Table of contents
  1. Story
  2. Slides
    1. EPA Air Data - Spotfire - Cover Page
    2. Spotfire Dashboard: Hourly Ozone 2013
    3. Knowledge Base
    4. EPA Interactive Map: Daily Ozone 2013
    5. EPA Interactive Map: Daily PM2.5 FRM Mass 2013
    6. EPA Air Data: Daily Temperature 2013
  3. Spotfire Dashboard
  4. Research Notes
  5. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Open Government Plan 3.0
    1. I. New and Expanded Initiatives
    2. II. Ongoing Initiatives
    3. III. Candidate Flagship Initiative: Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO)
  6. Air Data
    1. Basic Information
    2. What is AirData?
    3. Keeping Up with AirData News
      1. What Can I do with AirData?
        1. Download Data
        2. Reports
        3. Visualize Data
        4. The Interactive Map
      2. Other Sources of Air Data
      3. Some Basic Air Quality Concepts
        1. Types of Data
        2. Types of Air Pollutants
        3. The AQI (Air Quality Index)
    4. Frequent Questions
      1. I used to be able to get emissions data from the AirData website, but the site has changed. Where can I find that information now?
      2. I used to be able to generate nonattainment area maps on the AirData website, but the site has changed. Where can I get that information now?
      3. What is an exceptional event?
      4. Does the exclude exceptional events option exclude only EPA regionally-concurred exceptional events or all flagged events?
      5. In the CSV files, are the exceptional events data indicated?
      6. How do the reports handle co-located PM2.5 monitors?
      7. Does a PM2.5 query pull only data from monitors with a parameter code of 88101 or does it include others such as 88501?
      8. Do the AQI calculations include Non-FEM/FRM continuous PM2.5 data?
      9. If there's more than one monitor in a county, does the tile plot take the max AQI value among all the monitors in the county?
      10. Is it possible to query multiple years?
      11. Do you plan to make hourly data available through this site?
      12. Can you get design values from AirData?
      13. Do you have plans to include air toxics data?
      14. What is the AQS Data Mart?
      15. Do all AQI plots use the most current AQI breakpoints - regardless of what year you request?
      16. What is the lag between the data being posted on AQS and it being used in AirData?
      17. Are the chemical speciation data parameters available from AirData?
      18. How do AirData and AirNow differ?
    5. Recent Additions
    6. Glossary
      1. A
        1. AQS - Air Quality System
        2. AQS Data Mart
        3. Accuracy
        4. Air quality data
        5. Air Monitoring
        6. AirNow
        7. Air Quality Index (AQI)
        8. Ambient Air
        9. Attainment area
      2. B
        1. Baseline Year
      3. C
        1. CBSA - Core Based Statistical Area
        2. CSV - comma separated variable format
        3. Carbon Monoxide (CO)
        4. Clean Air Act
        5. Continuous Monitor
        6. Criteria Air Pollutant
      4. D
        1. Daily Max
      5. E
        1. Emissions
        2. Estimated Exceedances
        3. Exceedance
        4. Exceptional events
      6. F
        1. Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5)
      7. G
      8. H
        1. Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP)
      9. I
        1. IMPROVE - Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments
      10. J
      11. K
        1. KML - Keyhole Markup Language
      12. L
        1. LC
        2. Lead (Pb)
      13. M
        1. Mobile Sources
        2. Monitor
      14. N
        1. NATTS - National Air Toxics Trends Stations
        2. NCORE
        3. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
        4. Nitrogen Oxides (Oxides of Nitrogen, NOx)
        5. Nonattainment area
      15. O
        1. Ozone
        2. Ozone Precursors
      16. P
        1. POC - Parameter Occurrence Code
        2. PPB - parts per billion
        3. PPM - parts per million
        4. Parameter
        5. Particle Pollution
        6. Particulates/Particulate Matter (PM)
        7. PM2.5
        8. PM10
        9. Point Sources
      17. Q
      18. R
      19. S
        1. Sensitive Groups
        2. Site
        3. Smog
        4. Source
        5. Stationary Source
        6. Speciated Data
        7. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
        8. Sulfur Oxides
      20. T
        1. TSP - Total Suspended Particulates
        2. Time Series Plot
        3. Toxic Air Pollutants
      21. U
      22. V
        1. Violation
        2. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
      23. W
        1. Weighted Annual Mean
      24. X
      25. Y
      26. Z
    7. Reports
      1. Air Quality Index Report
      2. Air Quality Statistics Report
      3. Monitor Values Report
      4. Monitor Values Report - Hazardous Air Pollutants
      5. Air Quality Index Daily Values Report
    8. Visualize Data
      1. AQI Plot
      2. Tile Plot
      3. Concentration Plot
      4. Concentration Map
      5. Ozone Exceedances
    9. Download Data
      1. Download Data Files
    10. About the data
      1. Download Annual Summary Data
        1. Data Dictionary
