircraft Operations, 06 December 2012
        7. JP 3-05, Special Operations, 16 July 2014
        8. JP 3-06, Joint Urban Operations, 20 November 2013
        9. JP 3-07, Stability Operations, 29 September 2011
        10. JP 3-07.2, Antiterrorism, 14 March 2014
        11. JP 3-07.3, Peace Operations, 01 August 2012
        12. JP 3-07.4, Joint Counterdrug Operations, 14 August 2013
        13. JP 3-08, Interorganizational Coordination During Joint Operations, 24 June 2011
        14. JP 3-09, Joint Fire Support, 12 December 2014
        15. JP 3-09.3, Close Air Support, 25 November 2014
        16. JP 3-10, Joint Security Operations in Theater, 13 November 2014
        17. JP 3-11, Operations in Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Environments, 04 October 2013
        18. JP 3-12(R), Cyberspace Operations, 05 February 2013
        19. JP 3-13, Information Operations, 27 November 2012 - Change 1, 20 November 2014
        20. JP 3-13.1, Electronic Warfare, 08 February 2012
        21. JP 3-13.2, Military Information Support Operations, 21 November 2014
        22. JP 3-13.3, Operations Security, 04 January 2012
        23. JP 3-13.4, Military Deception, 26 January 2012
        24. JP 3-14, Space Operations, 29 May 2013
        25. JP 3-15, Barriers, Obstacles, and Mine Warfare for Joint Operations, 17 June 2011
        26. JP 3-15.1, Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Operations, 09 January 2012
        27. JP 3-16, Multinational Operations, 16 July 2013
        28. JP 3-17 Air Mobility Operations, 30 September 2013
        29. JP 3-18, Joint Forcible Entry Operations, 27 November 2012
        30. JP 3-22, Foreign Internal Defense, 12 July 2010
        31. JP 3-24, Counterinsurgency, 22 November 2013
        32. JP 3-26, Counterterrorism, 24 October 2014
        33. JP 3-27, Homeland Defense, 29 July 2013
        34. JP 3-28, Defense Support of Civil Authorities, 31 July 2013
        35. JP 3-29, Foreign Humanitarian Assistance, 03 January 2014
        36. JP 3-30, Command and Control of Joint Air Operations, 10 February 2014
        37. JP 3-31, Command and Control for Joint Land Operations, 24 February 2014
        38. JP 3-32, Command and Control for Joint Maritime Operations, 07 August 2013
        39. JP 3-33, Joint Task Force Headquarters, 30 July 2012
        40. JP 3-34, Joint Engineer Operations, 30 June 2011
        41. JP 3-35, Deployment and Redeployment Operations, 31 January 2013
        42. JP 3-40, Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction, 31 October 2014
        43. JP 3-41, Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Consequence Management, 21 June 2012
        44. JP 3-50, Personnel Recovery, 20 December 2011
        45. JP 3-52, Joint Airspace Control, 13 November 2014
        46. JP 3-57, Civil-Military Operations, 11 September 2013
        47. JP 3-59, Meteorological and Oceanographic Operations, 07 December 2012
        48. JP 3-60, Joint Targeting, 31 January 2013
        49. JP 3-61, Public Affairs, 25 August 2010
        50. JP 3-63, Detainee Operations, 13 November 2014
        51. JP 3-68, Noncombatant Evacuation Operations, 23 December 2010
    6. 4-0: Logistics Series
      1. Logistics, Series 4-0 Publications, PDFs
        1. JP 4-0, Joint Logistics, 16 October 2013
        2. JP 4-01, Joint Doctrine for the Defense Transportation System, 06 June 2013
        3. JP 4-01.2, Sealift Support to Joint Operations, 22 June 2012
        4. JP 4-01.5, Joint Terminal Operations, 06 April 2012
        5. JP 4-01.6, Joint Logistics Over-the-Shore, 27 November 2012
        6. JP 4-02, Health Service Support, 26 July 2012
        7. JP 4-03, Joint Bulk Petroleum and Water Doctrine, 09 December 2010
        8. JP 4-05, Joint Mobilization Planning, 21 February 2014
        9. JP 4-06, Mortuary Affairs, 12 October 2011
        10. JP 4-08, Logistics in Support of Multinational Operations, 21 February 2013
        11. JP 4-09 Distribution Operations, 19 December 2013
        12. JP 4-10, Operational Contract Support, 16 July 2014
    7. 5-0: Planning Series
      1. Planning, Series 5-0 Publications, PDF
        1. JP 5-0, Joint Operation Planning, 11 August 2011
    8. 6-0: Communications System Series
      1. C4 Systems, Series 6-0 Publications, PDF
        1. JP 6-0, Joint Communications System, 10 June 2015
        2. JP 6-01, Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations, 20 March 2012
  12. FM 6-40 FIELD ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL: FIRING
    1. CHAPTER 1. THE FIRING BATTERY
      1. I. General
        1. 1. SCOPE
        2. 2. TERMS USED
        3. 3. TRAINING
        4. 4. ACCURACY AND SPEED
        5. 5. LOST MOTION
        6. 6. CHECKING
        7. 7. UNIFORMITY
      2. II. Precautions in firing
        1. 8. REFERENCE
        2. 9. CARE OF MATERIEL
        3. 10. CARE OF AMMUNITION
        4. 11. UNLOADING A PIECE
        5. 12. PRECAUTIONS IN HANDLING AMMUNITION
      3. III. Posts and duties
        1. 13. GENERAL
        2. 14. Executives
        3. 15 ASSISTANT EXECUTIVE
        4. 16. CHIEF OF PIECE SECTION
        5. 17. AMMUNITION SERGEANT OR CORPORAL
        6. 18. TELEPHONE OPERATOR
        7. 19. LINEMEN
        8. 20. RECORDER
        9. 21. CHIEF MECHANIC
        10. 22. SENTINELS
        11. 23. REPLACEMENT OF CASUALTIES
        12. 24. RESUPPLY OF AMMUNITION
      4. IV. Organization of the position
        1. 25. DEFINITION
        2. 26. ORDER IN BATTERY
        3. 27. OCCUPATION OF POSITION
        4. 28. LAYING THE BATTERY FOR DIRECTION
        5. 29. REFERRING PIECES
        6. 30. DISPLACEMENT CORRECTIONS
        7. 31. DETERMINING PIECE INTERVALS
        8. 32. DETERMINING MINIMUM RANGE OR ELEVATION
        9. 33. OPENING FIRE
        10. 34. IMPROVING EMPLACEMENTS
        11. 35. DEFENSIVE MEASURES (FM 6-20)
        12. 37. RECORDS
        13. 38. EVACUATION OF CASUALTIES
      5. V. Fire commands and their execution
        1. 39. DEFINITIONS
        2. 40. ORIGIN AND TRANSMISSION
        3. 41. NUMBERS
          1. TABLE
        4. 42. REPETITION
        5. 43. INITIAL COMMANDS; CHANGES
        6. 44. OPENING FIRE
        7. 45. CEASING FIRE
        8. 46. SUSPENDING AND RESUMING FIRE
        9. 47. SIGNALS
        10. 48. PIECES TO FOLLOW COMMANDS
        11. 49. SEQUENCE
        12. 50. COMMANDS FOR SPECIAL ADJUSTMENTS AND MISSIONS
        13. 51. INITIAL DIRECTION
        14. 52. CHANGES INq DIRECTION
        15. 53. TARGET
        16. 54. AIMING POINT AND DEFLECTION
        17. 55. Y-Azimuth
        18. 56. BASE ANGLE
        19. 57. LAYING PARALLEL WITH AIMING CIRCLE
        20. 58. LAYING PARALLEL BY RECIPROCAL LAYING
        21. 59. LAYING PARALLEL BY USE OF A COMMON AIMING POINT
        22. 60. DIRECTION ESTABLISHED BY ONE PIECE
        23. 61. DEFLECTION DIFFERENCE
        24. 62. CONVERGING THE SHEAF
          1. TABLE
        25. 63. ANGLE OF SITE
        26. 64. PROJECTILE
        27. 65. CHARGE
        28. 66. FUZE
        29. 67. PIECES TO ]IRE
        30. 68. METHODS OF FIRE
        31. 69. HOLDING FIRE
        32. 70. GUNNER'S QUADRANT
        33. 71. RANGE OR ELEVATION
        34. 72. SCHEDULE FIRES
        35. 73. DETERMINING THE ADJUSTED COMPASS
        36. 74. INSTRUMENT DIRECTION
        37. 75. ADJUSTING SHEAF PARALLEL WITH HIGH BURSTS
        38. 76. REPORT BY OPERATOR OF BEGINNING AND COMPLETION OF FIRE
      6. VI. Examples of fire commands
        1. 77. 75-Mvm GUNS WITH PANORAMIC SIGHTS
        2. 78. 75-MM GUNS WITH FRENCH SIGHTS
        3. 79. 155-MM HOWrTZERS
    2. CHAPTER 2. ELEMENTARY BALLISTICS AND DISPERSION, AND EFFECTS OF PROJECTILES
      1. I. Elementary ballistics and dispersion
      2. II. Effect of projectiles
    3. CHAPTER 3. PREPARATION OF FIRE
      1. 1. General
      2. II. Preparation of fire with instruments
      3. III. Firing charts
      4. IV. Survey operations, plans, and procedure
      5. V. Preparation of fire from firing charts
      6. VI. Schedule fires
    4. CHAPTER 4. CONDUCT OFr FIRE
      1. I. General
      2. II. Attack of targets
      3. III. Axial
      4. IV. Lateral
      5. V. Combined
      6. VI. Adjustment with sound-and-flash units
      7. VII. Conduct of fire with air observation
      8. VIII. Conduct of fire by air observation methods, using ground observers
      9. IX. Smoke
      10. X. Gas
    5. CHAPTER 5. TECHNIQUE OF FIRE DIRECTION
      1. I. General
      2. II. Support by observed fires
      3. III. Schedule fires
      4. IV. Ammunition requirements
    6. CHAPTER 6. DEAD SPACE, VISIBILITY, AND CALIBRATION
    7. CHAPTER 7. SERVICE PRACTICE
    8. INDEX
  13. NEXT

Data Science for Joint Doctrine

Last modified
Table of contents
  1. Story
    1. Introduction
    2. Publication Matrix Graphic
    3. Peter Morosoff Expertise
    4. Frequency of Terms
    5. Some Conclusions
    6. Activity-based Information
  2. Joint Doctrine Pubs Interface
    1. Legend
    2. Publication Matrix
  3. Slides
    1. Slide 1 Data Science for Joint Doctrine
    2. Slide 2 Overview
    3. Slide 3 Yosemite Project for Healthcare Information Interoperability & New Ontology Book
    4. Slide 4 Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology
    5. Slide 5 Information Meeting on Joint Doctrine
    6. Slide 6 Joint Electronic Library
    7. Slide 7 Data Mining-Science-Questions-Publication Process
    8. Slide 8 DoD Joint Doctrine MindTouch Knowledge Base
    9. Slide 9 DoD Joint Doctrine Spreadsheet Knowledge Base
    10. Slide 10 DoD Data Dictionaries-Spotfire
    11. Slide 11 DoD Joint Doctrine Knowledge Bases
    12. Slide 12 Conclusions and Recommendations
  4. Spotfire Dashboard
  5. Research Notes
  6. Joint Doctrine Ontology: A Benchmark for Military Information Systems Interoperability
    1. Abstract
    2. I. JOINT DOCTRINE
    3. II. BATTLE MANAGEMENT LANGUAGE (BML)
    4. III. INTEROPERABILITY
    5. IV. FAILURES OF INTEROPERABILITY AND REQUIREMENT FOR EFFECTIVE GUIDANCE TO IT DEVELOPERS IN THE FUTURE
    6. V. THE SOLUTION
    7. VI. UNIFIED ACTION OF HUMAN WARFIGHTERS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS
    8. VII. RULES FOR DEFINITIONS IN INSTRUCTION 5705.01D
      1. Table 1: Examples of errors in JP 1-02 (from June 15, 2015)
    9. VIII. PROPOSED SUPPLEMENTARY RULES FOR DEFINITIONS
    10. IX. BUILDING THE JDO
      1. Figure 1: OBO Foundry strategy for modular coordination
      2. Figure 2: Common Core and associated domain ontologies
    11. X. POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF THE JDO TO THE WARFIGHTER
      1. Figure 3: Examples of CCO and JP 1 terms descending from BFO in the JDO
    12. XI. POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF JDO TO THE DOCTRINE STAFF
      1. Figure 4: Fragment of the JP 1-02 network generated by the relation is used to define.
    13. APPENDIX: EXAMPLES OF PRIOR WORK
    14. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    15. REFERENCES
  7. Information Meeting Notes
    1. Introduction by Barry Smith
    2. MAMA Jason Bryant
    3. Grizelda Loy-Kroft Agile and Secure Information Capabilities
    4. Brian Campbell MAMA Applied to Air Mobility Command
    5. BREAK
    6. William Tagliaferri CUBRC MAMA Applied to the Space Mission
    7. Erik Thomson Ontological Support for Living Plan Specification
    8. Ron Rudnicki Common Core Ontologies
    9. LUNCH
    10. Lt Col James McArthur USMC Joint Staff J-7 Joint Doctrine Support for AFRL
    11. Col William Mandrick PhD War Fighting Ontology
    12. Barry Smith NCOR and Alex Cox CUBRC
    13. BREAK
    14. Bill Betts DoD Terminologist
    15. Feedback and General Discussions
  8. Information Meeting on Joint Doctrine Ontology
    1. Background
    2. Examples of Potential Benefits
  9. DoD Dictionary of Military Terms
  10. Joint Doctrine
  11. The Joint Publications
    1. Capstone
      1. Capstone Publications, PDF
    2. Reference
      1. Reference Publications, PDFs
        1. CJCSI 5120.02D, Joint Doctrine Development System, 05 January 2015
        2. CJCSI 5705.01D, Standardization of Military and Associated Terminology, 10 November 2010
        3. CJCSM 5120.01A, Joint Doctrine Development Process, 29 December 2014
        4. JP 1-02, DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 08 November 2010, as amended through 15 June 2015
    3. 1-0: Personnel Series
      1. Personnel, Series 1-0 Publications, PDFs
        1. JP 1-0, Joint Personnel Support, 24 October 2011
        2. JP 1-04, Legal Support to Military Operations,17 August 2011
        3. JP 1-05, Religious Affairs in Joint Operations, 20 November 2013
        4. JP 1-06, Financial Management Support in Joint Operations, 02 March 2012
    4. 2-0: Intelligence Series
      1. Intelligence, Series 2-0 Publications, PDFs
        1. JP 2-0, Joint Intelligence, 22 October 2013
        2. JP 2-01, Joint and National Intelligence Support to Military Operations, 05 January 2012
        3. JP 2-01.3, Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment, 21 May 2014
        4. JP 2-03, Geospatial Intelligence Support to Joint Operations, 31 October 2012
    5. 3-0: Operations Series
      1. Operations, Series 3-0 Publications, PDFs
        1. JP 3-0, Joint Operations, 11 August 2011
        2. JP 3-01, Countering Air and Missile Threats, 23 March 2012
        3. JP 3-02, Amphibious Operations, 18 July 2014
        4. JP 3-02.1, Amphibious Embarkation and Debarkation, 25 November 2014
        5. JP 3-03, Joint Interdiction, 14 October 2011
        6. JP 3-04, Joint Shipboard Helicopter and Tiltrotor Aircraft Operations, 06 December 2012
        7. JP 3-05, Special Operations, 16 July 2014
        8. JP 3-06, Joint Urban Operations, 20 November 2013
        9. JP 3-07, Stability Operations, 29 September 2011
        10. JP 3-07.2, Antiterrorism, 14 March 2014
        11. JP 3-07.3, Peace Operations, 01 August 2012
        12. JP 3-07.4, Joint Counterdrug Operations, 14 August 2013
        13. JP 3-08, Interorganizational Coordination During Joint Operations, 24 June 2011
        14. JP 3-09, Joint Fire Support, 12 December 2014
        15. JP 3-09.3, Close Air Support, 25 November 2014
        16. JP 3-10, Joint Security Operations in Theater, 13 November 2014
        17. JP 3-11, Operations in Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Environments, 04 October 2013
        18. JP 3-12(R), Cyberspace Operations, 05 February 2013
        19. JP 3-13, Information Operations, 27 November 2012 - Change 1, 20 November 2014
        20. JP 3-13.1, Electronic Warfare, 08 February 2012
        21. JP 3-13.2, Military Information Support Operations, 21 November 2014
        22. JP 3-13.3, Operations Security, 04 January 2012
        23. JP 3-13.4, Military Deception, 26 January 2012
        24. JP 3-14, Space Operations, 29 May 2013
        25. JP 3-15, Barriers, Obstacles, and Mine Warfare for Joint Operations, 17 June 2011
        26. JP 3-15.1, Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Operations, 09 January 2012
        27. JP 3-16, Multinational Operations, 16 July 2013
        28. JP 3-17 Air Mobility Operations, 30 September 2013
        29. JP 3-18, Joint Forcible Entry Operations, 27 November 2012
        30. JP 3-22, Foreign Internal Defense, 12 July 2010
        31. JP 3-24, Counterinsurgency, 22 November 2013
        32. JP 3-26, Counterterrorism, 24 October 2014
        33. JP 3-27, Homeland Defense, 29 July 2013
        34. JP 3-28, Defense Support of Civil Authorities, 31 July 2013
        35. JP 3-29, Foreign Humanitarian Assistance, 03 January 2014
        36. JP 3-30, Command and Control of Joint Air Operations, 10 February 2014
        37. JP 3-31, Command and Control for Joint Land Operations, 24 February 2014
        38. JP 3-32, Command and Control for Joint Maritime Operations, 07 August 2013
        39. JP 3-33, Joint Task Force Headquarters, 30 July 2012
        40. JP 3-34, Joint Engineer Operations, 30 June 2011
        41. JP 3-35, Deployment and Redeployment Operations, 31 January 2013
        42. JP 3-40, Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction, 31 October 2014
        43. JP 3-41, Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Consequence Management, 21 June 2012
        44. JP 3-50, Personnel Recovery, 20 December 2011
        45. JP 3-52, Joint Airspace Control, 13 November 2014
        46. JP 3-57, Civil-Military Operations, 11 September 2013
        47. JP 3-59, Meteorological and Oceanographic Operations, 07 December 2012
        48. JP 3-60, Joint Targeting, 31 January 2013
        49. JP 3-61, Public Affairs, 25 August 2010
        50. JP 3-63, Detainee Operations, 13 November 2014
        51. JP 3-68, Noncombatant Evacuation Operations, 23 December 2010
    6. 4-0: Logistics Series
      1. Logistics, Series 4-0 Publications, PDFs
        1. JP 4-0, Joint Logistics, 16 October 2013
        2. JP 4-01, Joint Doctrine for the Defense Transportation System, 06 June 2013
        3. JP 4-01.2, Sealift Support to Joint Operations, 22 June 2012
        4. JP 4-01.5, Joint Terminal Operations, 06 April 2012
        5. JP 4-01.6, Joint Logistics Over-the-Shore, 27 November 2012
        6. JP 4-02, Health Service Support, 26 July 2012
        7. JP 4-03, Joint Bulk Petroleum and Water Doctrine, 09 December 2010
        8. JP 4-05, Joint Mobilization Planning, 21 February 2014
        9. JP 4-06, Mortuary Affairs, 12 October 2011
        10. JP 4-08, Logistics in Support of Multinational Operations, 21 February 2013
        11. JP 4-09 Distribution Operations, 19 December 2013
        12. JP 4-10, Operational Contract Support, 16 July 2014
    7. 5-0: Planning Series
      1. Planning, Series 5-0 Publications, PDF
        1. JP 5-0, Joint Operation Planning, 11 August 2011
    8. 6-0: Communications System Series
      1. C4 Systems, Series 6-0 Publications, PDF
        1. JP 6-0, Joint Communications System, 10 June 2015
        2. JP 6-01, Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations, 20 March 2012
  12. FM 6-40 FIELD ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL: FIRING
    1. CHAPTER 1. THE FIRING BATTERY
      1. I. General
        1. 1. SCOPE
        2. 2. TERMS USED
        3. 3. TRAINING
        4. 4. ACCURACY AND SPEED
        5. 5. LOST MOTION
        6. 6. CHECKING
        7. 7. UNIFORMITY
      2. II. Precautions in firing
        1. 8. REFERENCE
        2. 9. CARE OF MATERIEL
        3. 10. CARE OF AMMUNITION
        4. 11. UNLOADING A PIECE
        5. 12. PRECAUTIONS IN HANDLING AMMUNITION
      3. III. Posts and duties
        1. 13. GENERAL
        2. 14. Executives
        3. 15 ASSISTANT EXECUTIVE
        4. 16. CHIEF OF PIECE SECTION
        5. 17. AMMUNITION SERGEANT OR CORPORAL
        6. 18. TELEPHONE OPERATOR
        7. 19. LINEMEN
        8. 20. RECORDER
        9. 21. CHIEF MECHANIC
        10. 22. SENTINELS
        11. 23. REPLACEMENT OF CASUALTIES
        12. 24. RESUPPLY OF AMMUNITION
      4. IV. Organization of the position
        1. 25. DEFINITION
        2. 26. ORDER IN BATTERY
        3. 27. OCCUPATION OF POSITION
        4. 28. LAYING THE BATTERY FOR DIRECTION
        5. 29. REFERRING PIECES
        6. 30. DISPLACEMENT CORRECTIONS
        7. 31. DETERMINING PIECE INTERVALS
        8. 32. DETERMINING MINIMUM RANGE OR ELEVATION
        9. 33. OPENING FIRE
        10. 34. IMPROVING EMPLACEMENTS
        11. 35. DEFENSIVE MEASURES (FM 6-20)
        12. 37. RECORDS
        13. 38. EVACUATION OF CASUALTIES
      5. V. Fire commands and their execution
        1. 39. DEFINITIONS
        2. 40. ORIGIN AND TRANSMISSION
        3. 41. NUMBERS
          1. TABLE
        4. 42. REPETITION
        5. 43. INITIAL COMMANDS; CHANGES
        6. 44. OPENING FIRE
        7. 45. CEASING FIRE
        8. 46. SUSPENDING AND RESUMING FIRE
        9. 47. SIGNALS
        10. 48. PIECES TO FOLLOW COMMANDS
        11. 49. SEQUENCE
        12. 50. COMMANDS FOR SPECIAL ADJUSTMENTS AND MISSIONS
        13. 51. INITIAL DIRECTION
        14. 52. CHANGES INq DIRECTION
        15. 53. TARGET
        16. 54. AIMING POINT AND DEFLECTION
        17. 55. Y-Azimuth
        18. 56. BASE ANGLE
        19. 57. LAYING PARALLEL WITH AIMING CIRCLE
        20. 58. LAYING PARALLEL BY RECIPROCAL LAYING
        21. 59. LAYING PARALLEL BY USE OF A COMMON AIMING POINT
        22. 60. DIRECTION ESTABLISHED BY ONE PIECE
        23. 61. DEFLECTION DIFFERENCE
        24. 62. CONVERGING THE SHEAF
          1. TABLE
        25. 63. ANGLE OF SITE
        26. 64. PROJECTILE
        27. 65. CHARGE
        28. 66. FUZE
        29. 67. PIECES TO ]IRE
        30. 68. METHODS OF FIRE
        31. 69. HOLDING FIRE
        32. 70. GUNNER'S QUADRANT
        33. 71. RANGE OR ELEVATION
        34. 72. SCHEDULE FIRES
        35. 73. DETERMINING THE ADJUSTED COMPASS
        36. 74. INSTRUMENT DIRECTION
        37. 75. ADJUSTING SHEAF PARALLEL WITH HIGH BURSTS
        38. 76. REPORT BY OPERATOR OF BEGINNING AND COMPLETION OF FIRE
      6. VI. Examples of fire commands
        1. 77. 75-Mvm GUNS WITH PANORAMIC SIGHTS
        2. 78. 75-MM GUNS WITH FRENCH SIGHTS
        3. 79. 155-MM HOWrTZERS
    2. CHAPTER 2. ELEMENTARY BALLISTICS AND DISPERSION, AND EFFECTS OF PROJECTILES
      1. I. Elementary ballistics and dispersion
      2. II. Effect of projectiles
    3. CHAPTER 3. PREPARATION OF FIRE
      1. 1. General
      2. II. Preparation of fire with instruments
      3. III. Firing charts
      4. IV. Survey operations, plans, and procedure
      5. V. Preparation of fire from firing charts
      6. VI. Schedule fires
    4. CHAPTER 4. CONDUCT OFr FIRE
      1. I. General
      2. II. Attack of targets
      3. III. Axial
      4. IV. Lateral
      5. V. Combined
      6. VI. Adjustment with sound-and-flash units
      7. VII. Conduct of fire with air observation
      8. VIII. Conduct of fire by air observation methods, using ground observers
      9. IX. Smoke
      10. X. Gas
    5. CHAPTER 5. TECHNIQUE OF FIRE DIRECTION
      1. I. General
      2. II. Support by observed fires
      3. III. Schedule fires
      4. IV. Ammunition requirements
    6. CHAPTER 6. DEAD SPACE, VISIBILITY, AND CALIBRATION
    7. CHAPTER 7. SERVICE PRACTICE
    8. INDEX
  13. NEXT