      2. Download Daily Data
        1. Data Dictionary
      3. Download Raw Data
        1. Data Dictionary
    11. Interactive Map
      1. CO (CSV, 7.35 MB)
      2. Lead (CSV, 7.69 MB)
      3. Lead - TSP (LC) (CSV, 226 KB)
      4. Lead - PM10 (LC) (CSV, 3.33 KB)
      5. NO2 (CSV, 6.87 MB)
      6. Ozone (CSV, 16.5 MB)
      7. PM10 (CSV, 20.9 MB)
      8. PM2.5 (CSV, 12.4 MB)
      9. SO2 (CSV, 9.65 MB)
      10. PM2.5 Chemical Speciation Network (CSV, 1.0 MB) - "Trends Speciation" and "Supplemental Speciation" monitors only
      11. IMPROVE - Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (CSV, 1.1 MB)
      12. NATTS - National Air Toxics Trends Stations (CSV, 102 KB)
      13. NCore - NCore Multipollutant Monitoring Network (CSV, 56.4 KB)
  7. NEXT

Data Science for EPA Air Data

Last modified
Table of contents
  1. Story
  2. Slides
    1. EPA Air Data - Spotfire - Cover Page
    2. Spotfire Dashboard: Hourly Ozone 2013
    3. Knowledge Base
    4. EPA Interactive Map: Daily Ozone 2013
    5. EPA Interactive Map: Daily PM2.5 FRM Mass 2013
    6. EPA Air Data: Daily Temperature 2013
  3. Spotfire Dashboard
  4. Research Notes
  5. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Open Government Plan 3.0
    1. I. New and Expanded Initiatives
    2. II. Ongoing Initiatives
    3. III. Candidate Flagship Initiative: Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO)
  6. Air Data
    1. Basic Information
    2. What is AirData?
    3. Keeping Up with AirData News
      1. What Can I do with AirData?
        1. Download Data
        2. Reports
        3. Visualize Data
        4. The Interactive Map
      2. Other Sources of Air Data
      3. Some Basic Air Quality Concepts
        1. Types of Data
        2. Types of Air Pollutants
        3. The AQI (Air Quality Index)
    4. Frequent Questions
      1. I used to be able to get emissions data from the AirData website, but the site has changed. Where can I find that information now?
      2. I used to be able to generate nonattainment area maps on the AirData website, but the site has changed. Where can I get that information now?
      3. What is an exceptional event?
      4. Does the exclude exceptional events option exclude only EPA regionally-concurred exceptional events or all flagged events?
      5. In the CSV files, are the exceptional events data indicated?
      6. How do the reports handle co-located PM2.5 monitors?
      7. Does a PM2.5 query pull only data from monitors with a parameter code of 88101 or does it include others such as 88501?
      8. Do the AQI calculations include Non-FEM/FRM continuous PM2.5 data?
      9. If there's more than one monitor in a county, does the tile plot take the max AQI value among all the monitors in the county?
      10. Is it possible to query multiple years?
      11. Do you plan to make hourly data available through this site?
      12. Can you get design values from AirData?
      13. Do you have plans to include air toxics data?
      14. What is the AQS Data Mart?
      15. Do all AQI plots use the most current AQI breakpoints - regardless of what year you request?
      16. What is the lag between the data being posted on AQS and it being used in AirData?
      17. Are the chemical speciation data parameters available from AirData?
      18. How do AirData and AirNow differ?
    5. Recent Additions
    6. Glossary
      1. A
        1. AQS - Air Quality System
        2. AQS Data Mart
        3. Accuracy
        4. Air quality data
        5. Air Monitoring
        6. AirNow
        7. Air Quality Index (AQI)
        8. Ambient Air
        9. Attainment area
      2. B
        1. Baseline Year
      3. C
        1. CBSA - Core Based Statistical Area
        2. CSV - comma separated variable format
        3. Carbon Monoxide (CO)
        4. Clean Air Act
        5. Continuous Monitor
        6. Criteria Air Pollutant
      4. D
        1. Daily Max
      5. E
        1. Emissions
        2. Estimated Exceedances
        3. Exceedance
        4. Exceptional events
      6. F
        1. Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5)
      7. G
      8. H
        1. Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP)
      9. I
        1. IMPROVE - Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments
      10. J
      11. K
        1. KML - Keyhole Markup Language
      12. L
        1. LC
        2. Lead (Pb)
      13. M
        1. Mobile Sources
        2. Monitor
      14. N
        1. NATTS - National Air Toxics Trends Stations
        2. NCORE
        3. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
        4. Nitrogen Oxides (Oxides of Nitrogen, NOx)
        5. Nonattainment area
      15. O
        1. Ozone
        2. Ozone Precursors
      16. P
        1. POC - Parameter Occurrence Code
        2. PPB - parts per billion
        3. PPM - parts per million
        4. Parameter
        5. Particle Pollution
        6. Particulates/Particulate Matter (PM)
        7. PM2.5
        8. PM10
        9. Point Sources
      17. Q
      18. R
      19. S
        1. Sensitive Groups
        2. Site
        3. Smog
        4. Source
        5. Stationary Source
        6. Speciated Data
        7. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
        8. Sulfur Oxides