  1. Story
    1. Introduction
    2. Publication Matrix Graphic
    3. Peter Morosoff Expertise
    4. Frequency of Terms
    5. Some Conclusions
    6. Activity-based Information
  2. Joint Doctrine Pubs Interface
    1. Legend
    2. Publication Matrix
  3. Slides
    1. Slide 1 Data Science for Joint Doctrine
    2. Slide 2 Overview
    3. Slide 3 Yosemite Project for Healthcare Information Interoperability & New Ontology Book
    4. Slide 4 Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology
    5. Slide 5 Information Meeting on Joint Doctrine
    6. Slide 6 Joint Electronic Library
    7. Slide 7 Data Mining-Science-Questions-Publication Process
    8. Slide 8 DoD Joint Doctrine MindTouch Knowledge Base
    9. Slide 9 DoD Joint Doctrine Spreadsheet Knowledge Base
    10. Slide 10 DoD Data Dictionaries-Spotfire
    11. Slide 11 DoD Joint Doctrine Knowledge Bases
    12. Slide 12 Conclusions and Recommendations
  4. Spotfire Dashboard
  5. Research Notes
  6. Joint Doctrine Ontology: A Benchmark for Military Information Systems Interoperability
    1. Abstract
    2. I. JOINT DOCTRINE
    3. II. BATTLE MANAGEMENT LANGUAGE (BML)
    4. III. INTEROPERABILITY
    5. IV. FAILURES OF INTEROPERABILITY AND REQUIREMENT FOR EFFECTIVE GUIDANCE TO IT DEVELOPERS IN THE FUTURE
    6. V. THE SOLUTION
    7. VI. UNIFIED ACTION OF HUMAN WARFIGHTERS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS
    8. VII. RULES FOR DEFINITIONS IN INSTRUCTION 5705.01D
      1. Table 1: Examples of errors in JP 1-02 (from June 15, 2015)
    9. VIII. PROPOSED SUPPLEMENTARY RULES FOR DEFINITIONS
    10. IX. BUILDING THE JDO
      1. Figure 1: OBO Foundry strategy for modular coordination
      2. Figure 2: Common Core and associated domain ontologies
    11. X. POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF THE JDO TO THE WARFIGHTER
      1. Figure 3: Examples of CCO and JP 1 terms descending from BFO in the JDO
    12. XI. POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF JDO TO THE DOCTRINE STAFF
      1. Figure 4: Fragment of the JP 1-02 network generated by the relation is used to define.
    13. APPENDIX: EXAMPLES OF PRIOR WORK
    14. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    15. REFERENCES
  7. Information Meeting Notes
    1. Introduction by Barry Smith
    2. MAMA Jason Bryant
    3. Grizelda Loy-Kroft Agile and Secure Information Capabilities
    4. Brian Campbell MAMA Applied to Air Mobility Command
    5. BREAK
    6. William Tagliaferri CUBRC MAMA Applied to the Space Mission
    7. Erik Thomson Ontological Support for Living Plan Specification
    8. Ron Rudnicki Common Core Ontologies
    9. LUNCH
    10. Lt Col James McArthur USMC Joint Staff J-7 Joint Doctrine Support for AFRL
    11. Col William Mandrick PhD War Fighting Ontology
    12. Barry Smith NCOR and Alex Cox CUBRC
    13. BREAK
    14. Bill Betts DoD Terminologist
    15. Feedback and General Discussions
  8. Information Meeting on Joint Doctrine Ontology
    1. Background
    2. Examples of Potential Benefits
  9. DoD Dictionary of Military Terms
  10. Joint Doctrine
  11. The Joint Publications
    1. Capstone
      1. Capstone Publications, PDF
    2. Reference
      1. Reference Publications, PDFs
        1. CJCSI 5120.02D, Joint Doctrine Development System, 05 January 2015
        2. CJCSI 5705.01D, Standardization of Military and Associated Terminology, 10 November 2010
        3. CJCSM 5120.01A, Joint Doctrine Development Process, 29 December 2014
        4. JP 1-02, DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 08 November 2010, as amended through 15 June 2015
    3. 1-0: Personnel Series
      1. Personnel, Series 1-0 Publications, PDFs
        1. JP 1-0, Joint Personnel Support, 24 October 2011
        2. JP 1-04, Legal Support to Military Operations,17 August 2011
        3. JP 1-05, Religious Affairs in Joint Operations, 20 November 2013
        4. JP 1-06, Financial Management Support in Joint Operations, 02 March 2012
    4. 2-0: Intelligence Series
      1. Intelligence, Series 2-0 Publications, PDFs
        1. JP 2-0, Joint Intelligence, 22 October 2013
        2. JP 2-01, Joint and National Intelligence Support to Military Operations, 05 January 2012
        3. JP 2-01.3, Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment, 21 May 2014
        4. JP 2-03, Geospatial Intelligence Support to Joint Operations, 31 October 2012
    5. 3-0: Operations Series
      1. Operations, Series 3-0 Publications, PDFs
        1. JP 3-0, Joint Operations, 11 August 2011
        2. JP 3-01, Countering Air and Missile Threats, 23 March 2012
        3. JP 3-02, Amphibious Operations, 18 July 2014
        4. JP 3-02.1, Amphibious Embarkation and Debarkation, 25 November 2014
        5. JP 3-03, Joint Interdiction, 14 October 2011
        6. JP 3-04, Joint Shipboard Helicopter and Tiltrotor Aircraft Operations, 06 December 2012
        7. JP 3-05, Special Operations, 16 July 2014
        8. JP 3-06, Joint Urban Operations, 20 November 2013
        9. JP 3-07, Stability Operations, 29 September 2011
        10. JP 3-07.2, Antiterrorism, 14 March 2014
        11. JP 3-07.3, Peace Operations, 01 August 2012
        12. JP 3-07.4, Joint Counterdrug Operations, 14 August 2013
        13. JP 3-08, Interorganizational Coordination During Joint Operations, 24 June 2011
        14. JP 3-09, Joint Fire Support, 12 December 2014
        15. JP 3-09.3, Close Air Support, 25 November 2014
        16. JP 3-10, Joint Security Operations in Theater, 13 November 2014
        17. JP 3-11, Operations in Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Environments, 04 October 2013
        18. JP 3-12(R), Cyberspace Operations, 05 February 2013
        19. JP 3-13, Information Operations, 27 November 2012 - Change 1, 20 November 2014
        20. JP 3-13.1, Electronic Warfare, 08 February 2012
        21. JP 3-13.2, Military Information Support Operations, 21 November 2014
        22. JP 3-13.3, Operations Security, 04 January 2012
        23. JP 3-13.4, Military Deception, 26 January 2012
        24. JP 3-14, Space Operations, 29 May 2013
        25. JP 3-15, Barriers, Obstacles, and Mine Warfare for Joint Operations, 17 June 2011
        26. JP 3-15.1, Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Operations, 09 January 2012
        27. JP 3-16, Multinational Operations, 16 July 2013
        28. JP 3-17 Air Mobility Operations, 30 September 2013
        29. JP 3-18, Joint Forcible Entry Operations, 27 November 2012
        30. JP 3-22, Foreign Internal Defense, 12 July 2010
        31. JP 3-24, Counterinsurgency, 22 November 2013
        32. JP 3-26, Counterterrorism, 24 October 2014
        33. JP 3-27, Homeland Defense, 29 July 2013
        34. JP 3-28, Defense Support of Civil Authorities, 31 July 2013
        35. JP 3-29, Foreign Humanitarian Assistance, 03 January 2014
        36. JP 3-30, Command and Control of Joint Air Operations, 10 February 2014
        37. JP 3-31, Command and Control for Joint Land Operations, 24 February 2014
        38. JP 3-32, Command and Control for Joint Maritime Operations, 07 August 2013
        39. JP 3-33, Joint Task Force Headquarters, 30 July 2012
        40. JP 3-34, Joint Engineer Operations, 30 June 2011
        41. JP 3-35, Deployment and Redeployment Operations, 31 January 2013
        42. JP 3-40, Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction, 31 October 2014
        43. JP 3-41, Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Consequence Management, 21 June 2012
        44. JP 3-50, Personnel Recovery, 20 December 2011
        45. JP 3-52, Joint Airspace Control, 13 November 2014
        46. JP 3-57, Civil-Military Operations, 11 September 2013
        47. JP 3-59, Meteorological and Oceanographic Operations, 07 December 2012
        48. JP 3-60, Joint Targeting, 31 January 2013
        49. JP 3-61, Public Affairs, 25 August 2010
        50. JP 3-63, Detainee Operations, 13 November 2014
        51. JP 3-68, Noncombatant Evacuation Operations, 23 December 2010
    6. 4-0: Logistics Series
      1. Logistics, Series 4-0 Publications, PDFs
        1. JP 4-0, Joint Logistics, 16 October 2013
        2. JP 4-01, Joint Doctrine for the Defense Transportation System, 06 June 2013
        3. JP 4-01.2, Sealift Support to Joint Operations, 22 June 2012
        4. JP 4-01.5, Joint Terminal Operations, 06 April 2012
        5. JP 4-01.6, Joint Logistics Over-the-Shore, 27 November 2012
        6. JP 4-02, Health Service Support, 26 July 2012
        7. JP 4-03, Joint Bulk Petroleum and Water Doctrine, 09 December 2010
        8. JP 4-05, Joint Mobilization Planning, 21 February 2014
        9. JP 4-06, Mortuary Affairs, 12 October 2011
        10. JP 4-08, Logistics in Support of Multinational Operations, 21 February 2013
        11. JP 4-09 Distribution Operations, 19 December 2013
        12. JP 4-10, Operational Contract Support, 16 July 2014
    7. 5-0: Planning Series
      1. Planning, Series 5-0 Publications, PDF
        1. JP 5-0, Joint Operation Planning, 11 August 2011
    8. 6-0: Communications System Series
      1. C4 Systems, Series 6-0 Publications, PDF
        1. JP 6-0, Joint Communications System, 10 June 2015
        2. JP 6-01, Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations, 20 March 2012
  12. FM 6-40 FIELD ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL: FIRING
    1. CHAPTER 1. THE FIRING BATTERY
      1. I. General
        1. 1. SCOPE
        2. 2. TERMS USED
        3. 3. TRAINING
        4. 4. ACCURACY AND SPEED
        5. 5. LOST MOTION
        6. 6. CHECKING
        7. 7. UNIFORMITY
      2. II. Precautions in firing
        1. 8. REFERENCE
        2. 9. CARE OF MATERIEL
        3. 10. CARE OF AMMUNITION
        4. 11. UNLOADING A PIECE
        5. 12. PRECAUTIONS IN HANDLING AMMUNITION
      3. III. Posts and duties
        1. 13. GENERAL
        2. 14. Executives
        3. 15 ASSISTANT EXECUTIVE
        4. 16. CHIEF OF PIECE SECTION
        5. 17. AMMUNITION SERGEANT OR CORPORAL
        6. 18. TELEPHONE OPERATOR
        7. 19. LINEMEN
        8. 20. RECORDER
        9. 21. CHIEF MECHANIC
        10. 22. SENTINELS
        11. 23. REPLACEMENT OF CASUALTIES
        12. 24. RESUPPLY OF AMMUNITION
      4. IV. Organization of the position
        1. 25. DEFINITION
        2. 26. ORDER IN BATTERY
        3. 27. OCCUPATION OF POSITION
        4. 28. LAYING THE BATTERY FOR DIRECTION
        5. 29. REFERRING PIECES
        6. 30. DISPLACEMENT CORRECTIONS
        7. 31. DETERMINING PIECE INTERVALS
        8. 32. DETERMINING MINIMUM RANGE OR ELEVATION
        9. 33. OPENING FIRE
        10. 34. IMPROVING EMPLACEMENTS
        11. 35. DEFENSIVE MEASURES (FM 6-20)
        12. 37. RECORDS
        13. 38. EVACUATION OF CASUALTIES
      5. V. Fire commands and their execution
        1. 39. DEFINITIONS
        2. 40. ORIGIN AND TRANSMISSION
        3. 41. NUMBERS
          1. TABLE
        4. 42. REPETITION
        5. 43. INITIAL COMMANDS; CHANGES
        6. 44. OPENING FIRE
        7. 45. CEASING FIRE
        8. 46. SUSPENDING AND RESUMING FIRE
        9. 47. SIGNALS
        10. 48. PIECES TO FOLLOW COMMANDS
        11. 49. SEQUENCE
        12. 50. COMMANDS FOR SPECIAL ADJUSTMENTS AND MISSIONS
        13. 51. INITIAL DIRECTION
        14. 52. CHANGES INq DIRECTION
        15. 53. TARGET
        16. 54. AIMING POINT AND DEFLECTION
        17. 55. Y-Azimuth
        18. 56. BASE ANGLE
        19. 57. LAYING PARALLEL WITH AIMING CIRCLE
        20. 58. LAYING PARALLEL BY RECIPROCAL LAYING
        21. 59. LAYING PARALLEL BY USE OF A COMMON AIMING POINT
        22. 60. DIRECTION ESTABLISHED BY ONE PIECE
        23. 61. DEFLECTION DIFFERENCE
        24. 62. CONVERGING THE SHEAF
          1. TABLE
        25. 63. ANGLE OF SITE
        26. 64. PROJECTILE
        27. 65. CHARGE
        28. 66. FUZE
        29. 67. PIECES TO ]IRE
        30. 68. METHODS OF FIRE
        31. 69. HOLDING FIRE
        32. 70. GUNNER'S QUADRANT
        33. 71. RANGE OR ELEVATION
        34. 72. SCHEDULE FIRES
        35. 73. DETERMINING THE ADJUSTED COMPASS
        36. 74. INSTRUMENT DIRECTION
        37. 75. ADJUSTING SHEAF PARALLEL WITH HIGH BURSTS
        38. 76. REPORT BY OPERATOR OF BEGINNING AND COMPLETION OF FIRE
      6. VI. Examples of fire commands
        1. 77. 75-Mvm GUNS WITH PANORAMIC SIGHTS
        2. 78. 75-MM GUNS WITH FRENCH SIGHTS
        3. 79. 155-MM HOWrTZERS
    2. CHAPTER 2. ELEMENTARY BALLISTICS AND DISPERSION, AND EFFECTS OF PROJECTILES
      1. I. Elementary ballistics and dispersion
      2. II. Effect of projectiles
    3. CHAPTER 3. PREPARATION OF FIRE
      1. 1. General
      2. II. Preparation of fire with instruments
      3. III. Firing charts
      4. IV. Survey operations, plans, and procedure
      5. V. Preparation of fire from firing charts
      6. VI. Schedule fires
    4. CHAPTER 4. CONDUCT OFr FIRE
      1. I. General
      2. II. Attack of targets
      3. III. Axial
      4. IV. Lateral
      5. V. Combined
      6. VI. Adjustment with sound-and-flash units
      7. VII. Conduct of fire with air observation
      8. VIII. Conduct of fire by air observation methods, using ground observers
      9. IX. Smoke
      10. X. Gas
    5. CHAPTER 5. TECHNIQUE OF FIRE DIRECTION
      1. I. General
      2. II. Support by observed fires
      3. III. Schedule fires
      4. IV. Ammunition requirements
    6. CHAPTER 6. DEAD SPACE, VISIBILITY, AND CALIBRATION
    7. CHAPTER 7. SERVICE PRACTICE
    8. INDEX
  13. NEXT

Story

Data Science for Joint Doctrine

Meetup: http://www.meetup.com/Federal-Big-Da...nts/225137744/

Slides: Slides

Introduction

I was invited to an Information Meeting on Joint Doctrine Ontology whose goal is to create a formal and computer-readable representation of the content of the major doctrinal publications, using as starting point the definitions in the DoD Dictionary (JP 1-02). Another goal is to transform Air Force planning and operations assessment from a disjointed static approach based on paper documents into a unified dynamic and computational approach. Finally it is stated that: The Joint Doctrine Ontology will enable doctrine to serve as a new source of ground truth for ontologists across DoD and IC that will help to identify gaps and errors in existing military ontologies. It will thereby support consistent agile ontology development of a sort that will counteract current tendencies towards silo-formation and failure of interoperation.

I have worked with the DoD Dictionary before as part of my Build DoD In the Cloud. See also: Data Science for DTIC Data Ecosystem.

So I first download the two DoD Dictionary files in Excel and visualized them in Spotfire. During the Information meeting I discovered two more spreadsheets of terms: JP3-0 and JP3-14, and added them to Spotfire.

The Joint Doctrine Joint Pub Web page says: Joint doctrine presents fundamental principles that guide the employment of US military forces in coordinated and integrated action toward a common objective. It promotes a common perspective from which to plan, train, and conduct military operations. It represents what is taught, believed, and advocated as what is right (i.e., what works best). It provides distilled insights and wisdom gained from employing the military instrument of national power in operations to achieve national objectives.

The Joint Publications consist of 64 PDF files organized in the following way (this is an initial top level of an ontology):

  • Capstone
  • Reference
  • 1-0: Personnel Series
  • 2-0: Intelligence Series
  • 3-0: Operations Series
  • 4-0: Logistics Series
  • 5-0: Planning Series
  • 6-0: Communications System Series

I structured the Joint Publications in this MindTouch Wiki to create a searchable Knowledge Base and Spreadsheet Index to import into Spotfire so I could search across unstructured (PDF Joint Publication Documents) and structured (Excel Data Dictionaries). I further converted selected PDF file to Word and imported them into the MindTouch Wiki to show how all of the content could be made more machine readable.

I also prepared the corpus (80 MB ZIP) so semantic tools like Semantic Insights could produce results.

The PDF files were converted to Word and imported into MindTouch to create a searchable index of linked data:

Capstone: I found the Glossary (Part 1 and Part 2) should be in spreadsheet form). My Note: I need to fix the numbering and lettering within sections of this report. Etc.

Ultimately MondTouch supports the export of all these MindTouch pages and sub-pages in PDF and book format.

I then converted the Legend and Publication Matrix so it could be a table interface to the documents and the top level of a three level hierarchy for discovery and ontology building as described below.

Publication Matrix Graphic

newhier_jpg.png

Peter Morosoff Expertise

I received invaluable subject matter assistance and guidance from Peter Morosoff who provided the following suggestions:

  • Task: Integrate Joint Doctrine with the following:
  • Indexing
    • "Repositories-004..." and "Repositories-005..."are extracts from a book on library science.  "Repositories-004..." points out that people settle for the information they can find easily rather than for the best information.  The problem with continuing a search past apparently good-enough information to the best information is that such searches must continue for ever because a person can never be certain that better information will not be found if the search continues.
    • That being the case, predictability of search ("Repositories-005...") means that there should be a search strategy behind a body of information that steers users to search in ways that significantly increase the chance that the searcher will find excellent information even if the searcher does not start to search in the right place place.
    • "DataComms.pdf" is an example of a structure of terms for a domain that is intended to help users discover the terms they need to (1) understand a domain and (2) move beyond that document and domain to search in other resources.  The notion is that if a person finds a document such as "DataComms.pdf" because of a search for information on "data communications," the searcher will then discover a host of related terms.  These can then be use to seek out new sources of information.
    • This approach addresses the "unknown unknown" problem.
    • "Repositories-031..." explains this.
    • As for your question about how joint doctrine is used:  It is a structure of information that provides predictable search.  Those who maintain joint doctrine don't realize this because while they understand some of the reasons that joint doctrine is absolutely essential they are unaware of other equally important reasons joint doctrine is important.

So I can drill down and search from the (1) DoD JD Matrix to (2) Individual PDF documents to (3) detailed subject matter expertise for at least one term in the DoD Dictionary.

This will then be like my three tier DoD System of Systems: (1) DoD Systems Inventory (about 8000) to (2) Army Systems (I forgot how many) to (3) the Army Weapons System Manual (detailed information for 200 systems).

If I search by Google for field artillery I get:

If I do a search for both the words artillery and field artillery in the 38 PDF files for the JD JP3-0 to JP3-68 series I get the following results.

Frequency of Terms

JD Pub artillery field artillery
JP3-0 3 0
JP3-01 16 1
JP3-03 10 0
JP3-04 0 0
JP3-05 0 0
JP3-06 6 0
JP3-07 0 0
JP3-08 0 0
JP3-09 39 15
JP3-10 9 4
JP3-11 2 0
JP3-12R 0 0
JP3-13 0 0
JP3-14 4 0
JP3-15 12 0
JP3-16 0 0
JP3-18 5 1
JP3-22 0 0
JP3-24 1 0
JP3-26 0 0
JP3-27 0 0
JP3-28 0 0
JP3-29 0 0
JP3-30 1 0
JP3-31 5 2
JP3-32 1 0
JP3-33 0 0
JP3-34 0 0
JP3-35 1 0
JP3-40 2 0
JP3-41 0 0
JP3-52 4 1
JP3-57 0 0
JP3-59 9 1
JP3-61 0 0
JP3-63 0 0
JP3-68 0 0

Some Conclusions

Now I realize that these documents are limited in what they provide based on subsequent conversations with Peter Morosoff who says: JPs are reservoirs of ideas and are not directives. So Barry Smith and other ontologists are working on an ontology of those ideas and not an ontology of directives. So the question is: Does this have any practical value to the warfighter in the field of battle?

Activity-based Information

I am sending the attached to you because the article presents the intelligence community as being in need of your big-data approach and methods.

Revolutionizing Military Intelligence Analysis
By Chandler P. Atwood

PDF and Word

MORE TO FOLLOW

Joint Doctrine Pubs Interface

Legend

13 May 2013

81 Joint Doctrine Pubs

Symbol Definition Status
 

 

Joint Pubs in maintenance/Initiation Stage

77 Approved (30 in Revision)
   

 

Normal Revision Same as above
 
 
Change in Lieu of Revision Same as above
   

 

Joint Pubs to be consolidated or deleted pending development or revision of superceding publications Same as above
 

 

Development (New) 4 Under Development
 

 

Joint Test Publication Same as above
* Joint Pubs with pending change    
 

 

Access to these JPs at https://jdeis.js.mil/jdeis/index.jsp  
 

 

Classified Pubs  
 

 

Pubs with Classified Appendices  

Publication Matrix

 

Ketstone Pubs Joint Personnel 1-0
 
 

 

Joint Intelligence 2-0
 

 

Joint Operation 3-0

   

 

          Joint Logistics 4-0
 

 

  Joint Operation Planning 5-0
   

 

Joint Communications System 6-0
   

 

Dictionary
 
Legal Support 1-04
 
 

 

Joint & National Intel Supt to Military Ops 2-01
   

 

Countering Air & Missle Threats 3-01
   

 

Peace Operations 3-07.3
   

 

Military Support Ops 3-13.2
 

 

Foreign Internal Defense 3-22
 

 

Joint Task Force Headquarters 3-33
   

 

Joint Targeting 3-60
 

 

Defense Trans System 4-01
 

 

Mobilization Planning 4-05
 

 

  Electromagnetic Spectrum Ops 6-01
 

 

Doctrine Pubs Religious Affairs 1-05
 

 

CI and HUMIT Support 2-01.2
   

 

Amphibious Operations 3-02
 

 

Counterdrug Operations 3-07.4
 

 

Operations Security 3-13.3
 
 

 

Counter-Insugency Operations 3-24
 

 

Emerginery Operations 3-34
   

 

Public Affairs 3-61
   

 

Sealift Support 4-01 2
 
 

 

Mortuary Affairs 4-06
   

 

   
  Financial Management 1-06
 
 

 

Joint Intel Prep of the Operational Environment 2-01.3
 

 

Amphibious Embarkation and Debarkation 3-02.1
 

 

Inter-organizational Cooperation 3-08
   

 

Military Deception 3-13.4
   

 

Countering Threat Networks 3-25
 

 

Deployment and Redeployment 3-35
 

 

Detainee Operations 3-63
 

 

Terminal Operations 4-01 5
 
 

 

Logistics in Multinational Ops 4-08
 

 

   
    Geospatial Information 3-03
 
 

 

Joint Interdiction 3-03
   

 

Joint Fire Support 3-09
 

 

Space Operations 3-14
 

 

Countererrorism 3-26
 

 

Countering WMD 3-40
 

 

Noncombatatnt Evacuation Operations 3-64
   

 

JLOTS 4-01 6
 
 

 

Distribution Operations 4-09
 

 

   
      Shipboard Helicopter Ops 3-04
 

 

Close Air Support 3-09.3
 

 

Barriers, Obstacles, and Mine Warfare 3-15
 
 

 

Homeland Defense 3-27
 

 

CBRNE Consequence Management 3-41
 
 

 

  Health Service Support 4-02
   

 

Operational Contract Support 4-10
 

 

   
      Special Operations 3-05
 

 

Security Ops in Theater 3-10
 

 

Counter IED Operations 3-15.1
 

 

Defense Support of Civil Authorities 3-28
 

 

Joint Explosive Ordance Disposal 3-42
 

 

  Petroleum and Water 4-03
   

 

     
      Unconventional warfare 3-05.1
 

 

Ops in CBRN Environment 3-11
 

 

Multinational Operations 3-16
 

 

Humanitarian Assistance 3-29
 

 

Personnel Recovery 3-50
 
 

 

         
      Urban Operations 3-06
 

 

Cyberspace Operations 3-12
 

 

Air Mobility Operations 3-17
 

 

C2 for Joint Air Operation 3-30
 

 

Airspace Control 3-52
 

 

         
      Stability Operations 3-07
   

 

Information Operations 3-13
 

 

Forceable Entry Operations 3-18 
 

 

C2 for Joint Land Ops 3-31
 

 

Civil Military Operations 3-57
 

 

         
      Antiterrorism 3-07.2
 

 

Electronic Warfare 3-13.1
 

 

Security Cooperation 3-20
 

 

C2 for Joint Maritime Ops 3-32
 

 

Meteorological & Oceanographic 3-59
   

 

         
Joint Doctrine Notes
 
   

 

  Security Force Assistance 1-13
 

 

Commanders Communication Synchronization 2-13
 

 

Operational Assessment 1-15
 

 

Identity Activities X-XX
 

 

Cross-Domain Planning Y-YY
 
         

Slides

Slides

Slide 1 Data Science for Joint Doctrine

Semantic Community

Data Science

Data Science for Joint Doctrine

BrandNiemann09162015Slide1.PNG

Slide 2 Overview

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Slide 3 Yosemite Project for Healthcare Information Interoperability & New Ontology Book

http://www.meetup.com/Federal-Big-Data-Working-Group/events/224437815/

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Slide 4 Building Ontologies with Basic Formal Ontology

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Slide 6 Joint Electronic Library

http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jointpub.htm

 

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Slide 7 Data Mining-Science-Questions-Publication Process

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Slide 8 DoD Joint Doctrine MindTouch Knowledge Base

Semantic Community

Data Science

Data Science for Joint Doctrine

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Slide 9 DoD Joint Doctrine Spreadsheet Knowledge Base

DoDJointDoctrineKnowledgeBase.xlsx

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Slide 10 DoD Data Dictionaries-Spotfire

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Slide 11 DoD Joint Doctrine Knowledge Bases

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Slide 12 Conclusions and Recommendations

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Research Notes

Peter Morosoff Comments

Your simple and obvious request proved much harder to respond to than I ever dreamed it would be.  The attached is an attempt to provide a simple response.

Because the issue is "joint warfare" and "joint operations", not joint doctrine, the "capstone" joint doctrine publication provides a framework that can be used for any type of operation.  The 80 other joint publications, however, address only some of the operations that DoD receives missions from the President to execute.  This leads to the reality that "joint doctrine" is a reservoir of good ideas that need to be able to be accessed quickly - which is where I see your work coming in.

We should talk about how your work on joint doctrine fits with what I have just said.

Joint Doctrine Ontology: A Benchmark for Military Information Systems Interoperability

Source: http://stids.c4i.gmu.edu/papers/STID...osoff_etal.pdf (PDF and Word)

Peter Morosoff, E-Maps, Inc., Fairfax, VA
peter.morosoff@e-mapsys.com


Ron Rudnicki, CUBRC, Buffalo, NY
rudnicki@cubrc.org


Jason Bryant, Air Force Research Lab, Rome, NY
jason.bryant.8@us.af.mil


Robert Farrell, Air Force Research Lab, Rome, NY
robert.farrell.10@us.af.mil

Barry Smith, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY
phismith@buffalo.edu

Abstract

When the U.S. conducts warfare, elements of a force are drawn from different Services and work together as a single team to accomplish an assigned mission on the basis of joint doctrine. To achieve such unified action, it is necessary that specific Service doctrines be both consistent with and subservient to joint doctrine. But there are two further requirements that flow from the ways in which unified action increasingly involves not only live forces but also automated systems. First, the information technology that is used in joint warfare must be aligned with joint doctrine. Second, the separate information systems used by the different elements of a joint force must be interoperable, in the sense that data and information that is generated by each element must be usable (understandable, processable) by all the other elements that need them. Currently, such interoperability is impeded by multiple inconsistencies among the different data and software standards used by warfighters. We describe here the on-going project of creating a Joint Doctrine Ontology (JDO), which uses joint doctrine to provide shared computer-accessible content valid for any field of military endeavor, organization, and information system. JDO addresses the two previously- mentioned requirements of unified action by providing a widely applicable benchmark for use by developers of information systems that will both guarantee alignment with joint doctrine and support interoperability.

Keywords—joint doctrine, military doctrine, ontology, Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), Common Core Ontologies (CCO), joint warfare, unified operations, interoperability, terminology, definition

I. JOINT DOCTRINE

The publications of joint doctrine document fundamental principles and overarching guidance for the employment of the Armed Forces of the United States [1]. Joint doctrine applies to all military, from the joint staff to commanders of combatant commands, their supporting commands, and to the individual Services, each of which has its own Service- specific doctrinal publications. Joint doctrine is authoritative in the sense that, if conflicts arise between it and Service doctrine, then the former – absent more current and specific guidance from the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff – will take precedence.

Joint doctrine provides the benchmark for interoper- ability of the separate Service doctrines. And because all Service-level terminology is dependent on joint doctrine it is critical, if we are to prevent higher-level flaws cascading to domain-level doctrinal errors, that the terms of joint doctrine be defined correctly.

It is commonly supposed that doctrine provides not hard and fast rules but rather merely a loose and always revisable guide to action that is typically abandoned on first contact with the enemy. Doctrine is however authoritative also in the sense that it is to be followed in all cases except when, in the judgment of the commander, exceptional circumstances dictate otherwise. Moreover, there are many doctrinally acknowledged features of military action that survive through every engagement. Doctrine defines the shared frame of reference that remains active through every phase of every military engagement. This is because doctrine provides the principles that determine how to understand the authorized command relationships and the authority that military commanders can use. It establishes common ways of accomplishing military tasks and facilitates readiness by promoting coordination of training and planning. Most importantly for our purposes here, doctrine provides a common lexicon – a set of precise terms and precise definitions – expressed in a language that is designed to enable consistent understanding by military leaders, planners and educators. Doctrine thereby enables the sort of effective communication among warfighters that is needed for unified action.

II. BATTLE MANAGEMENT LANGUAGE (BML)

While doctrine has been developed and used thus far to satisfy the needs of human beings, it is increasingly understood that it must also satisfy requirements that come into play when information systems are brought to bear in military action. The language used by warfighters and codified in field manuals and doctrinal lexica still involves some of the ambiguities characteristic of all languages used by human beings. But such ambiguities can be tolerated where human beings are involved because humans can easily disambiguate the meanings of ambiguous terms in everyday contexts of use.

The very human-friendliness of the language used by warfighters brings an equal and opposite weakness, however, when information systems are involved. Computers have difficulties in interpreting the common language of human beings and in using contextual cues to resolve ambiguities. Attempts to overcome these difficulties

led in around 2000 to the conception of the Battle Management Language (BML) [2] that was designed to allow the description of a commander’s intent in the sort of context-free way that would support processing by automated systems. The initial goal of BML was to create a unified and unambiguous representation of command and control (C2) doctrine as a ‘systematic data model’ [2]. BML was seen as thereby providing a unified framework that would not only remove ambiguities but also rectify the terminological disunities created through the continued dominance of disparate Service cultures and of the numerous communities of interest within those cultures [3].

III. INTEROPERABILITY

BML continues as an active project [4]-[5], especially in the modeling and simulation community. The promised unambiguous representation of the content of C2 doctrine using BML has, however, not been achieved. Here, we take up once again the idea of formalizing joint doctrine by drawing on more recent developments in the field of ontology. Our target, however, is more modest. It is not to provide the resources to capture formally a commander’s intent. Rather, we seek to capture in  a  computer-usable form the terminological content of joint doctrine in a way that will support the sort of interoperability that is needed where live forces need to engage in unified action with information systems.

Interoperability is defined in the Glossary of DoD Instruction (DoDI) 8330.01 [6] as:

The ability of systems, units, or forces to provide data, information, materiel, and services to, and accept the same from, other systems, units, or forces, and to use the data, information, materiel, and services exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together. IT interoperability includes both the technical exchange of information and the end-to-end operational effectiveness of that exchange of information as required for mission accomplishment.

Our hypothesis is that the creation of a Joint Doctrine Ontology (JDO) can provide a widely applicable benchmark for use by developers of information systems that will support rather than impede unified action by breaking down existing terminological silos of different Services and communities of interest.

In contrast to the BML, our alternative approach  begins, not with defining a new language, but rather with the existing authoritative controlled vocabulary that is defined in Joint Publication 1-02, the Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms [7].

The JP 1-02 dictionary consists in its current version of some 2,803 terms drawn from some 81 approved doctrinal publications forming the Joint Doctrine Hierarchy (at http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/doctrine/status.pdf). In effect, we are constructing JDO as a shadow of JP 1-02, incrementally adding definitional enhancements and fur- ther elements of logical regimentation, but in such a way that the ontology, and the dictionary that underlies it, re- main synchronized with each other through future revisions of joint doctrine. In effect, JDO will provide a semantic enhancement of JP 1-02, and therefore also of the terminological content of the separate Joint Publications from which the terms and definitions of JP 1-02 are derived.

 

The Dictionary defines the standard U.S. military and associated terminology needed to enable the joint activity of the Armed Forces of the United States. As stated in the Preface signed by Vice Admiral William E. Gortney, Director of the Joint Staff, these military and associated terms, together with their definitions, constitute approved Department of Defense (DOD) terminology for general use by all DOD components. [7]

In multiple other joint publications, as well as in a series of DoD and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instructions, it is required that all DoD initiatives, as well as all warfighters and warfighting organizations, should use a common terminology. In addition, instructions state that all IT intended for use in military operations should be designed from the beginning to be interoperable (paragraph 9b of Chapter 2, “Doctrine Governing Unified Direction of Armed Forces,” JP 1 [1]). We believe that it follows from these instructions that all DoD IT efforts, insofar as they are intended for use in military operations, should be developed in such a way as to be interoperable with joint doctrine.

IV. FAILURES OF INTEROPERABILITY AND REQUIREMENT FOR EFFECTIVE GUIDANCE TO IT DEVELOPERS IN THE FUTURE

The need for interoperability of DoD information systems and for alignment of the data and information that enables military action has been recognized repeatedly and at the highest levels, and given today’s and tomorrow’s flood of digital data across networks this need is becoming ever more apparent.

For example, DoDI 8320.02, “Sharing Data, Information, and Information Technology (IT) Services in the Department of Defense” [8] requires that authoritative data sources (ADSs) be ‘registered in the DoD Data Services Environment (DSE).’

The DoDI directs further that ‘Data, information, and IT services will be made … interoperable throughout their lifecycles for all authorized users’. However, the instruction to achieve such interoperability – namely through ‘enforcement of policy for DoD metadata that uses Government and industry metadata standards’ – repeatedly fails in its goal. This is not only because the policy is formulated in a way that falls short of the required specificity, but also because, even where relevant standards exist, they have in almost all cases been created ad hoc, to address specific local needs. Thus they have not been built in the sort of coordinated, rule-governed way that would be needed to achieve interoperability.

The problem of overly weak requirements is illustrated also in the already mentioned DoDI 8330.01 on “Interoperability” [6], where it is stated that the information systems that DoD components use must interoperate, to the maximum extent practicable, with existing and planned systems (including applications) and equipment  of  joint,  combined,  and  coalition  forces,  other U.S.   Government   departments   and   agencies,   and   non-governmental organizations, as required based on the operational context (italics added).

Because everything is by definition interoperable to ‘the maximum extent practicable,’ this instruction is without teeth.

DoDI 8320.02 suggests a further route to the achievement of interoperability through adherence to standards listed in the DoD IT Standards Registry (DISR). Unfortunately, it is difficult to determine the degree of interoperability of DISR standards, in part because the needed assessment must be applied simultaneously to the different portions of the DISR, and these often require different sorts of permissions (and thus, we assume, are accessible only to different sorts of people). Some of the resources contributed to the DISR that we were able to access, however, do not manifest – even when taken  singly

  • the sort of minimal terminological consistency or formal regimentation that would be needed to meet the demands of interoperability. The terminology defined in [9], for examp- le, was created by selecting terms and definitions from a wide range of sources. No common rules for definitions were employed, and so there is no way of checking even for simple logical consistency of the resulting artifact.

Achieving interoperability – both terminological and structural [10] – is of course difficult for a large organization like the DoD with a cumbrous history of information system development. However, in recent years a number of best practices for meeting the demands of inoperability have been established, some of them very simple to implement. Thus a first task would be to establish corresponding simple rules that must be satisfied by IT systems developed by the DoD in the future. We are concerned here only with issues of terminological interoperability, which we propose should be addressed through the creation of a benchmark ontology framework centered around the JDO. We envisage that the complementary structural interoperability might be tackled in part through the deployment of W3C standard resources such as RDF and the Web Ontology Language (OWL) [11]. The formulation of ontologies using OWL, in particular, would allow computational reasoners to be used in a way that provides automatic checking for consistency of definitions with each new revision of a terminological artifact such as JP 1-02. The ontology approach can thereby support agile development and coordinated maintenance of information systems in a way that does not sacrifice terminological interoperability [12]–[16].

V. THE SOLUTION

DoDI 8330.01 [6] already requires that the content of joint operational concepts, and associated doctrine and operational procedures, address interoperability of the IT used by the separate Services and also, where required, by joint and multinational forces and other U.S. government departments and agencies.

While DoD thus requires that joint doctrine addresses the need for IT interoperability, it crucially does not require

  • and has no effective strategy to ensure – that the IT systems  and  procedures  themselves  address  the  need for conformity with joint doctrine. We believe, however, that such conformity is not only indispensable if unified action between human warfighters and IT systems is to be achieved, but further that it would bring multiple significant benefits to military IT systems themselves, and thus also to the developers of such systems, because it would provide a benchmark for interoperability.
 

VI. UNIFIED ACTION OF HUMAN WARFIGHTERS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS

JP 1, the Capstone Publication of Joint Doctrine [1], states that unified action demands ‘maximum interoperability’:

The forces, units, and systems of all Services must operate together effectively, in part through interoperability. This includes joint force development; use of joint doctrine; the development and use of joint plans and orders; and the development and use of joint and/or interoperable communications and information systems (italics added).

Because a military organization includes its information systems, we believe that building the common language provided by doctrine into the information systems that will be used by warfighters is a vital need.

The DoD Manual (DoDM) 5120.01, “Joint Doctrine Development Process” [17], provides the guidance that steers DoD to consistent terminology across the joint publications governing different types of operational domains. Developers of doctrine are required to ‘use, to the greatest extent possible, previously approved terminology contained in the text of other JPs or in … JP 1-02.’ An information system needs more than well-trained and qualified people and high-quality equipment to provide effective support to unified action. It must be supported also by effective guiding principles and procedures rooted in an understanding of the requirements of unified action. Our proposal is that such support can be achieved in today’s networked environment by extending the same guidance that is provided to doctrine developers also to IT developers. Those engaged in developing IT systems for military operations should be required to take the terminology and definitions of joint doctrine as their starting point. Increasingly, if this proposal is adopted, doctrine developers will come to be seen as constituting the first rank of information technologists, providing the core terminological content on which all DoD IT content will rest.

VII. RULES FOR DEFINITIONS IN INSTRUCTION 5705.01D

To see how JDO will be constructed, we need first to understand some of the features of the Dictionary from which it will be derived. The idea for such a dictionary is expressed in DoDI 5025.12 of August 2009 [18], which states that it is DoD policy to improve communications and mutual understanding within the DoD, with other Federal Agencies, and between the United States and its international partners through the standardization of military and associated terminology.

This position is restated in the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction (CJCSI) 5705.01D of November 10, 2010 on the creation of a “Standardization of Military and Associated Terminology.” [19] Specifically, the Chief of the Joint Education and Doctrine Division (JEDD), J-7, shall oversee the DoD Terminology Program and U.S. participation in the NATO Terminology Programme; serve as Joint Staff planner for terminology issues; and appoint and supervise the Joint Staff terminologist.

Enclosure C of this instruction provides a “Definition Writing Guide,” which includes a specification of the scope of JP 1-02 and also simple rules for writing definitions. Such rules are of obvious importance for our needs here, since an ontological counterpart of JP 1-02 can be created only if the definitions contained in the latter are in good order from the point of view of logical consistency.

As concerns scope, the Guide specifies that the Dictionary will include terms of general military or associated significance. Technical or highly specialized terms may be included if they can be defined in easily understood language and if their inclusion is of general military or associated significance. The Guide requires further that the dictionary be non-redundant: thus, a term will be added to the dictionary only if ‘[an] approved joint term with similar definition does not exist.’

The Guide defines a definition as ‘a formal statement of the exact meaning of a term that enables it to be distinguished from any other.’ A definition is distinguished from a description by the fact that the latter ‘is a narrative containing information about the term that is not constrained in format or content.’

Principles for the development of a definition require that it should be:

Clear – Address the meaning of the term only. A definition should not contain doctrinal or procedural information; i.e., it should focus on describing “what” a term is and not “how” or “why” it is used.

Concise – Be as brief as possible, including only information that makes the term unique. Limit the definition to one sentence whenever possible.

Complete – Include all information required to distinguish the term from those that are related  or similar.

The Guide includes also a list of types of errors that are to be avoided when writing definitions. For example, a definition should not be over-restrictive; it should not be circular; it should be positive (state what is covered by a term rather than what is not covered); and it should contain no hidden definitions (where the definition of one term is embedded inside another).

The rules codified in the Guide conform very well to the best practices identified by terminologists who have studied the authoring of definitions [20]. That violations of these rules have slipped though the coordination process, however, is seen in the fact that errors of each of the mentioned kinds can still be found (see Table 1).

 

Avoiding these and other types of errors would not only make JP 1-02 more valuable to human users; it would also enable the construction of the formal representations of its content of the sort that are needed for use in computational systems. We have already proposed a series of supplement- ary rules for the formulation of definitions (summarized in [12]), rules which have been tested in some 150 ontology initiatives over a wide variety of domains (see under ‘Users’ at [14]). We are applying these rules in building the JDO, thereby providing a vehicle that can support the usage of joint terminology by computers without sacrificing understandability by humans. These definitions can also be of help in the process of revising joint publications in the future, allowing the content of JP 1-02 to be used as part of a computational process of quality assurance for the use of terminology in joint publications when successive revisions are made.

Table 1: Examples of errors in JP 1-02 (from June 15, 2015)

U = unclear, N = not concise, C = circular, H = hidden definitions

                                                              U   N     C    H

operational area =def. An overarching term encompassing more descriptive terms (such as area of responsibility and joint operations area) for geographic areas in which military operations are conducted.

 

 

x

 

x

 

 

x

contingency operation =def. A military operation that is either designated by the Secretary of Defense as a contingency operation or becomes a contingency operation as a matter of law (Title 10, United States Code, Section 101[a][13])

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

subordinate command =def. A command consisting of the commander and all those individuals, units, detachments, organizations, or installations that have been placed under the command by the authority establishing the subordinate command.

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

VIII. PROPOSED SUPPLEMENTARY RULES FOR DEFINITIONS

We provide five examples of such rules, and illustrate their application to creating the JDO.

Rule 1: Do not confuse the entity you are defining with the term used to represent that entity.

(Failure to heed this rule is illustrated in the definition of operational area in Table 1 – an operational area is not a ‘kind of overarching term’.)

Rule 2: Distinguish between general terms and proper names.

Almost every JP 1-02 term is a general term, which is to say, it is a term that refers to something general – a kind or type (as in all the cases listed in Table 1) – having multiple specific instances. A small number of JP 1-02 terms are proper names, which is to say, they refer to exactly one specific instance. Examples include the Universal Joint Task List and Joint Doctrine Development System. Such terms are standardly marked by use of initial capitals, but their treatment in JP 1-02 is sometimes uncertain. The definition   of   Army   air-ground   system,   for instance, suggests that there is exactly one Army air-ground system, so that ‘Army air-ground system’ would be a proper name. However, there may be a plurality of such systems used by the Army at any given time.

Rules 3–5 apply only to general terms, and are satisfied already by the definitions of many such terms in JP 1-02:

Rule 3: All general terms should be singular in number.

Rule 4: Each general term should have at most one single parent term.

Rule 5: The definition of each general term A should specify the associated parent term B and state what it is about the As that marks them out from all other instances of  B as instances of A.

Thus a definition of a general term A should have the two- part form:

An A =def. a B which Cs.

For example (from [16]):

artillery vehicle =def. A vehicle which is designed for the transport of one or more artillery weapons.

artillery weapon = def. A device which is designed for projection of munitions beyond the effective range of personal weapons.

Returning to JP 1-02 we can now, following rule 5, define:

operational area =def. A geographic area in which military operations are conducted. (Contrast the first row of Table 1.)

Here ‘geographic area’ is the parent term; the specific difference is ‘in which military operations are conducted.’ The overwhelming majority of JP 1-02 definitions are already of this form. Consider for example:

theater of operations =def. An operational  area defined by the geographic combatant commander for the conduct or support of specific military operations.

Many of the remaining cases are easily converted to be of this form without any change of meaning. Starting, for example, from the definition:

cyberspace operations = def. The employment of cyberspace capabilities where the primary purpose is to achieve objectives in or through cyberspace.

Here two conversion steps are needed. The first replaces the term to be defined with a singular noun following rule 2. The second, in accordance with rule 5, adds a representation of the appropriate parent term (here, trivially, operation) to yield:

cyberspace operation =def. An operation that employs cyberspace capabilities and has primary purpose: to achieve objectives in or through cyberspace.

Such rules may seem trivial, and the effect of their application may be very slight when measured against the understandability and utility from the point of view of human beings of the definitions to which they give rise. But they bring two immediate benefits when IT systems are brought into play. First, because IT developers lack warfighters’ experience and therefore context, they need definitions with as little ambiguity as possible. And second, the changes proposed bring aid not only to the formalization of joint doctrine terminology in the JDO – where adherence to rule 5 allows immediate generation of the backbone taxonomy of the ontology – but also to the quality assurance of joint doctrine definitions themselves, by allowing easier checking of logical consistency.

 

IX. BUILDING THE JDO

  1. The OBO Foundry

Our strategy for building the JDO follows an approach to coordinated ontology development as a means to advancing interoperability across multiple domains that was first successfully applied in the life sciences in the context of the Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry initiative ([21]). The strategy rests on dividing the domain of biomedicine into a number of sub-domains (for genes, proteins, cells, and so forth) and creating ontology modules representing the corresponding general types of entities. Each ontology module consists of general terms organized hierarchically through the parent-child relation between types and subtypes. This relation then serves as the starting point for the formulation of the definitions of the terms in the hierarchy in accordance with Rule 5 above. This strategy is currently being applied in a series of DoD and intelligence community projects, in each case drawing on the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) [12], which serves as a common upper level starting point for the creation of definitions of the terms used in the domain ontologies at lower levels.

The predominance of general terms in JP 1-02 reflects the purpose of military doctrine, which is to help warfighters understand the realities of war and their specific situations. It achieves these ends largely through the identification and explanation not of specific instances (such as a particular aircraft or IT system) but rather of important general categories. Doctrine is re-usable because it is applicable to many different instances and to many different sub-kinds of the same general categories that re-appear in ever new situations. This approach is effective because the basic realities of war are not changed by the fielding of new commanders, equipment, specialties, or tactics. A new IT system may provide a commander with more information in easier-to-understand formats; but the basic role of IT in supporting unified action remains unchanged. Because the developers of doctrine were so successful in identifying the high-level categories of C2, commanders and others continue to use these same categories when understanding how to employ each new IT system to create better operational capabilities.

The most general categories in military doctrine are:

  1. thing (people, equipment, organizations),
  2. attribute (capabilities, functions, roles, including relational attributes of command or support), and
  3. process (for example, the joint planning process).

Figure 1: OBO Foundry strategy for modular coordination

Figure 1 OBO Foundry strategy for modular coordination.png

Nowhere is it stated explicitly in military doctrine that these are the basic categories of the reality of war. Rather, the doctrinal publications are divided by area of warfare and by process (C2, intelligence, fire support, logistics, planning, and so forth). One of the virtues of joint doctrine is its consistent use of the same general terms representing sub- categories of thing, attribute, and process across all the joint publications. For example, every joint publication uses the term commander (thing) for the officer appointed to command (process) an organization (thing) and to  exercise authority (attribute) over subordinates. It is impossible to understate the value of this achievement, which has not only diminished communications barriers among the warfighters of different specialties but also faci- litated the application of IT in planning, training, and real world operations. What is remarkable is that the authors, managers, and terminologists of joint doctrine achieved this consistency with minimal documented theory and pro- cedures for categorization and for the writing of definitions.

  1. BFO and the Common Core Ontologies

In our view, BFO provides the documented theory needed to fill this gap [12]. BFO is architected around the same upper-level categories (of thing, attribute, and process) used by joint doctrine. More importantly, BFO serves as the starting point for a suite of associated resources – based on the Common Core Ontologies (CCO) (see [11] and Figure 2) – that have been purpose built to support IT applications in the military and intelligence domains.

The CCO and other domain-ontology modules are (1) defined in BFO terms and then (2) they are themselves extended through the addition of domain-specific sub- ontologies along the lines illustrated in Figure 2. The BFO community has refined and tested the needed theory and procedures for generating such sub-ontologies in agile fashion and for preserving their usability and mutual consistency across successive versions. [14]-[16].

 
  1. Building the JDO as Shadow JP 1-02

Our strategy for building JDO is incremental. We proceed through the successive joint publications (JP n-m), moving from general to specific, for instance from JP 3-0 (Joint Operations) to JP 3-14 and JP 3-17 (Space Operations and Air Mobility Operations). The creation of an ontology for each JP n-m then follows three steps:

  1. ENRICHMENT: create JP n-mE, a shadow version of those portions of JP 1-02 whose terms are defined in JP n-m but enriched (E) through the addition of new terms – for example, commander – that are not defined in JP 1- 02 but used in JP n-m definitions;
  2. LOGICAL REGIMENTATION: create JP n-mLR, a logically regimented (LR) version of JP n-mE, in which definitions are formulated in humanly understandable English but with the logical regimentation sketched in our summary treatment of supplementary rules for definition writing in section VII, as supplemented by the further rules set forth in [12]);
  3. FORMALIZATION: create JP n-mF, in which the human-readable definitions in JP n-mLR are formalized (F) using the Web Ontology Language (OWL);

Content from CCO is incorporated in each stage as needed. Examples are provided at http://ncor.buffalo.edu/JDO-Oct- 2015.

Figure 2: Common Core and associated domain ontologies

Figure 2 Common Core and associated domain ontologies.png

X. POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF THE JDO TO THE WARFIGHTER

We are developing the JDO to support efforts to  extend the applicability of doctrine in those areas where commanders, planners, and other warfighters need to call upon information and information support in order to be effective. JDO will provide a computationally accessible counterpart of the content of JP 1-02 designed to support unified action by advancing terminological consistency and interoperability.

The major benefit of JDO should take the form of better C2 through improved communication, self-synchronization, and projection into the future, and in each stage of development of the JDO we will be testing its utility in supporting improvements along all of these dimensions.

Figure 3: Examples of CCO and JP 1 terms descending from BFO in the JDO

Figure 3 Examples of CCO and JP 1 terms descending from BFO in the JDO.png

As stated in JP 6-0 (“Joint Communications System”) [13], a C2 system has two elements: (1) the people, who make decisions and accomplish missions, and (2) the facilities, equipment, communications, staff functions, and procedures essential to the commander for C2. People can conduct C2 without facilities, equipment and so forth, but the latter cannot perform C2 without people. Since unified action occurs not only between people and organizations, but also between IT systems and people, by advancing interoperability in the ways described above, a successfully developed JDO can facilitate moving past the low level of unity of action among people, organizations, and IT systems that has been achieved until now.

A subsidiary benefit takes the form of providing ways to extend the range of IT-supported uses of the content of doctrine, for example, by allowing the DoD Dictionary to serve as an entry point for web-based searches across multiple repositories of authoritative data; by facilitating greater coordination of training and operations; and by increasing automation of processes such as plan specifi- cation, course of action development, and operations and Blue Force Status assessment, particularly within highly contested environments.

We anticipate that the JDO will allow further enhancements of JP 1-02, for example, by providing for each term in the dictionary its own web page that can serve as a repository of usage and of revision history. This last benefit is part of our more general strategy to assist developers of the hundreds of IT systems that are developed for U.S. military operations to achieve the benefits of interoperability and to keep track of needed information.

Access to detailed information on the usage and revision history of the vocabularies of the intended users of these hundreds of systems would facilitate unified action among IT developers, for example, by helping to rectify the current situation in which even the best-intentioned and conscientious IT developers must make assumptions on whether a warfighting term in a specification that is listed in joint doctrine is intended to be defined by the current or  by some previous definition in JP 1-02. Integration of the JDO within the larger BFO–CCO framework would also help to resolve some of the problems that arise when expressions are used in JP 1-02 definitions but are themselves not defined in JP 1-02.

 

XI. POTENTIAL BENEFITS OF JDO TO THE DOCTRINE STAFF

Anticipated benefits of JDO to doctrine authors include the ability to apply standard ontology editing and visualizing software, for example, to create visualizations of how different parts of doctrine interact, of the doctrinal content relevant to particular types of operations or capabilities, or of the ways doctrine is used (and not used) in specific plans and operations. These benefits include opportunities for logical tracking of dependences among terms and definitions to identify (direct and indirect) circularities and thereby to help to ensure, when changes in definitions are made in the process of revision, that the effects of these changes cascade appropriately through all dependent definitions.

For example, imagine that revisions need to be made to the definition of a term such as base defense illustrated in Figure 4. The Figure tells us which definitions then need to be checked for continued validity, by showing the terms in JP 1-02 that are defined using base defense either directly or indirectly (by inheritance from a definition lower down the corresponding chain).

Figure 4: Fragment of the JP 1-02 network generated by the relation is used to define.

Figure 4 Fragment of the JP 1-02 network generated by the relation is used to define.png

We believe that terminological interoperability can be achieved only where the terminologies involved are developed as part of, or are defined in terms derived from, a common benchmark ontology framework. Only such a framework can provide a basis for clearly formulated logical relations between terms, and only this will allow the sort of automated checking for consistency that is needed when the terminological content of multiple information systems is aggregated together in larger (actual or virtual) systems. This requirement for automated consistency checking becomes all the more urgent as terminological artifacts are revised over time. We believe that the value of the JDO will reveal itself not least in supporting consistent revision of JP 1-02 in tandem not merely with Service and coalition doctrines but also with information artifacts such as the Universal Joint Task List (UJTL), the Joint Lessons Learned Information System (JLLIS), and their Service counterparts.

Finally, JDO can also help the many teams of ontologists working on different military and intelligence community initiatives to advance information discovery and processing. The JDO will enable doctrine to serve as a new source of ground truth for ontologists across DoD and IC that can help to ensure mutual consistency and identify wasteful redun- dancies as well as gaps and errors in existing ontologies. It will contribute to consistent and yet agile development of IT technology while also counteracting current tendencies toward silo formation and failures of interoperation.

APPENDIX: EXAMPLES OF PRIOR WORK

The practical value of an ontology-based approach to supporting operational military IT has been demonstrated most conspicuously in the ICODES (Integrated Com- puterized Deployment System) load-planning system, a program of record employed by the DoD since 1997 [22].

A more recent example is the AFRL (Air Force Research Lab)/USTRANSCOM Mission Data and Transport Ontology project described in [23]. Here, the goal was to create a domain model of U.S. Transportation Command’s operations, including operational processes, organizations, and Commander’s Critical Information Requirements (CCIR), to be used to support the monitoring of information relevant to USTRANSCOM missions. Specifically, rules were used to modify terms and definitions of the Joint Mission Essential Task List (JMETL) in ways similar to those described in section VIII in relation to the definitions of operational area and cyberspace operations. When the resulting domain model was used with the Securboration MetaTagger application, there was a reduction 20% in the numbers of people required for monitoring for critical information and a reduction of 1–3 days in discovering such information.

Another AFRL effort used analogous rules in transforming a portion of the Joint Capability Areas (JCA) taxonomy into an ontology-based model that was then processed by a machine-learning algorithm to train an appli- cation. Formalizations of the JCA descriptions were used to allow comparisons of unstructured text against each of the formalized descriptions in order to determine matches. Initial attempts to disambiguate each of the JCA descript- tions failed because of redundancy and ambiguity. Instead, a hybrid was created consisting of formalizations of JCA de- scriptions along with word bags of their respective contents. A machine learning algorithm was then used to compare historical user input against both to train the algorithm. Here, too, the implementation (described in [24]) shows a reduction in 1–3 days for discovering critical information that could affect USTRANSCOM operations, for example, in case of earthquake or other disaster and a 20% reduction in manpower required for monitoring the information.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Our thanks go to Lieutenant Colonel James McArthur (USMC JS J7), Lieutenant Colonel William D. Betts (USAF JS J7), Tatiana Malyuta (CUNY), Tony Stirtzinger (Securboration), Andreas Tolk (MITRE/Old Dominion University), and Erik Thomsen (Charles River Analytics).

REFERENCES

[1] Joint Publication (JP) 1, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, 25 March 2013.

[2] M. R. Hieb, S. Carey, M. Kleiner, M. Hieb, R. Brown, “Standardizing Battle Management Language – A Vital Move Towards the Army Transformation”, IEEE Fall Simulation Interoperability Workshop, 2001.

[3] S. Lambert, M. R. Hieb, “Improving Unity of Effort in Command and Control Processes: An Operational Analysis of a Joint Doctrinal Language”, Spring Simulation Interoperability Workshop, 2006, 743-752.

[4] Tolk, Andreas, and Curtis Blais. “Taxonomies, Ontologies, Battle Management Languages – Recommendations for the Coalition BML Study Group”, Spring Simulation Interoperability Workshop 2005.

[5] Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO), Standard for: Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML), Phase 1 SISO-STD- 011-2012-DRAFT 4 April 2012.

[6] Department of Defense Instruction 8330.01, “Interoperability of Information Technology (IT), Including National Security Systems (NSS)”, May 21, 2014.

[7] Joint Publication (JP) 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, as amended through 15 June 2015.

[8] Department of Defense Instruction Number 8320.02, “Sharing Data, Information, and Information Technology (IT) Services in the Department of Defense”, August 5, 2013.

[9] Acquisition Community Connection (ACC)  Practice  Center,  Terms and Definitions, Open Systems Architecture, https://acc.dau.mil/ Community Browser.aspx?id=220108&lang=en-US, October 14, 2015.

[10] J.-F. Ethier, O. Dameron, V. Curcin et al., “A unified structural/term- inological interoperability framework based on LexEVS”, Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 2013, 20, 986-994.

[11] J. R. Schoening, et al., “PED fusion via enterprise ontology," Proceedings of SPIE 9464, Ground/Air Multisensor Interoperability, Integration, and Networking for Persistent ISR VI.

[12] R. Arp, B. Smith, A. D. Spear, Building Ontologies with Basic  Formal Ontology, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2015.

[13] Joint Publication (JP) 6-0, Joint Communications System, June 2015. [14]   Basic Formal Ontology, http://ifomis.org/bfo, September 2015.

[15] D. Salmen, T. Malyuta, A. Hansen, S. Cronen, B. Smith, “Integration of Intelligence Data through Semantic Enhancement”, Semantic Technology in Intelligence, Defense and Security (STIDS), 2011, CEUR 808, 6-13.

[16] B. Smith, T. Malyuta, W. S. Mandrick, C. Fu, K. Parent, M. Patel “Horizontal Integration of Warfighter Intelligence Data. A Shared  Semantic Resource for the Intelligence Community”, Semantic Technology in Intelligence, Defense and Security (STIDS), 2012, CEUR 996, 112-119.

[17] Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Manual (CJCSM) 5120.01,  “Joint Doctrine Development Process,” December 29, 2014

[18] Department of Defense Instruction 5025.12, “Standardization of Military and Associated Terminology,” August 14, 2009.

[19] Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction 5705.01D “Standardization of Military and Associated Terminology,” Nov. 10, 2010.

[20] S. Seppälä. “An ontological framework for modeling the contents of definitions”, Terminology, 21(1):23–50, 2015.

[21] B. Smith, et al., “OBO Foundry: Coordinated  Evolution  of  Ontologies to Support Biomedical Data Integration”,  Nature Biotechnology, 25 (11), 1251-1255.

[22] K. Pohl and P. Morosoff, “ICODES: A Load-Planning System that Demonstrates the Value of Ontologies in the Realm of  Logistical Command and Control (C2)”, InterSymp-2011, 2011.

[23] J. M. Powers, Keith D. Shapiro, and David S. Monk, “Information Exchange and Fusion in a Collaborative Environment using Semantic Information Requirements”, International Conference on Collaboration Technologies and Systems (CTS 2014). 597-601.

[24] Securboration, “Human assisted analysis for change alignment to an Enterprise Architecture”, Requirements Analysis Portlet (RAP). May 2012.

 

Information Meeting Notes

Introduction by Barry Smith

Have data silos so need ontologies-the only hope for biological systems and military systems

Joint action requires interoperabilty of people and information systems

How is interoperabiity ro be achieved?

DoD IT Standards Registry DoD Instruction (DoDI) 8330.1

Sample Terms in DISR Acquisition Community Connection

All are bad

How to do it right?

Define architecture as integrated and systems architecture as an architecture of a system

yielding taxonomy part of ontology

How does ACC do it?

Sample terms

see definitions: use same words in definition!

Architecture is a word problem

The definitions themselves contain sentences that are unrelated

What is the alternative

need an authoritative, coherently and diligently authored dictionary and defintions of everything

DoD requires this

JP 1-02 only one coherently authored

How can we make the definitions of JP 1-02 serve as a benchmark of interoperability for military (IT) systems?

prove it

AFRL has two projects to demonstrate benefits

MAMA Living Plan DT/DTw

Schedule:

Morning: Background

Afternoon: Joint Doctrine Ontology

Thursday morning: Technical details

MAMA Jason Bryant

Civilian contractor

Barry is good at evangelizing this and trust his confidence as being able to do this

Look at track record for best practices

MIssion awareness for mission awareness

Shared at content level not understanding level

What is the problem: Static models

MAMA Objectives

Unsupervised learning

Approach: High speed, big data analytics, etc.

Technical Approach Overview

Technology

MAMA will develop a hybrid framework that adapts to both static mission models and the data-driven operational reality

Both inductive and deductive reasoning

Integration uses templates

Phase II is role intelligence starting this year focusing on metadata quality

Summary

Mission mapped information for SA

Todd Schneider questions

Grizelda Loy-Kroft Agile and Secure Information Capabilities

Background and experience - systems being used

confusion and conflicting and duplicative reports about same mission

same Phase II slide above

Spanish TV!

New slides? April 20-24, 2015

Agenda WRONG BRIEFING

Digital Thread/Digital Twin

Digital Thread

Transform disparate data into actionable information

Digital Twin

predict activities/performances

AFRL Input

Pamela Kobryn Structural Integrity Team

call it opens systems architecture for data and models rather than for hardware

My comment: Need people and systems that curate your content like in data science - preprocessing

AF needs to adopt an enterprise Big Data strategy

Liked my suggestion: A team of data scientists that would mine and preprocessed your content and curate it for reuse!

Matthew Jacobsen, ICMSE Systems Development Technical Lead

Brian Campbell MAMA Applied to Air Mobility Command

Stampede is part of the answer for MAMA

Meta-tagging and alignment with Ontologirs

Analyzing messages - semantic analysis and their dissemination

3 subs helping: Quanterion (routing), Raytheon (interface), Secuboration (semantic analysis)

STAMPEDE Vision for MAMA

Align messages to missions - routing at higher levels than packets on the network based on semantic analysis metadata we generate

STAMPEDE Components Looking at Japanese Nuclear Meltdown and Earthquake

My Comment: Build Knowledge Base by extracting knowledge from messages and data from web sites, etc. and then build an ontology on top of that Japanese ad UN Relief Semantic Medline, etc.

Core of STAMPEDE - The MIO

BREAK

William Tagliaferri CUBRC MAMA Applied to the Space Mission

MAMA Task Overview

Ontologies for Dummies

Two day workshop to critique and validate the ontologies

Space Domain Ontology tommorrow

Fusion Reference MOdel Implementation for SA/IA (SAFETI)

Leverage STAMPEDE

Cross-Domain Use Case Scenario

Events Comprising the Demonstration

DoD Big Data Problem: Event and quasi-static - where are the ontologies needed/being used?

Ontologies everywhere and after building knowledge bases

Erik Thomson Ontological Support for Living Plan Specification

VIsion for Ontology-ground Smart Information Grid

Reality NO SIG Yet

Agenda

  • Doctrine Living Plans require living doctrine
    • Value of doctrine in use
    • Assumes-Ontologies must be updateable
    • According to Doctrinal DIctionary
    • Is defined as
  • Technologiy requirements for LPLD
  • Use case

My Army SoS Engineering App for Terry Edwards

DoD Systems Catalog - standard data elements

Filter to Army Systems

Found a Public Domain Army System: Army Weapons System Manual of about 200 systems with standardized data in PDF

Each system had standardized data for specifications, contractors, parts

So the Joint staff could drill down and the acquisition people could drill up to see say common parts and contractors for more cost effective and efficient procurement.

Ron Rudnicki Common Core Ontologies

The Data Ecosystem - lots of common elements

My Army Example Above

WENT TO CONFERENCE CALL WITH Potomac Forum and TIBCO

LUNCH

Eat and Meditate

Lt Col James McArthur USMC Joint Staff J-7 Joint Doctrine Support for AFRL

Four Things?

  • Concepts
  • Education
  • ?
  • ?

Themes from meeting: Joint Doctrine will help, I believe we we need this, etc.

3=17 months for publication of changes: what are the changes that need to be made

81 Joint Pubs to review each year - not easy

When successful with MAMA and Living Plan

Stuff that makes sense that Barry has recommended

Barry has found that even within the Joint Pubs the same words are used differently

My Federal SICoP experience:ontologies were not to be put in repositories but should exist on the internet in model-driven architectures and model-driven applications. This direction came from OMB and the Federal CIOC which came from Jim Hendler and the DRAPA Semantic Web Program Director (I forgot his name)

Barry responded: we will see

Col William Mandrick PhD War Fighting Ontology

Liked conceptual slide that reminded me of BeInformed Story: 40M for Dynamic Case Management at several universities, that led to Be Informed that integrated citizen services for multiple agencies, that led to knowledge modelers and ontologists helping policy makers and legislators write the policies and legislators so it is consistent with the model/ontology.

Barry Smith NCOR and Alex Cox CUBRC

One year to do big 3 Joint Pubs (Which? Do these)

Joint Doctrine for Dummies on Mobile Devices

Col Webb - Websters, etc.

Did some of this two years ago for Dennis Wisnosky

Did more recently for Barry Smith

BREAK

Bill Betts DoD Terminologist

Code Red is not in the book movie clip

Been on the job a short time

LIke to make JD human and machine readable

Four ways:

  1. Add terms
  2. Revise glossary
  3. Compare to definition guide
  4. Put into Joint Terminology Database

LImitations: Run by amateurs

Feedback and General Discussions

Do JD Ontologies within the context of specific working applications: How are the JD documents (60-70 PDF files) actually used?

Most "pure" ontology work in Europe and US have not faired well: Neo in Europe and NASA QUDT in US

My suggestions:

Prioritize rewriting of Joint Doctrine Documents to conform to JDO

Involve Knowledge Modelers/Ontologist in revisions of JD changes/revisions

Convert all significant PDF files to MIndTouch (a state-of-the-art Semantic Wiki)

Inventory and prioritize the best DoD Public Domain Subject Matter Content (documents and data sets) that can be used to build ontology driven applications ASAP

Etc.

Now I realize that these documents are limited in what they provide based on subsequent conversations with Peter Morosoff

Information Meeting on Joint Doctrine Ontology

Source: http://ncorwiki.buffalo.edu/index.ph...trine_Ontology

My Note: Check for Slides Posted

Background

The goal of the Joint Doctrine Ontology project is to create a formal and computer-readable representation of the content of the major doctrinal publications, using as starting point the definitions in the DoD Dictionary (JP 1-02). Work on the project is being carried out as part of two Rome Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) initiatives "Mission Assurance through Mission Awareness (MAMA)" and "Living Plan". The goal of MAMA is to enhance cyber-situational awareness by the automated assessment of mission execution through the analysis of network traffic flows. MAMA has two facets, relating to Air Mobility Command and Air Force Space Command. The goal of the Living Plan is to transform Air Force planning and operations assessment from a disjointed static approach based on paper documents into a unified dynamic and computational approach.

Examples of Potential Benefits

1. to doctrine authors:

- enabling the creation of flexible visualizations of how different parts of doctrine interact, or of doctrinal content relevant to particular types of operations or capabilities
- allowing a tracing of dependences between definitions that can help to ensure that changes in definitions cascade appropriately through all dependent definitions when revisions are made

2. to doctrine users:

- enabling more effective discovery of doctrinal knowledge in forms useful for computational reasoning
- providing for each term in the DoD Dictionary its own web page, serving as a repository of usage and of revision history,

3. in the form of new uses for the content of doctrine

- allowing the DoD Dictionary to serve as entry point for web-based searches across multiple repositories of authoritative data
- facilitating greater coordination of training and operations particularly as these involve IT systems working alongside human beings
- increasing automation of processes such as plan specification, ops assessment, BlueForce Status, and scenario development
- allowing new sorts of assessment processes, for example based on measures of adherence to doctrine, processes which may in turn give rise to new ways of computationally identifying areas where changes in doctrine may be needed

The Joint Doctrine Ontology will enable doctrine to serve as a new source of ground truth for ontologists across DoD and IC that will help to identify gaps and errors in existing military ontologies. It will thereby support consistent agile ontology development of a sort that will counteract current tendencies towards silo-formation and failure of interoperation.

DoD Dictionary of Military Terms

Source: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/dod_dictionary/

The DOD Dictionary is managed by the Joint Education and Doctrine Division, J-7, Joint Staff. All approved joint definitions, acronyms, and abbreviations are contained in Joint Publication 1-02, DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms 08 November 2010, as amended through 15 June 2015. The Dictionary is available for browsing, searching, or can be downloaded in the formats below.

PDF Excel - Terms and Definitions Excel - Acronyms and Defintions XML

Excel-Terms and Definitions and Excel-Acronyms and Definitions

Joint Doctrine

Source: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jointpub.htm

Joint doctrine presents fundamental principles that guide the employment of US military forces in coordinated and integrated action toward a common objective. It promotes a common perspective from which to plan, train, and conduct military operations. It represents what is taught, believed, and advocated as what is right (i.e., what works best). It provides distilled insights and wisdom gained from employing the military instrument of national power in operations to achieve national objectives.

The Joint Publications

Source: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pubs/jointpub.htm

Capstone

Joint Publication 1, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, is the capstone publication for all joint doctrine, presenting fundamental principles and overarching guidance for the employment of the Armed Forces of the United States.

Capstone Publications, PDF

Source: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pub...b_capstone.htm

JP 1, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, 25 March 2013 
This publication is the capstone joint doctrine publication and provides doctrine for unified action by the Armed Forces of the United States. It specifies the authorized command relationships and authority that military commanders can use, provides guidance for the exercise of that military authority, provides fundamental principles and guidance for command and control, prescribes guidance for organizing and developing joint forces, and describes policy for selected joint activities. It also provides the doctrinal basis for interagency coordination and for US military involvement in multiagency and multinational operations.

PDF ePUB

Reference

JP 1-02, DOD Dictionary of Terms and Abbreviations. Also includes publications used in development of Joint Doctrine.

Reference Publications, PDFs

Source: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pub..._reference.htm

CJCSI 5120.02D, Joint Doctrine Development System, 05 January 2015

This instruction establishes joint doctrine development policy to assist the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in implementing his responsibility to develop doctrine for the joint employment of the Armed Forces.

PDF

CJCSI 5705.01D, Standardization of Military and Associated Terminology, 10 November 2010

This instruction establishes policy for the standardization of Department of Defense and multinational terminology.

PDF

CJCSM 5120.01A, Joint Doctrine Development Process, 29 December 2014

This manual sets forth procedures for joint doctrine development in support of the CJCS responsibility for developing doctrine for the joint employment of the Armed Forces.

PDF

JP 1-02, DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 08 November 2010, as amended through 15 June 2015

This publication sets forth standard US military and associated terminology to encompass the joint activity of the Armed Forces of the United States. These military and associated terms, together with their definitions, constitute approved Department of Defense (DOD) terminology for general use by all DOD components.

<>PDF

1-0: Personnel Series

Doctrine for planning, coordinating, and providing personnel support to joint operations. It also provides information relating to the functions, authorities, and responsibilities of a combatant commander, joint force commander and staffs, and the Service components as they relate to personnel management and selected activities that support the personnel needs of the joint force. 

Personnel, Series 1-0 Publications, PDFs

Source: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pub..._personnel.htm

JP 1-0, Joint Personnel Support, 24 October 2011

This publication provides doctrine for planning, coordinating, and providing personnel support to joint operations. It also provides information relating to the functions, authorities, and responsibilities of a combatant commander, joint force commander and staffs, and the Service components as they relate to personnel management and selected activities that support the personnel needs of the joint force.

PDF ePUB

JP 1-04, Legal Support to Military Operations,17 August 2011

This publication provides joint doctrine and information for the planning, preparation, and execution of legal support to joint military operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 1-05, Religious Affairs in Joint Operations, 20 November 2013

This publication provides doctrine for religious affairs in joint operations. It also
provides information on the chaplain’s roles as the principal advisor to the joint force
commander on religious affairs and a key advisor on the impact of religion on
military operations. It further provides information on the chaplain’s role of delivering
and facilitating religious ministries in joint operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 1-06, Financial Management Support in Joint Operations, 02 March 2012

This publication provides doctrine for financial management in support of joint operations, to include multinational and interagency financial coordination considerations.

PDF ePUB

2-0: Intelligence Series

Doctrine for conducting joint and multinational intelligence activities across the range of military operations. It lays the foundation for our forces� ability to fully integrate operations, plans, and intelligence into a cohesive team.

Intelligence, Series 2-0 Publications, PDFs

Source: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pub...telligence.htm

JP 2-0, Joint Intelligence, 22 October 2013

This publication is the keystone document of the joint intelligence series. It provides fundamental principles and guidance for intelligence support to joint operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 2-01, Joint and National Intelligence Support to Military Operations, 05 January 2012

This publication provides doctrine for joint and national intelligence products, services, and support to joint military operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 2-01.3, Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment, 21 May 2014

Available through JEL+.

JP 2-03, Geospatial Intelligence Support to Joint Operations, 31 October 2012

This publication provides doctrine for cross-functional geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) support to joint operations. It discusses roles, GEOINT operational processes, planning, coordination, production, dissemination, existing architectures, and assessment of GEOINT.

PDF ePUB

3-0: Operations Series

Provides the doctrinal foundation and fundamental principles that guide the Armed Forces of the United States in the conduct of joint operations across the range of military operations.

Operations, Series 3-0 Publications, PDFs

Source: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/new_pub...operations.htm

JP 3-0, Joint Operations, 11 August 2011

This keystone publication forms the core of joint warfighting doctrine and establishes the framework for our forces� ability to fight as a joint team.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-01, Countering Air and Missile Threats, 23 March 2012

This publication provides doctrine for joint counterair operations and protection against air and missile threats across the range of military operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-02, Amphibious Operations, 18 July 2014

This publication provides overarching joint doctrine to plan, conduct, and assess amphibious operations.

PDF

JP 3-02.1, Amphibious Embarkation and Debarkation, 25 November 2014

Available through JEL+.

JP 3-03, Joint Interdiction, 14 October 2011

This publication provides doctrine for planning, preparing, executing, and assessing joint interdiction operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-04, Joint Shipboard Helicopter and Tiltrotor Aircraft Operations, 06 December 2012

This publication provides doctrine for planning, coordinating, and conducting joint shipboard helicopter and tiltrotor aircraft operations from United States air-capable ships.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-05, Special Operations, 16 July 2014

This publication provides overarching doctrine for special operations and the employment and support for special operations forces across the range of military operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-06, Joint Urban Operations, 20 November 2013

This publication provides joint doctrine for the planning, execution, and assessment of joint operations in an urban environment.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-07, Stability Operations, 29 September 2011

This publication provides doctrine for the conduct of stability operations during joint operations within the broader context of US Government efforts.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-07.2, Antiterrorism, 14 March 2014

Available through JEL+.

JP 3-07.3, Peace Operations, 01 August 2012

Available through JEL+.

JP 3-07.4, Joint Counterdrug Operations, 14 August 2013

Available through JEL+.

JP 3-08, Interorganizational Coordination During Joint Operations, 24 June 2011

This publication provides joint doctrine for the coordination of military operations with US Government agencies; state, local, and tribal governments; intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-09, Joint Fire Support, 12 December 2014

This publication provides fundamental principles and guidance for planning, coordinating, executing, and assessing joint fire support during military operations.

PDF

JP 3-09.3, Close Air Support, 25 November 2014

Available through JEL+.

JP 3-10, Joint Security Operations in Theater, 13 November 2014

This publication provides doctrine for the planning and execution of joint security operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-11, Operations in Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Environments, 04 October 2013

This publication provides doctrine for planning, conducting, and assessing military operations in chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear environments.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-12(R), Cyberspace Operations, 05 February 2013

This publication provides joint doctrine for the planning, preparation, execution, and assessment of joint cyberspace operations across the range of military operations.

PDF

JP 3-13, Information Operations, 27 November 2012 - Change 1, 20 November 2014

This publication provides joint doctrine for the planning, preparation, execution, and assessment of information operations across the range of military operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-13.1, Electronic Warfare, 08 February 2012

Available through JEL+.

JP 3-13.2, Military Information Support Operations, 21 November 2014

Available through JEL+.

JP 3-13.3, Operations Security, 04 January 2012

Available through JEL+.

JP 3-13.4, Military Deception, 26 January 2012

Available through JEL+.

JP 3-14, Space Operations, 29 May 2013

This publication provides joint doctrine for planning joint space operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-15, Barriers, Obstacles, and Mine Warfare for Joint Operations, 17 June 2011

This publication provides doctrinal guidance for planning and executing barrier, obstacle, and mine warfare for joint operations as they relate to strategic, operational, and tactical mobility and countermobility across the range of military operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-15.1, Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Operations, 09 January 2012

Available through JEL+.

JP 3-16, Multinational Operations, 16 July 2013

This publication provides doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States when they operate as part of a multinational force. It addresses operational considerations that the commander and staff should consider during the planning and execution of multinational operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-17 Air Mobility Operations, 30 September 2013

This publication provides joint doctrine for planning, employing, and assessing air mobility operations across the range of military operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-18, Joint Forcible Entry Operations, 27 November 2012

This publication provides joint doctrine for planning, executing, and assessing joint forcible entry operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-22, Foreign Internal Defense, 12 July 2010

This publication establishes joint doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States involved in or supporting foreign internal defense (FID). It discusses how joint operations, involving the application of all instruments of national power, support host nation efforts to build capability and capacity to free and protect its society from subversion, lawlessness, and insurgency.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-24, Counterinsurgency, 22 November 2013

This publication provides joint doctrine for the planning, execution, and assessment of counterinsurgency operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-26, Counterterrorism, 24 October 2014

This publication provides joint doctrine for planning, executing, and assessing counterterrorism operations across the range of military operations.

PDF

JP 3-27, Homeland Defense, 29 July 2013

This publication provides joint doctrine for homeland defense across the range of military operations. It provides information on planning, command and control, interorganizational coordination, and operations required to defeat external threats to, and aggression against, the homeland, or against other threats as directed by the President.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-28, Defense Support of Civil Authorities, 31 July 2013

This publication provides overarching guidelines and principles to assist commanders and their staffs in planning, conducting, and assessing defense support of civil authorities (DSCA).

PDF ePUB

JP 3-29, Foreign Humanitarian Assistance, 03 January 2014

This publication provides joint doctrine for planning, executing, and assessing foreign humanitarian assistance operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-30, Command and Control of Joint Air Operations, 10 February 2014

This publication provides joint doctrine for the command and control of joint air operations across the range of military operations.

PDF ePUB

JP 3-31, Command and Control for Joint Land Operations, 24 February 2014

This publication provides doctrine for the command and control of joint land operations by a joint force land component commander (JFLCC). It addresses considerations for forming and establishing a functional land force component with a designated JFLCC and for planning, executing, and assessing joint force land operations across the range of military operations.

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JP 3-32, Command and Control for Joint Maritime Operations, 07 August 2013

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FM 6-40 FIELD ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL: FIRING

PDF to Text and Word (not used)

Prepared under direction of the Chief of Field Artillery
UNITED STATES
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1939
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.
Price 25 cents

WAR DEPARTMENT,
WASHINGTON, October 10, 1939.
FM 6-40, Field Artillery Field Manual, Firing, is published
for the information and guidance of all concerned.
[A. G. 062.:L1 (7-14-39).]
BY ORDER OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR:
G. C. MARSHALL,
Chief of Staff.
OFFICIAL:
E. S. ADAMS,
Major General,
The Adjutant General

CHAPTER 1. THE FIRING BATTERY

I. General

1. SCOPE

This chapter covers duties of personnel of the firing battery (except those duties prescribed for the service of the piece) and prescribes fire commands with explanation of their execution. It governs primarily the division
artillery, but with obvious modifications applies to all types and calibers.

2. TERMS USED

a. Firing battery, as used in this manual, includes only that portion of a gun or howitzer battery at the firing position, carriages unlimbered or uncoupled and prepared for action.

b. Battery commander, as used in this manual, refers to the officer commanding the battery or conducting the fire of the battery.

c. Fire discipline is that condition, resulting from training and practice, which insures the orderly and efficient functioning of personnel in the delivery of fire. The basis of fire discipline is the thorough training of the individual
soldier.

3. TRAINING

a. The object of training is the perfection of fire discipline throughout the firing battery as a whole. Training includes instruction in the care, preservation, description, and nomenclature of materiel; the acquirement of a knowledge of the duties of all cannoneers in the squad by each member thereof, and a thorough understanding of fire command; and the development of manual dexterity and teamwork in the mechanical operations involved. The executive is charged with this training.

b. Gun squad. training is the preliminary phase of training in fire discipline; firing battery instruction is the advanced phase. Training of the firing battery should be started shortly after instruction of gun squads is begun.

c. Firing battery instruction is started in the gun park. As proficiency is gained, the training advances to varied terrain and simulated service conditions. Occupation and organization of position under varied conditions, including darkness and bad weather, should be practiced. Fire on targets is first simulated, followed by subcaliber and service practice.

d. Each battery should maintain a minimum of four trained gun squads. Individuals of special aptitude should be assigned appropriately to permanent positions, but at drills posts should be changed frequently in order to develop flexibility and permit the ready replacement of absentees or casualties.

e. During maneuver or campaign Eas well as during the training year, frequent drill of the firing battery is necessary to maintain a high standard of fire discipline. However, during actual firing, while correction of errors is necessary, instruction in the service of the piece will be avoided since it interferes with the effective delivery of fire.

4. ACCURACY AND SPEED

Accuracy in the performance of individual duties must be stressed; it is obtained by insistence upon exactness from the beginning. Speed acquired by prompt performance of individual duties in regular sequence must not be stressed at the expense of accuracy.

5. LOST MOTION

To eliminate the effects of lost motion, settings must be made in a uniform manner as prescribed for the particular piece or instrument concerned.

6. CHECKING

a. Frequent checks of setting and laying are necessary to insure accuracy, both at drill and during firing. Checking during firing is usually restricted to lulls in action, except that when firing close to friendly troops constant checking by the executive and assistant executive is indispensable. It must be made with an absolute minimum of delay in firing.

b. When a piece is discovered to have fired with an error in laying, the error is corrected and reported immediately to the battery commander. When a piece is plainly and unaccountably in error, firing with it ceases and it is reported out of action until the error is found and corrected.

7. UNIFORMITY

Uniformity is necessary both in giving and in executing commands. However, while instruction always should conform to the spirit and principles of this manual, latitude is allowed in the practical application thereof, and subordinates are encouraged to use their skill and ingenuity in solving the problems which occur in service.

II. Precautions in firing

8. REFERENCE

Special measures peculiar to a particular weapon will be found in the pertinent manual of the FM 6-series for the Service of the Piece.

9. CARE OF MATERIEL

a. As soon as practicable after artillery materiel has been used, it is cleaned and put in order under the supervision of an officer. Lost or unserviceable parts are replaced or repaired. The work is not complete until everything is again ready for immediate service.

b. Before the piece begins firing, the chief of section verifies that the recoil mechanism contains the proper amount of liquid; thereafter he carefully observes the functioning of the recoil system.

c. In the case of separate-loading ammunition, the powder chamber is swabbed out after each round to extinguish sparks. During firing, a pail of water is kept under each piece and the bore is washed whenever fire is suspended for a short time. Usually it is sufficient to wash the bore forward a distance of 2 feet from the breech for light and medium and 6 feet for heavy artillery.

d. During prolonged firing, it is desirable to rest each piece at least 5 minutes of each hour.

e. When time permits during suspension of fire, the breechblock is dismounted, cleaned, and oiled, and the bore cleaned as prescribed in Technical Regulations for the materiel.

f. Permissible rates of fire for short bursts (up to 10 minutes) and for prolonged fire are given in FM 6-130; these rates are exceeded only if the situation demands it.

10. CARE OF AMMUNITION

Ammunition is sorted and stored by lots. When received boxed or crated, it is kept packed as long as practicable; after it is unpacked, it is protected from dirt and ground moisture by being placed on paulins or raised off the ground. Each lot is covered by a paulin or other material to protect it from rain and sun and to keep the temperature uniform throughout that particular lot. The paulin or other covering should be raised to allow free circulation of air.

a. Projectiles.--Unpacked projectiles and complete rounds are piled. Piles or groups are located 10 or more yards apart and contain not more than one hundred rounds of 75-mm ammunition, fifty 155-mm projectiles, or twenty-five 240-mm projectiles. When piled, the height will not exceed five layers for 75-mm ammunition and three layers for 155-mm projectiles. Planks or brush are placed between layers. Projectiles of 240-mm caliber are never piled but may be laid horizontally. Care is taken to prevent injury to the rotating bands; they are always examined before firing and any burrs removed with a file. Chemical shell are piled at a distance from the battery, in a direction downwind from the prevailing wind, and are inspected frequently for leakage. Adapter plugs are left in projectiles until immediately before the fuzes are to be inserted, and the projectiles are not fuzed until immediately before they are to be fired.

b. Powder charges.-It is especially necessary that powder charges be kept dry and ventilated. They are kept in moisture-proof containers until just before use. Powder charges are so stored as to reduce the possibility of their ignition in case of a flare-back or other accident at the piece.

c. Fuzes and primers.-Fuzes and primers are kept dry and stored separately from the other components of the ammunition. They are not carried on the person. Primers are especially sensitive to shock. Fuzes are seated securely (screwed home with the fuze wrench issued for that purpose) before firing. If difficulty is encountered in screwing home a fuze or if a fuze is otherwise defective, it is laid
aside temporarily and at a convenient time it is buried 3 feet deep or turned over at the position to ordnance personnel if available. Before returning ammunition to a vehicle or container, a careful check is made to insure that the combination fuzes are set at safety and that other types of fuzes are removed from projectiles and properly stored or disposed of otherwise. The precautions to be taken in the use of any particular type of fuze are given in the Technical Regulations pertaining to the matdriel.

d. Misfires.-See the PM 6-series for the Service of the Piece.

11. UNLOADING A PIECE

a. Unloading fixed ammunition or projectiles is to be avoided whenever possible. If unloading a piece becomes necessary, in case the projectile cannot be extracted readily or becomes separated from the cartridge case when the breech is opened, it is removed under the direct supervision of an officer, using a rammer which bears only on the projectile and provides for clearance around the fuze.

b. When unloading fixed ammunition, the breech is opened very slowly to reduce the likelihood of separating the cartridge case from the projectile and of scattering loose powder from the propelling charge inside the breech. Should the cartridge case separate from the projectile, the piece is brought to the horizontal and the breech recess cleaned to remove the loose powder. When the rammer is used, the recess in the *rammer head is inspected to insure that it is free from foreign matter. Projectiles being removed should
be prevented from falling to the ground when forced to the rear.

12. PRECAUTIONS IN HANDLING AMMUNITION

The following precautions also are observed:

a. Ammunition is not tossed, rolled, or dropped.

b. Smoking in the vicinity of explosives is prohibited; care is taken to avoid sparks or open flames nearby.

c. A round of ammunition held in preparation for reloading the piece is kept free from the path of recoil.

d. Tampering with or disassembling any component of a round is prohibited.

e. Any ammunition exposed to gas is wiped off immediately with an oiled rag.

f. Personnel handling chemical projectiles are provided with gas masks and gloves.

g. All rounds are examined before loading.

h. With pieces using separate loading ammunition, primers are not inserted until after the breechblock is closed and locked in its recess.

i. When the long lanyard is used, it will not be attached until the piece is otherwise ready to fire.

j. Pieces are examined before firing is begun to insure that their safety features are in order and that the bores are clear.

III. Posts and duties

13. GENERAL

Individuals at the firing battery are dismounted; they are not restricted to posts designated herein when their duties require their presence elsewhere.

14. Executives

The post of the executive is a position near the pieces from which he can best supervise the firing battery and be in communication with the battery commander. He should be able to see all the pieces and be seen by the chiefs of section, and his voice must be heard distinctly by all cannoneers. His principal duties are to:

a. Establish the firing battery in position.

b. Organize the position.

c. Comply with the fire commands of the battery commander.

15 ASSISTANT EXECUTIVE

a. The post of the assistant executive when at the firing battery is in the vicinity of the pieces where he can best perform his duties. His principal duties when at the firing battery are to: Assist the executive and to act as executive in the latter's absence.

b. Supervise and check the work of gun squads,

16. CHIEF OF PIECE SECTION

The chief of a piece section goes where he can control the service of his piece, hear commands, and perform his duties effectively. A convenient post is 2 yards from the end of the trail on the side opposite the executive. His duties are:

a. To place the piece in position, to announce to his gun squad its number in battery, to measure and announce the minimum elevation (or range), and to enforce camouflage and gas defense discipline.

b. To identify and point out to the gunner the aiming point, the referring point, or the target.

c. To follow fire commands, but to repeat only such part as may be called for by a member of his squad.

d. For direct laying in which his section is used, to assign a part of the target to his gunner. (See the pertinent manual of the FM 6-series for the Service of the Piece.)

e. For indirect laying, to indicate the general direction to be given the piece and to operate the gunner's quadrant when used.

f. To show that his piece is ready to fire by extending his right arm vertically as soon as his gunner calls "Ready."

g. Except when otherwise prescribed, to give the command FIRE, dropping his arm sharply to his side.

h. To execute prearranged fire when a written schedule for it is furnished him.

i. To supervise and check the work of the gun squad and to report to the executive errors discovered in the laying; for example, "No. 1 fired 5 mils right."

j. To report when the piece is out of action and the reason therefor; for example, "No. 1 (or so and so) out, must dig trail trench deeper to reach that range."

k. To conduct the fire of his section in fire at will and at other times when so directed.

1. During firing, to watch the recoil system and measure the length of recoil. To ascertain by inspection that the recoil cylinder contains the proper amount of liquid and that the pressure in the counterrecoil system is correct.

m. To have the section ammunition properly handled, cared for, and stored by lot, and the mat6riel and equipment cleaned as prescribed.

n. To keep the data for the gun book and data pertaining to his piece.

o. To apply calibration corrections to his piece when and as prescribed by the battery commander.

p. To enforce strict compliance with safety precautions.

17. AMMUNITION SERGEANT OR CORPORAL

The battery coinmander will designate an ammunition sergeant or corporal. His post is at the battery ammunition dump, if there is one; otherwise, in the vicinity of the post of the executive. His duties are to:

a. Have charge of such ammunition at the position as is not issued to the sections.

b. Receive, inspect, sort, and care for ammunition not delivered directly to sections.

c. Issue ammunition to piece sections, dividing each lot equally among them.

d. Keep accurate records, by lot, of all ammunition issued to the battery, tabulating receipts, issues, and expenditures; prepare ammunition reports.

e. Keep the executive informed as to the amount and kinds of ammunition on hand.

f. Dispose of ammunition left at positions, making the necessary reports.

18. TELEPHONE OPERATOR

The telephone operator is usually seated in rear of the battery and toward the windward flank. His duties are to:

a. Have charge of and operate all telephone communication at the position.

b. Have ample slack wire left at the battery and to see that the wire is not damaged during the occupation of position.

c. Establish communication promptly and report to the executive, "Communication established." To report to the executive when communication is out.

19. LINEMEN

Linemen at the position of the firing battery are with, and under the command of, the telephone operator.

20. RECORDER

The battery commander designates a recorder. The recorder is seated beside the telephone operator. His duties are to:

a. Record all fire commands and messages.

b. Tabulate his record so that he can instantly give the executive the setting for any piece.

c. Record the minimum elevation (or range) and the base deflections.

d. Keep a file of fire schedules.

21. CHIEF MECHANIC

The chief mechanic normally is at the battery position. His duties are to:

a. Inspect mat6riel, observe the functioning of the pieces, and make such repairs as can be made properly at the position.

b. Assist the ammunition sergeant.

22. SENTINELS

Sentinels are posted as the executive may direct. Their duties are as follows:

a. Sentinels at pieces.-To alert gun squads, report unusual events, prevent pieces from being disturbed, and, upon the signal for firing the normal barrage, to load and fire the pieces until relieved.

b. Gas sentinels.-To keep gas alarms in serviceable condition, to be on the alert to discover gas, to sound the alarm, and to give assistance in gas defense.

c. Circulation sentinels.-To enforce orders with respect to movement of individuals, animals, and vehicles in or near the position.

d. Rocket sentinels. To distinguish pyrotechnic signals; to operate rocket boards; to call, "Barrage" immediately upon seeing the barrage signal; and to report other signals in accordance with his orders.

e. Security sentinels.-To prevent surprise, to assist in defense, and to direct and guide authorized persons to the battery position.

23. REPLACEMENT OF CASUALTIES

During action, casualties are replaced as follows: the executive, by the senior present; the assistant executive, not replaced; chief of piece section, by the gunner (who continues to act as gunner also); gunners and cannoneers, by redistribution of duties by the chief of section or by the executive if necessary; others, as the executive may direct. Permanent assignments and reassignments are made by the battery commander as appropriate. Casualties are reported to higher authority daily or at such times as called for.

24. RESUPPLY OF AMMUNITION

Under the direction of the battery commartder, the executive, assisted by the ammunition sergeant, supervises the ammunition supply. As the necessity for resupply is foreseen, the battery commander requests the necessary amounts and types from the battalion. The battery commander makes a daily ammunition report to the battalion.

IV. Organization of the position

25. DEFINITION

Organization of the position is the systematic performance at the firing battery position of all functions which contribute to the prompt opening and delivery of accurate fire and to the concealment and protection
of personnel, mat6riel, and ammunition. Organization begins when the position is selected and is continuous through occupancy.

26. ORDER IN BATTERY

All carriages are unlimbered or uncoupled and prepared for action. The pieces may be placed in line at regular intervals or they may be placed irregularly, in which case they are said to be "staggered." The pieces of a battery when staggered should not be so
separated as to preclude the direct control, by the executive, of the firing battery as a whole. When the pieces are in line and the interval between muzzles is 20 yards, they are said to be at "normal" intervals. Pieces in position are designated from right to left as No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, and No. 4, without regard to the permanent numerical designations of sections.

27. OCCUPATION OF POSITION

a. When a position is occupied after dark or positions have been selected for each individual piece, the executive designates to each chief of section the position for his piece and the direction of fire. Each chief of section conducts his section individually to the position designated.

b. Where practicable, in order to avoid a multiplicity of tracks, the position is occupied from the march formation. The position is approached from a flank in section column. When opposite the piece positions, the trucks or carriages are halted in the track made by the leading vehicle or carriage; the pieces and caissons are uncoupled or unlimbered and run into position by the cannoneers; trucks are unloaded; and the trucks or limbers are then moved on past the position, leaving a single track passing the position.

c. The executive checks communication at the battery and posts the telephone operator at the position from which he will normally give commands.

28. LAYING THE BATTERY FOR DIRECTION

The executive lays the battery as commanded by the battery commander, or, if no commands have been received, lays it parallel in the direction indicated by the gun marker. In the latter case, if no aiming point or compass has been indicated, he should lay on a definite Y-azimuth (par. 55) usually a multiple of 100 mils.

29. REFERRING PIECES

a. To refer a piece which has been laid for direction, an aiming point is announced and the deflection is measured and recorded. The command for referring is, for example: AIMING POINT, AIMING STAKES.
REFER.

b. A common aiming point used for referring should be fixed, continuously visible, and as distant from the battery as possible. It should contain a clearly defined vertical line or a definite point on which the gunners can lay.

c. When a common aiming point is used, aiming stakes should be set up (for emergency use) at such a time as does not interfere with the firing. When a common aiming
point is not used, the executive orders the aiming stakes set up as soon as the position is occupied. The command is: AIMING STAKES OUT.

d. Two aiming stakes are used for each piece. One stake is set up at a convenient location at least 100 yards from the piece; the other stake is set up at the midpoint between the first stake and the piece. Both stakes are set up so
that they and the sight of the piece are on the same straight line. Whenever aiming stakes are used, the pieces are also referred to an auxiliary aiming point which is used in case the aiming stakes are knocked down during firing. During
darkness, a light is attached to each aiming stake, the near light lower than the far light. Each light is completely screened except for a narrow vertical slit visible through the sight.

30. DISPLACEMENT CORRECTIONS

a. When a gunner sees that his aiming stakes are out of line, he notifies the chief of section (who notifies the executive) and uses the far stake for laying until the piece can be moved or a correction is authorized by the executive. The correction is made by the gunner who:

(1) Lays on the far stake.

(2) Refers to the near stake.

(3) Lays on the far stake with the new reading.

(4) Realines the stakes (as soon as practicable) by moving the near stake.

b. Lateral displacement is most likely to occur when the axle of the piece is not level. This is particularly true of materiel equipped with pneumatic tires. Lateral displacement may be prevented by placing sandbags against the outside of each wheel. When gun platforms are used, wheel guides are constructed.

31. DETERMINING PIECE INTERVALS

If the pieces are staggered, the executive determines the interval from No. 1 to each of the other pieces by measuring or pacing the distance from No. 1 along a line perpendicular to the line of fire to
points opposite each of the other pieces. These intervals are recorded and used for forming the sheaf as explained in paragraph 62.

32. DETERMINING MINIMUM RANGE OR ELEVATION

a. As soon as each piece is established in position and laid in the direction indicated by the gun marker, the executive causes the minimum range or elevation to be measured.

(1) Minimum range is used only in the hasty occupation of a position and when the range to the mask does not exceed 600 yards. In such case, the executive selects the greatest minimum range setting reported to him by the chiefs of section, adds thereto the range in yards from gun to crest of mask, and reports the sum to the battery commander; for example, "Minimum range 1,600 (or so much)." Site zero (or 300) is used in determining the minimum range setting unless otherwise ordered. The foregoing is a rapid method providing a satisfactory safety factor for clearing an unoccupied crest.

(2) Minimum elevation is used in all cases except the above. The executive:

(a) Selects the greatest minimum elevation reported by the chiefs of section.

(b) Adds thereto the elevation (from Firing Tables) for the piece-mask range for the type of available ammunition having the lowest velocity.

(c) Adds two forks at the piece-mask range (from Firing Tables).

(d) If the mask is occupied by friendly troops, adds the value in mils of a height of 5 yards at the piece-mask range.

(e) Reports the sum to the battery commander as the minimum elevation.

b. The battery commander normally will advise the executive as to the probable sector of fire and require a report as to the minimum elevation throughout the sector.

A few probable critical points can be selected readily by Inspection and the minimum elevations determined for them. In this way, accidents will be avoided in instances where the mask is very irregular. The executive may be required to
determine minimum elevation for a particular projectile, charge, and fuze; further, he may be required to determine it for each piece.

c. Pieces are not fired at a quadrant elevation less than the minimum elevation or that corresponding to the minimum range setting and site as determined by the executive. If a fire command includes an elevation (or range) less than
the minimum elevation (or range), the executive reports to the battery commander, "Minimum elevation (so much)" or "Minimum range (so much)."

33. OPENING FIRE

a. When the above operations have been completed, the executive reports to the battery commander, "Battery ready."

b. If complete fire commands are received before these operations have been completed and if it is obviously safe to fire, the opening of fire takes precedence.

c. Further steps in the organization of position are completed as rapidly as possible provided they do not interfere with the fire.

34. IMPROVING EMPLACEMENTS

AS time permits, such of the following improvements are carried out as are appropriate for the type of mat6riel: construction of trail trenches, backed by trail logs; leveling of the ground occupied by the pieces; and construction of wheel platforms or firing-base supports.

35. DEFENSIVE MEASURES (FM 6-20)

a. References. Chapters 1 and 2, Engineer Field Manual, Volume II; Chapter 8, Basic Field Manual, Volume I.

b. Concealment. Positions should be concealed from enemy ground and air observation. To this end, the movement into position should be concealed, pieces irregularly emplaced, camouflage correctly employed, circulation controlled, and the use of lights and fires restricted. Measures for concealment must not delay preparations for promptly opening fire.

c. Protection.-The position must be prepared for defense against artillery fire and direct attack by ground troops and aircraft. Passive means, such as camouflage, cover, and concealment, are used. Active defensive means comprise the fire of small arms and of the pieces themselves. Construction work must harmonize with the camouflage scheme and ordinarily be executed at night.

d. Gas defense.--Orders for gas defense should cover such of the following as are appropriate: location, use, operation, and maintenance of gas alarms; adjustment, removal, and care of gas masks; reporting of gas attacks and of their termination;
defensive measures; assistance for casualties; and protection of material objects. All personnel must be instructed in defensive measures and selected individuals taught gas protection.

36. RELIEFS.-During long-continued action, personnel is divided into reliefs. Sentinels are posted at the pieces when the latter are not actually firing, the remainder of each gun crew being allowed to rest in sheltered positions near by.

37. RECORDS

a. The following records are kept:

(1) Each chief of piece section keeps a notebook and data for the gun book. In the notebook he keeps data of semipermanent value to his piece, such as calibration corrections, base deflection, and data for defensive fires. The data for the gun book are the number of rounds fired, defects, repairs, and similar pertinent information.

(2) Each gunner records, on data boards set up for each piece when necessary, base deflection, calibration corrections when appropriate, minimum range or elevation, and data for primary defensive fire missions. Base deflection and minimum range or elevation are also entered on the shield of pieces equipped therewith.

(3) Each cannoneer operating a fuze setter keeps, when appropriate, calibration corrections for the fuze setter.

(4) The ammunition sergeant keeps a record by lot of all ammunition at the position, consisting of a tabulation of receipts, issues, and expenditures, and reports of ammunition expenditures. The ammunition report is prepared from
this record.

(5) The recorder keeps a record of all fire commands, reports, and messages as prescribed in paragraph 20.

b. Extract copies of fire missions or fire schedules may be furnished by the battery commander to each chief of piece section and complete copies to the recorder. All schedules are carefully preserved.

c. Except as prescribed no records of fire commands are made.

38. EVACUATION OF CASUALTIES

Firing is not interrupted because of casualties. Available first aid is administered immediately. The slightly wounded walk to battalion aid stations; others, including gas cases, are removed by litter or ambulance at appropriate times.

V. Fire commands and their execution

39. DEFINITIONS

a. Fire commands are commands which convey all the information necessary for the commencement, conduct, suspension, and cessation of fire, and activities incident thereto.

b. Firing data are the elements of a fire command which prescribe the settings of instruments and fuzes in the firing battery.

c. The base piece is the piece (usually No. 1) for which initial data are computed and with reference to which data for other pieces are found.

40. ORIGIN AND TRANSMISSION

Fire commands originate with the battery commander. They are sent to the firing battery by telephone, radio, signal flags, signal lamp, voice relay, or messenger. The executive repeats the commands of the battery commander to the gun squads, except as noted
herein.

41. NUMBERS

Numbers are announced as illustrated in the following examples:

TABLE

10

 One zero.
25 Two five.
300 Three hundred.
1,400 One four hundred.
6,000 Six thousand.
3,925 Three nine two five.
4,050 Four zero five zero.
10,300 One zero three hundred.
11,000 One one thousand.
100.7 One zero zero point seven.
245.4 Two four five point four.
42. REPETITION

Fire commands are not repeated by any member of the firing battery except on request of a subordinate or when a fire command has manifestly been unheard or misunderstood. The subordinate who fails to understand elements of a fire command which pertain to his duties asks his superior for them thus: "Site?" "Corrector?" The tone of the reply is informatory and only loud enough for the individual to understand it. Repetitions are prefaced by "The command was (so and so)."

43. INITIAL COMMANDS; CHANGES

The fire commands for the first firing from a position must contain all the elements necessary to cause instruments and fuzes to be set and the pieces to be laid, loaded, and fired. Thereafter the range or elevation is announced and, unless otherwise prescribed, only such other elements as are changed. When firing more than one piece, a change for an individual piece or pieces will be preceded by the command NO. 1 (OR OTHER PIECES) (SO AND so). An individual change is announced and set after any general change of the same element.

44. OPENING FIRE

For the executive, the indication to fire is the battery commander's command for the range or elevation, except when otherwise specified herein. Fire is begun at the command FIRE; or NO. 1 (OR OTHER PIECE) FIRE; or RESUME FIRING. The command to begin fire is given by the executive except in the following cases:

a. By the chief of section during schedule fire and in fire at will.

b. By the gunner during fire at moving targets with direct laying. (See the pertinent manual in the FM 6-series for the Service of the Piece.)

45. CEASING FIRE

Fire is stopped by the executive's command CEASE FIRING or SUSPEND FIRING, but in emergencies anyone present may give the command CEASE FIRING. Fire always is stopped at the command CEASE FIRING, whatever its source. When a piece has been loaded with HE shell and the command CEASE FIRING has been given, the executive reports to the battery commander, "No. 1 (or other pieces) loaded," and acts on the instructions received.

46. SUSPENDING AND RESUMING FIRE

The command SUSPEND FIRING is used when the battery is firing on a schedule and a temporary stop is desired. The pieces are left loaded and the laying conforms to the schedule. When fire may be delayed more than a minute, the battery commander should command: UNLOAD. At the command RESUME FIRING, fire is resumed in accordance with the schedule.

47. SIGNALS

The commands FIRE and. CEASE FIRING usually are given by arm signals as well as by voice. The signal for FIRE is to drop the right arm from a vertical position sharply to the side or to point with the right hand at the piece to be fired, extend the arm vertically and drop it sharply to the side. The signal for CEASE FIRING is to raise both arms vertically and hold them in that position until the
signal is understood by all concerned, or to give one long whistle blast.

48. PIECES TO FOLLOW COMMANDS

a. A fire command will be followed by all pieces unless it includes NO. (SO AND SO) ADJUST. This command may be given as the first element of the fire command or may follow any other element of the command except the range or elevation.

b. At the command NO. (SO AND SO) ADJUST, only those pieces specified follow the subsequent commands.

c. To require the pieces that have not been following to follow, BATTERY ADJUST, or RIGHT (LEFT) ADJUST, is given as the first element of a subsequent fire command, which, in prescribed sequence, will include appropriate data for such pieces and the designation of pieces to fire and the method of fire.

49. SEQUENCE

a. The prescribed sequence of fire commands is:

(1) Special methods of adjustment and particular missions.

(2) Direction.

(3) Converging sheaf.

(4) Deflection difference.

(5) Site.

(6) Projectile.

(7) Charge.

(8) Fuze.

(9) Fuze range or time.

(10) Pieces to fire.

(11) Method of fire.

(12) Use or discontinuance of use of quadrant.

(13) Range or elevation.

b. The commands for ceasing and suspending fire may be given at any appropriate place in the sequence. When the command REFER is to be used as an element of a fire command, it follows the announcement of the aiming point. The command RECORD BASE DEFLECTION when used with REFER follows REFER; otherwise it may follow the commands for laying for direction; it is usually the last element announced.

50. COMMANDS FOR SPECIAL ADJUSTMENTS AND MISSIONS

Appropriate types are: ON NO. (SO AND SO) ADJUST SHEAF PARALLEL; INSTRUMENT DIRECTION, RIGHT (LEFT) (SO MUCH); or LAY ON NORMAL BARRAGE, or (ON SO AND SO). The first two are not repeated verbatim to the gun squads.

51. INITIAL DIRECTION

The battery commander may direct the initial laying of the battery for direction by commanding: A TARGET AND A DEFLECTION; AN AIMING POINTED AND A DEFLECTION; A Y-AZIMUTH; or A BASE ANGLE.

52. CHANGES INq DIRECTION

After the battery has been laid for direction initially, the battery commander announces changes in direction by commanding: RIGHT (LEFT) (SO MUCH), or BASE DEFLECTION RIGHT (LEF'r) (SO MUCH), or by any of the means listed in paragraph 51. Base deflection is a recorded deflection setting by which the pieces of the battery are laid parallel and in a known direction.

53. TARGET

The command is: TARGET (SO AND SO), followed by a deflection. It is an order to use direct laying. Each gunner is assigned his part of the target by his chief
of section; the latter also corrects the direction of his piece during firing.

54. AIMING POINT AND DEFLECTION

The battery commander commands: AIMING POINT (SO AND SO); DEFLECTION (SO MUCH), or PLATEAU (SO MUCH) DRUM (SO MUCH). When the aiming point is not visible from all
pieces of the battery, the executive may set the announced deflection on an aiming circle, sight on the aiming point, using the lower motion, and lay the battery as described in paragraph 57.

55. Y-Azimuth

The battery commander commands: COMPASS (SO MUCH). The executive does not repeat this command. He lays the battery with either a prismatic compass or an aiming circle. The instrument should be at least 30 yards from any masses of metal which might deflect the needle. The steel helmet and other metal objects should be removed from the vicinity of the instrument.

a. With the prismatic compass.-The executive determines the compass reading to the target by subtracting the declination constant of his prismatic compass from the announced Y-azimuth, adding 6,400 if necessary. He then places himself at least 60 yards in rear of the base piece and at a position such that the compass reading of the line from his instrument to the sight of the base piece is approximately the compass reading determined as above. He holds the compass to his eye and gives the following command to the
gunner: AIMING POINT, THIS INSTRUMENT, DEFLECTION ZERO, or PLATEAU 0 DRUM 100.

The execution of this command lays the piece on the prolongation of the line: Executive-base piece. The executive measures the compass reading of this line by reading to the sight of the piece. He then determines the difference between this compass reading and the desired compass reading and commands a shift of this amount to lay the piece on the desired azimuth. The remaining pieces are laid parallel by reciprocal laying on the base piece (par. 58).

b. With the aiming circle.--The instrument is set up at least 60 yards from the nearest piece and in such a position that it is suitable as an aiming point for all pieces. The executive lays the 0-3,200 line of the aiming circle on the announced Y-azimuth as follows:

(1) French aiming circle.-(a) He subtracts the announced Y-azimuth from the declination constant of the aiming circle (adding 6,400 to the declination constant if necessary).

(b) He sets the remainder on the azimuth and micrometer scales of the aiming circle.

(c) He releases the compass needle and centers it with the lower motion. After clamping the needle, he lays each piece reciprocally on the aiming circle (par. 57).

(2) American aiming circle, M1916.-(a) He measures the magnetic azimuth to the base piece and to this magnetic azimuth adds the declination constant of his aiming circle.

(b) He subtracts the announced Y-azimuth from this sum (adding 3,200 if necessary). The result is the firing angle for the base piece, using the aiming circle as an aiming point.

(c) He commands: AIMING POINT, THIS INSTRUMENT NO. 1 (base piece), DEFLECTION (SO MUCH) (as determined in (b) above).

(d) He then sets this announced deflection on his aiming circle and lays on the base piece.

(e) He then lays the other pieces reciprocally on the aiming circle (par. 57).

56. BASE ANGLE

a. The battery commander commands, for example: BASE ANGLE 1,800. The executive does not repeat this command.

b. If the orienting line runs through the sight of the base piece, the executive commands, for example: AIMING POINT, THAT STAKE (or other aiming point on the orienting line), DEFLECTION 1,800. The remaining pieces are laid parallel to the base piece by any convenient method.

c. If the orienting line does not run through the sight of the base piece, the executive sets up the aiming circle for use as an aiming point at a suitable point on the orienting line, lays the 0-3,200 line of the aiming circle in the proper direction by setting the base angle (1,800) on the azimuth scale and laying the instrument along the orienting line with the lower motion. He then lays each piece reciprocally on the aiming circle (par. 57).

57. LAYING PARALLEL WITH AIMING CIRCLE

The aiming circle is set up in a position suitable for use as an aiming point and the 0-3,200 line is established in the proper direction as described in paragraphs 54, 55 b, and 56. The executive, by means of the upper motion, directs the instrument on the sights in turn, determining and announcing the deflection for each piece from the readings on the aiming circle. When guns with French sights are being laid with the French aiming circle, the plateau and drum readings are taken directly from the aiming circle. With panoramic sights, 3,200 mils must be subtracted from readings which exceed 3,200. The executive commands, for example: AIMING POINT, THIS INSTRUMENT, DEFLECTION NO. 1, 3091; NO. 2, 2738; NO. 3, 2369; NO. 4, 2045. When time permits, the operation is repeated at the command of the executive until the same readings are obtained on two successive trials.

The executive then commands, for example: AIMING POINT, AIMING STAKES. REFER.

Each gunner refers and announces the referred deflection for his piece.

58. LAYING PARALLEL BY RECIPROCAL LAYING

This method should be considered only an emergency means of forming a parallel sheaf for use when an aiming circle is not available.

a. The base piece having been laid for direction, the executive may command, for example: ON NO. 1 LAY PARALLEL.

b. All pieces are brought to the horizontal after setting site zero (300), range zero; pieces other than the base piece are traversed to their centers and by shifting trails are pointed approximately parallel to the base piece. The gunner of the base piece refers in turn to the sights of the other pieces and announces the deflection reading of each, for example: "No. 2, 1580; No. 3, 1560; No. 4, 1550."

c. Each gunner sets as deflection the reading announced for his piece, and using the sight of the base piece as the aiming point, lays for direction; the chief of section reports, "No. (so and so) ready." When time permits, the operation is repeated at the command of the executive until the same readings are obtained on two successive trials.

d. When the pieces have been laid, the executive announces an aiming point and causes the pieces to be referred.

59. LAYING PARALLEL BY USE OF A COMMON AIMING POINT

When the pieces are using a common distant aiming point and are in line at regular intervals, the executive may form a parallel sheaf by means of a deflection and a deflection difference. The deflection announced is that of the base piece. The deflection difference is determined by measuring or estimating the interval between two adjacent pieces perpendicular to the direction of the aiming point and dividing by the distance to the aiming point in thousands of yards. The deflection difference is open if the aiming point is in front; close, if in rear.

60. DIRECTION ESTABLISHED BY ONE PIECE

After establishing the direction for the base piece, the battery commander may cause the others to be laid parallel by the command: ON NO. 1 (or other piece) FORM SHEAF PARALLEL. The executive does not repeat this command. He forms a parallel sheaf by reciprocal laying; by having the base piece referred to the aiming circle, laying the aiming circle reciprocally on the sight of the base piece, and then laying the remaining pieces parallel with the aiming circle; or by the use of a common aiming point and a deflection
difference.

61. DEFLECTION DIFFERENCE

a. If the battery commander desires to control distribution directly, following a command for direction he announces a command for deflection difference; for example: ON NO. 1 (or other piece) OPEN (CLOSE) (SO MUCH).

b. If the battery commander desires to control distribution indirectly through the executive, he will give a command for convergence (par. 62) followed by a deflection difference to obtain the desired width of sheaf; for example: CONVERGE AT 3,000, ON NO. 1 OPEN 8.

62. CONVERGING THE SHEAF

a. The command given by the battery commander is: CONVERGE AT (SO MUCH). The executive does not repeat this command. He causes the sheaf to be formed parallel by any one of the methods described in paragraphs 57, 58, and 59. He then determines the individual corrections to converge Nos. 2, 3, and 4 on No. 1 at the range announced by the battery commander, and gives the commands necessary to accomplish this convergence. When the pieces are at regular intervals, this may be effected by a command for deflection difference; for example: ON NO. 1 CLOSE (SO MUCH).

b. On occupation of position, the executive may prepare a convergence table as follows: He measures the distance in yards between pieces, normal to the direction in which he expects to fire, and, by the mil relation, computes the convergence at ranges which may be fired. He tabulates these results. The following table is convenient in determining the individual shifts for convergence; the values are given in mils.

TABLE

Range/Interval from No. 1 (yards) 

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 5
1,500 67 60 53 47 40 33 27 20 13 7 3
2,000 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 3
2,500 40 26 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 2
3,000 33 30 27 23 20 17 13 10 7 3 2
3,500 29 26 23 20 17 14 11 9 6 8 1
4,000 25 23 20 18 15 13 10 8 5 2 1
4,500 22 20 18 16 13 11 9 7 4 2 1
5,000 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1
5,500 18 16 15 13 11 9 7 5 4 2 1
6,000 17 15 13 12 10 8 7 5 3 2 1
7,000 14 13 11 10 9 7 6 5 3 1 1
8,000 13 11 10 9 8 6 5 4 3 1 1
9,000 11 10 9 8 7 6 4 3 2 1 1
10,000 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1
63. ANGLE OF SITE

For the 75-mm gun, French, M1897, the command is: SITE PLUS (MINUS) (SO MUCH), or SITE ZERO; for other pieces: SITE 305 or (SO MUCH). The site is not announced when using the gunner's quadrant, and, with some types of mat6riel, when using direct laying.

64. PROJECTILE

The command for shell is: SHELL MK. I (or other type designation); the use of shrapnel is directed by the command for corrector setting.

65. CHARGE

a. For charges termed normal, reduced, or supercharge, the charge is designated in a fire command only when other than the normal charge is to be used. In such case, the command is: REDUCED CHARGE or SUPERCHARGE. When a change is to be made from either of the two above charges to the normal charge, the command is: NORMAL CHARGE.

b. For numbered charges the command is: CHARGE I or (SO MUCH).

66. FUZE

a. When using shell (except time shell), the command for the fuze is: FUZE QUICK (DELAY).

b. When using shrapnel (or time shell), the command for a corrector setting is: CORRECTOR (SO MUCH); for a change in the corrector setting: UP (DOWN) (SO MUCH); for percussion fire: PERCUSSION. When the fuze setter is graduated for corrector and time, the commands are: CORRECTOR (SO MUCH); TIME (SO MUCH), changes being indicated by a corrector change or a new time setting. When the battery has both time shell and shrapnel available, the use of shrapnel is directed by the command SHRAPNEL, given before the command CORRECTOR (SO MUCH).

c. When using fuze setters graduated for corrector and range, the fuze range is the same as the range setting unless otherwise announced. When a fuze range other than the piece range is to be used, the fuze range is announced thus: "Fuze range (so much)." When firing with the range drum, the fuze range is announced whenever it differs from the piece range. When pieces are laid at an elevation rather than at a range setting, the fuze range is announced initially; thereafter, whenever changed.

67. PIECES TO ]IRE

a. TO fire the battery, the command is: BATTERY. To fire one platoon, the command is: RIGHT (LEFT), indicating the right (left) platoon. To fire any other combination of pieces, the command is: NUMBER(S) (SO AND SO). The command FIRE AT WILL directs all pieces to fire.

b. When a change in pieces to fire or the method of fire, or both, is to be made, the commands for both elements are given. Decreasing or increasing the number of rounds in a method of fire does not constitute a change of method.

68. METHODS OF FIRE

The methods of fire are salvo fire, volley fire, volley fire sweeping, continuous fire, by piece at my command, fire at will.

a. Salvo fre.--The command is: RIGHT (LEFt), and indicates the flank from which pieces are to be fired successively. Fire is opened at the executive's command FIRE, pieces being fired at the command of chiefs of section, in order from the right (left), at intervals of 2 seconds. The interval of 2 seconds may be changed by adding AT (SO MANY) SECONDS. This interval will be used until the method is changed or another interval announced. The executive gives the command FIRE when he sees that the pieces are ready to fire. If one or more pieces are apparently in error or are very slow, they are called out and the remaining pieces fired.

b. Volley fire.--The command is: (SO MANY) ROUNDS. Fire is opened at the executive's command FIRE, given immediately after the range or elevation. Each piece to be fired fires the specified number of rounds as rapidly as is consistent with accuracy without regard to other pieces, each round being fired at the command of the chief of section, NO. (SO AND SO) FIRE. There are three exceptions to the above, as follows:

(1) When firing at a moving target with direct laying, the announcement of the range is the authority to fire; each piece is fired at the command of the gunner. (See the pertinent manual in the FM 6-series for the Service of the Piece.)

(2) When safety regulations require personnel to take cover, the designated pieces fire simultaneously at the executive's command, which is given when the pieces are ready to fire and cover has been taken.

(3) When the battery commander prescribes a time interval during the firing of a single piece; for example, 3 ROUNDS AT 10 SECONDS. Each round is fired at the executive's command.

c. Volley fire, sweeping.-(1) Normal sweeping.-The command is: (SO MANY) ROUNDS SWEEPING (RIGHT), (SO MANY) TURNS (MILS). Fire is opened and executed as prescribed for volley fire, except that after each round the gunner traverses the piece the number of turns of the handwheel or the number of mils specified in the command. The sweep is always to the left unless RIGHT is included in the command. When the last round of the sweep has been fired, the gunner traverses the piece back to the original laying.

(2) Cross sweeping.-The command is: (SO MANY) ROUNDS CROSS SWEEPING, (SO MANY) TURNS (MILS). The execution is the same as for normal sweeping, except that even-numbered pieces sweep to the right.

d. Continuous fire.-The command is: CONTINUOUS FIRE RIGHT (LEFT) AT (SO MANY) SECONDS. If fire is by a single piece, RIGHT (LEFT) is omitted and AT SO MANY SECONDS may be omitted, in which case the piece is fired as rapidly as it can be laid accurately. Continuous fire, when executed by more than one piece, is a succession of salvos, the pieces being fired consecutively at the interval designated in the command. The fire is continued until the method of fire is changed or until the command CEASE FIRING is given. Changes of data are applied so as not to stop the fire or break its continuity.

e. By piece at my command.-To fire each piece individually at his command, the battery commander commands: BY PIECE AT MY COMMAND. When the battery is ready to fire, the executive reports to the battery commander, "Battery is ready," and, when the battery commander's command to fire is received, commands, for example: NUMBER (SO AND SO) FIRE.

f. Fire at will.-The command is: TARGET (SO AND SO), FIRE AT WILL. This method is used for firing at a target attacking or about to attack the battery. Direct laying is employed. The laying is as prescribed in the pertinent manual of the FM 6-series for the Service of the Piece. Without further command from the executive or the battery commander, each piece opens fire at the command of the chief of section and fires as rapidly as possible until the command CEASE FIRING is given.

69. HOLDING FIRE

a. If the battery commander does not desire the pieces to be loaded, he commands: DO NOT LOAD before announcing the range or elevation. To begin fire after the command Do NOT LOAD, the battery commander commands the range or elevation.

b. If the battery commander desires the pieces to be loaded but the opening of fire to be held, he commands: AT MY COMMAND before announcing the range or elevation.. The command is not repeated by the executive. When the pieces are ready to fire, the executive reports, "Battery is ready." To begin firing, the battery commander commands: FIRE, which is repeated by the executive. AT MY COMMAND continues in effect until a method of fire is announced not followed by AT MY COMMAND.

70. GUNNER'S QUADRANT

The command to use or discontinue using the gunner's quadrant is announced immediately before the range or elevation. The command is: QUADRANT or WITHOUT QUADRANT.

71. RANGE OR ELEVATION

a. The command for range is the announcement of the range setting, as, "4,800"; for elevation' the elevation setting, as, "140.6." When firing more than one piece and the pieces are laid at different elevations, and in this case only, the command SAME ELEVATION may be used.

b. The command for the executive to fire a series of ranges in a definite sequence is ZONE, followed by the range bound (if other than 100 yards) and the limiting ranges. For example: ZONE, 4,800, 4,600; or ZONE 200, 2,200, 2,600. The executive does not repeat the command but gives commands to fire at the following ranges: the first range announced, and ranges differing by 100 yards or by the amount of the range bound announced, until the final limiting range is reached; then ranges halfway between those fired in the reverse order. The ranges fired for the first command given above are 4,800, 4,700, 4,600, 4,650, 4,750. For zone fire using elevations, the command must include the elevation bounds as well as the limiting elevations; in other respects the procedure is similar. For example: ZONE 6 MILS, (QUADRANT) 148, 160; the elevations fired are 148, 154, 160, 157, and 151.

c. If it is desired to fire through a zone two or more times, appropriate commands are repeated as necessary.

d. The command for the range or elevation always is given in each series of fire commands when it is intended that pieces be loaded and fired.

72. SCHEDULE FIRES

a. Written data for concentrations and standing barrages usually are sent to the executive by command sheet. The arrangement of entries on this sheet is such that the executive can announce his commands in proper order by reading from it. Frequently, however, the executive will find it necessary to furnish each chief of section written data for each mission to be fired on a time schedule. Data for a rolling barrage are furnished by the battery commander on section data sheets to the chiefs of section, who are individually responsible for announcing data and giving the commands to fire according to the schedule.

b. The number of rounds to be fired is determined from the method of fire, zone and range (elevation) commands, and appropriate entries in the "Remarks" column of the command sheet. When time limits are shown for missions other than a rolling barrage, the executive causes the fire to start at the designated time. These time limits simply require that the missions be completed within the specified time without restricting the executive as to the rate of fire.

c. The normal barrage may be started by the piece sentinels (par. 22) or at the executive's command BARRAGE. Complete data, including rates of fire and duration, for all standing barrages should be furnished each chief of section. Sufficient ammunition for several complete barrages is stored in a place convenient for prompt use. One round is always kept ready for immediate loading. When not engaged in firing, the battery is kept laid on its normal barrage. The battery commander should warn the executive by the command LAY ON NORMAL BARRAGE when he foresees a lull in firing during which the barrage may be called for.

73. DETERMINING THE ADJUSTED COMPASS

A. If the initial laying was by compass, the battery commander may order the executive to "Report the adjusted compass." In this case the executive determines the difference between the deflection of his base piece after adjustment and the deflection of the base piece which resulted from the initial laying by compass. He applies this difference, in the proper sense, to the initial compass and reports the result as the adjusted compass.

b. If the initial laying was not by compass, or if it is desired to obtain the adjusted compass by actual measurement, the base piece having been adjusted, the procedure is as follows:

(1) The battery commander commands: MEASURE THE ADJUSTED COMPASS.

(2) The aiming circle having been set up so as to be suitable as an aiming point for the base piece, with the 0-3,200 line approximately in the direction of fire, the executive commands: NO. 1 (the base piece), AIMING POINT THIS INSTRUMENT, MEASURE THE DEFLECTION. The gunner of the base piece refers to the executive's instrument and announces the deflection.

(3) Using the French aiming circle.--The executive lays reciprocally so that the 0-3,200 line on the aiming circle is pointed in the direction of the line of fire. He then measures the clockwise angle to compass north by centering the needle with the upper motion. This angle subtracted from the declination constant (plus 6,400 if necessary) gives the adjusted compass. The executive reports, "Adjusted compass (so much)."

(4) Using the American aiming circle, M1916.-The executive measures the magnetic azimuth to the base piece. He then subtracts the reading given by the gunner of the base piece from the magnetic azimuth (adding 3,200 if necessary). This amount plus the declination constant of the aiming circle is the adjusted compass. (The quadrant in which the gun is pointing must be considered, otherwise it would be possible to obtain results 3,200 mils in error when using the panoramic sight or a multiple of 1,600 mils in error when using the French sight.)

74. INSTRUMENT DIRECTION

a. To' record.

(1) Immediately following registration on the base point (or check point), the executive on order of 'the battery commander, lays the 0-3,200 line of his observing instrument which has been set up close to and behind the base piece on a high burst above the base point, and thus determines the direction: Base piece-base point. He then records this direction as instrument direction, by referring it to any convenient reference point. He is thus able at any subsequent time to lay the 0-3,200 line of his instrument in the direction of
the base point, provided he does not move his instrument.

(2) For example, the base piece having been adjusted for direction, the battery commander may command: RECORD INSTRUMENT DIRECTION, 4,300.

(3) The executive-

(a) Sets up his observing instrument near the base piece.

(b) Selects an angle of site and a corrector setting that will surely give bursts visible through the instrument.

(c) Sets the azimuth and micrometer scales of the instrument at zero.

(d) Directs the line of sighting in the direction in which the burst is expected and elevates the instrument to the angle of site selected.

(e) Commands, for example: SITE PLUS 30. CORRECTOR 35. NO. 1 ONE ROUND. 4,300. FIRE.

(f) Turns the vertical hair of the instrument to the burst with the lower motion, thus placing the 0-3,200 line of the instrument in the desired direction.

(g) With the upper motion, directs the line of sighting on a convenient point and records the reading, for example, 453, so that the 0-3,200 line of the instrument can be laid in the same direction at any time.

(h) Reports to the battery commander, "Instrument direction recorded."

(4) The direction of the reference point should be materialized by stakes for night use. The position of the instrument should be marked by a stake.

(5) When registration is not permitted, the battery commander may direct the executive to establish and record instrument direction without firing. In this case, the executive sights his instrument on the base point, if necessary, lining it in from a crest in front or in rear of the position. If the base point is not visible from any point near the position, he lays the instrument in the direction of the base point by the same means used to lay the piece; for example, by a base angle announced by the battery commander.

b. Subsequent -use of instrument direction.-(1) Schedulefire missions subsequently sent the battery include a reference to the INSTRUrIENT DIRECTION; that is, the map shift from the base point (check point), on which direction was recorded, to the right edge of the standard area (target) upon which fire is to be delivered. Just prior to delivering a concentration, the executive lays his observing instrument in this new direction and fires an air burst with the base piece, using the computed deflection. The deviation
of this burst from the vertical hair of the instrument is noted and the entire battery is then given a deflection correction of this amount, thus insuring a plane of fire corrected for changed atmospheric conditions and direction errors of laying.

(2) For example, the battery commander, in sending data to the executive :for a concentration, may command: INSTRUMENT DIRECTION LEFT 146. 3,800. BASE DEFLECTION LEFT 150. ON NO. 1 OPEN 3. SHELL MK. I. FUZE QUICK. BATTERY ONE ROUND. ZONE 5 MILS. QUADRANT. 115, 125.

(3) The executive

(a) Having established the 0-3,200 line of the instrument as in a above, places the line of sighting in the direction ordered by applying the instrument-direction shift to the zero of the instrument with the upper motion. For the foregoing command, sets the azimuth and micrometer scales at 6,254 (6,400-146) without disturbing the lower motion.

(b) Selects an angle of site and a corrector setting which will give bursts visible through his instrument and commands, for example: BASE DEFLECTION LEFT 150. ON NO. 1 OPEN 3. NO. 1 ADJUST. SITE 340. CORRECTOR 35. NO. 1 ONE ROUND. 3,800. FIRE.

(c) Observes this round seven mils right of the instrument direction and completes the commands for the fire mission, as follows: BATTERY ADJUST. LEFT 7. SHELL MK. I. FUZE QUICK. BATTERY ONE ROUND. QUADRANT. 115. FIRE. 120. FIRE. (And continues the mission ordered.)

c. To measure an instrument-direction shift.-To determine the instrument-direction shift to a target on which an adjustment has just been made, the battery commander may, when no other method is practicable, direct the executive to fire a high burst over the target and report the instrument-direction shift.

75. ADJUSTING SHEAF PARALLEL WITH HIGH BURSTS

a. The base piece having been laid for direction, the battery commander commands, for example: ON NO. 1 (the base piece) ADJUST SHEAF PARALLEL. 4,000.

b. The executive-

(1) Gives the necessary commands to have the other pieces laid approximately parallel to No. 1.

(2) Sets up his observing instrument and lays the 0-3,200 line approximately in the direction of fire.

(3) Selects an angle of site and a corrector which surely will give bursts visible through his observing instrument, and elevates his instrument to the angle of site selected.

(4) Determines the angles subtended by the interval from the base piece to each of the remaining pieces at the range given (4,000 yards).

(5) Commands, for example: SITE 350 (PLUS 50) (or SO MUCH). CORRECTOR 35 (or SO MUCH). BATTERY BY PIECE AT MY COMMAND. 4,000. NO. 1 (the base piece) FIRE.

(6) Puts the vertical hair of his instrument (the azimuth scale of which has been set at zero) on the point of burst of the base piece and then commands: NO. 2 FIRE.

(7) Turns the upper motion of the instrument and measures the angle between the points where the first round burst and the second round burst, and, to correct the error observed (if any), commands: NO. 2 RIGHT (LEFT) (SO MUCH).

(8) Adjusts the other pieces in a similar manner, causing the pieces to be fired at intervals appropriate for accurate observation of deviations, and correcting each piece individually.

(9) Reports to the battery commander, "Sheaf adjusted."

76. REPORT BY OPERATOR OF BEGINNING AND COMPLETION OF FIRE

At the first round of a salvo or similar series of fire, the telephone operator reports to the battery commander, "On the way." If the rate of fire is slow, he may report each round, "No. 1 on the way," "No. 2 on the way," and so on. On the completion of the salvo or series, the operator reports, "Round completed."

VI. Examples of fire commands

77. 75-Mvm GUNS WITH PANORAMIC SIGHTS

a. Direct laying

(l) Initial commands: TARGET, THAT COLUMN OF INFANTRY. DEFLECTION 10. CORRECTOR 30. BATTERY ONE ROUND. 2,200.

(2) To change data: DOWN 5. TWO ROUNDS. 2,600.

b. Fire at will.-(1) The battery commander (or executive) commands: TARGET, THAT CAVALRY. FIRE AT WILL.

(2) The chiefs of section repeat the above commands.

c. Aiming point and deflection, battery in line at regular intervals.-(1) For the initial laying of the battery with the battery commander controlling the distribution directly, to form an open sheaf and begin fire with one gun, the battery commander commands: AIMING POINT, TO THE RIGHT FRONT, THAT BARE TREE. DEFLECTION 240. ON NO. 1 OPEN 7. SITE 290. CORRECTOR 35. NO. 2 ONE ROUND. 4,000.

The executive repeats the above command, and, at the proper time, adds: FIRE.

(2) To change data after firing a salvo, the battery commander commands: LEFT 20. NO. 2 RIGHT 5. UP 5. 4,200

The executive repeats these commands, adding: FIRE.

d. Compass, registering on a base point.-(1) The battery commander commands: COMPASS 1,450. SHELL MK. I. FUZE QUICK. NO. 1 ONE ROUND. QUADRANT. 200.

(2) The declination constant of the instrument is, for example, 200 (or 6,600). The executive sets up the aiming circle in a position suitable for use as an aiming point by all pieces, subtracts from the declination constant (6,600) the announced Y-azimuth (1,450), sets the remainder (5,150) on the azimuth scale of the aiming circle and centers the needle with the lower motion. He then lays the battery reciprocally on the aiming circle (par. 57), commanding, for example: AIMING POINT, THIS INSTRUMENT (aiming circle).
DEFLECTION NO. 1, 800; NO. 2, 400; NO. 3, 2,900; NO. 4, 2,500. AIMING POINT, AIMING STAKES. REFER. SHELL MK. I. FUZE QUICK. NO. 1 ONE ROUND. QUADRANT. 200. FIRE.

(3) On completion of the adjustment of the base piece, the other pieces having followed the deflection changes, the battery commander commands: RIGHT 5. RECORD BASE DEFLECTION.

(4) The executive repeats these commands and, at the proper time, reports, "Base deflection recorded."

e. Base angle, recording base deflection without adjusting.

(1) The battery commander commands: BASE ANGLE 1,800. RECORD BASE DEFLECTION.

(2) The executive converts the above commands, thus: AIMING POINT, THIS INSTRUMENT. DEFLECTION NO. 1, 1,400; (and so on). AIMING POINT, AIMING STAKES. REFER RECORD BASE DEFLECTION.

(3) The executive reports, "Base deflection recorded."

f. Shift from base deflection and zone fire, staggered position.

(1) The battery commander, controlling distribution indirectly through the executive, commands: BASE DEFLECTION RIGHT 100. CONVERGE AT 5,000. ON NO. 1 OPEN 12. SITE 305. SHELL MK. I. FUZE QUICK. BATTERY TWO ROUNDS SWEEPING, 6 MILS. ZONE, 4,900, 5,100.

(2) The pieces of the battery are at the following intervals from No. 1: No. 2, 10 yards; No. 3, 35 yards; No. 4, 90 yards.

(3) The executive converts the command of the battery commander thus (par. 62): BASE DEFLECTION RIGHT 100. NO. 2 RIGHT 2, NO. 3 RIGHT 7, NO. 4 RIGHT 18. ON NO. 1 OPEN 12. SITE 305. SHELL MK. I. FUZE QUICK. BATTERY TWO ROUNDS SWEEPING, 6 MILS. 4,900. FIRE.

and continues 'the fire throughout the zone.

g. Firing a salute.-The battery commander gives the following commands directly to the gun squads: WITH BLANK AMMUNITION. 21 (OR SO MANY) ROUNDS. BATTERY BY PIECE AT MY COMMAND. LOAD. NO. 1 FIRE. NO. 2 FIRE. NO. 3 FIRE. NO. 4 FIRE. NO. 1 FIRE.

When the required number of rounds has been fired: CEASE FIRING.

78. 75-MM GUNS WITH FRENCH SIGHTS

Using an aiming point and deflection, the battery being in line at regular intervals, when the battery commander desires to control distribution directly, he commands: AIMING POINT, TO LEFT FRONT, THAT CHIMNEY. PLATEAU 10, DRUM 105. ON NO. 1 OPEN 10. SITE PLUS 5. SHELL MK. I. FUZE QUICK. RIGHT RIGHT. 4,100.

79. 155-MM HOWrTZERS

a. Having recorded base deflection, to begin a precision adjustment on a target, the battery commander commands: NO. 1 ADJUST. BASE DEFLECTION LEFT 80. SHELL MK. I. CHARGE V. FUZE DELAY. NO. 1 ONE ROUND. QUADRANT. 290.

b. Having completed the previous mission, to begin a bracket adjustment, the battery commander commands: BATTERY ADJUST. BASE DEFLECTION RIGHT 140. CONVERGE AT 7,500. SITE 300. SHELL MK. I. CHARGE V. FUZE QUICK. NO. 2 ONE ROUND. WITHOUT QUADRANT. 450.

c. To adjust for direction with a high burst and to fire through a zone.

(1) The battery commander commands: INSTRUMENT DIRECTION LEFT 95. TIME 22. 370. BASE DEFLECTION LEFT 107. CONVERGE AT 6,000. ON NO. 1 OPEN 10. SHELL MK. I. CHARGE V. FUZE QUICK. BATTERY ONE ROUND. ZONE 7 MILS. QUADRANT. 313, 327.

(2) The executive sets his observing instrument in the direction ordered and commands: BASE DEFLECTION LEFT 107. ON NO. 1 OPEN 7. NO. 1 ADJUST. SITE 350. CORRECTOR 50. CHARGE V. TIME 22. NO. 1 ONE ROUND. 370. FIRE.

(3) The executive observes the burst to be 5 mils left of  the vertical hair of his instrument. He then commands: BATTERY ADJUST. RIGHT 5. SHELL MK. I. CHARGE V. FUZE QUICK. BATTERY ONE ROUND. QUADRANT. 313. FIRE.

CHAPTER 2. ELEMENTARY BALLISTICS AND DISPERSION, AND EFFECTS OF PROJECTILES

I. Elementary ballistics and dispersion

II. Effect of projectiles

CHAPTER 3. PREPARATION OF FIRE

1. General

II. Preparation of fire with instruments

III. Firing charts

IV. Survey operations, plans, and procedure

V. Preparation of fire from firing charts

VI. Schedule fires

CHAPTER 4. CONDUCT OFr FIRE

I. General

II. Attack of targets

III. Axial

IV. Lateral

V. Combined

VI. Adjustment with sound-and-flash units

VII. Conduct of fire with air observation

VIII. Conduct of fire by air observation methods, using ground observers

IX. Smoke

X. Gas

CHAPTER 5. TECHNIQUE OF FIRE DIRECTION

I. General

II. Support by observed fires

III. Schedule fires

IV. Ammunition requirements

CHAPTER 6. DEAD SPACE, VISIBILITY, AND CALIBRATION

CHAPTER 7. SERVICE PRACTICE

INDEX

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