      20. T
        1. TSP - Total Suspended Particulates
        2. Time Series Plot
        3. Toxic Air Pollutants
      21. U
      22. V
        1. Violation
        2. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
      23. W
        1. Weighted Annual Mean
      24. X
      25. Y
      26. Z
    7. Reports
      1. Air Quality Index Report
      2. Air Quality Statistics Report
      3. Monitor Values Report
      4. Monitor Values Report - Hazardous Air Pollutants
      5. Air Quality Index Daily Values Report
    8. Visualize Data
      1. AQI Plot
      2. Tile Plot
      3. Concentration Plot
      4. Concentration Map
      5. Ozone Exceedances
    9. Download Data
      1. Download Data Files
    10. About the data
      1. Download Annual Summary Data
        1. Data Dictionary
      2. Download Daily Data
        1. Data Dictionary
      3. Download Raw Data
        1. Data Dictionary
    11. Interactive Map
      1. CO (CSV, 7.35 MB)
      2. Lead (CSV, 7.69 MB)
      3. Lead - TSP (LC) (CSV, 226 KB)
      4. Lead - PM10 (LC) (CSV, 3.33 KB)
      5. NO2 (CSV, 6.87 MB)
      6. Ozone (CSV, 16.5 MB)
      7. PM10 (CSV, 20.9 MB)
      8. PM2.5 (CSV, 12.4 MB)
      9. SO2 (CSV, 9.65 MB)
      10. PM2.5 Chemical Speciation Network (CSV, 1.0 MB) - "Trends Speciation" and "Supplemental Speciation" monitors only
      11. IMPROVE - Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (CSV, 1.1 MB)
      12. NATTS - National Air Toxics Trends Stations (CSV, 102 KB)
      13. NCore - NCore Multipollutant Monitoring Network (CSV, 56.4 KB)
  7. NEXT

  1. Story
  2. Slides
    1. EPA Air Data - Spotfire - Cover Page
    2. Spotfire Dashboard: Hourly Ozone 2013
    3. Knowledge Base
    4. EPA Interactive Map: Daily Ozone 2013
    5. EPA Interactive Map: Daily PM2.5 FRM Mass 2013
    6. EPA Air Data: Daily Temperature 2013
  3. Spotfire Dashboard
  4. Research Notes
  5. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Open Government Plan 3.0
    1. I. New and Expanded Initiatives
    2. II. Ongoing Initiatives
    3. III. Candidate Flagship Initiative: Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO)
  6. Air Data
    1. Basic Information
    2. What is AirData?
    3. Keeping Up with AirData News
      1. What Can I do with AirData?
        1. Download Data
        2. Reports
        3. Visualize Data
        4. The Interactive Map
      2. Other Sources of Air Data
      3. Some Basic Air Quality Concepts
        1. Types of Data
        2. Types of Air Pollutants
        3. The AQI (Air Quality Index)
    4. Frequent Questions
      1. I used to be able to get emissions data from the AirData website, but the site has changed. Where can I find that information now?
      2. I used to be able to generate nonattainment area maps on the AirData website, but the site has changed. Where can I get that information now?
      3. What is an exceptional event?
      4. Does the exclude exceptional events option exclude only EPA regionally-concurred exceptional events or all flagged events?
      5. In the CSV files, are the exceptional events data indicated?
      6. How do the reports handle co-located PM2.5 monitors?
      7. Does a PM2.5 query pull only data from monitors with a parameter code of 88101 or does it include others such as 88501?
      8. Do the AQI calculations include Non-FEM/FRM continuous PM2.5 data?
      9. If there's more than one monitor in a county, does the tile plot take the max AQI value among all the monitors in the county?
      10. Is it possible to query multiple years?
      11. Do you plan to make hourly data available through this site?
      12. Can you get design values from AirData?
      13. Do you have plans to include air toxics data?
      14. What is the AQS Data Mart?
      15. Do all AQI plots use the most current AQI breakpoints - regardless of what year you request?
      16. What is the lag between the data being posted on AQS and it being used in AirData?
      17. Are the chemical speciation data parameters available from AirData?
      18. How do AirData and AirNow differ?
    5. Recent Additions
    6. Glossary
      1. A
        1. AQS - Air Quality System
        2. AQS Data Mart
        3. Accuracy
        4. Air quality data
        5. Air Monitoring
        6. AirNow
        7. Air Quality Index (AQI)
        8. Ambient Air
        9. Attainment area
      2. B
        1. Baseline Year
      3. C
        1. CBSA - Core Based Statistical Area
        2. CSV - comma separated variable format
        3. Carbon Monoxide (CO)
        4. Clean Air Act
        5. Continuous Monitor
        6. Criteria Air Pollutant
      4. D
        1. Daily Max
      5. E
        1. Emissions
        2. Estimated Exceedances
        3. Exceedance
        4. Exceptional events
      6. F
        1. Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5)
      7. G
      8. H
        1. Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP)
      9. I
        1. IMPROVE - Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments
      10. J
      11. K
        1. KML - Keyhole Markup Language
      12. L
        1. LC
        2. Lead (Pb)
      13. M
        1. Mobile Sources
        2. Monitor
      14. N
        1. NATTS - National Air Toxics Trends Stations
        2. NCORE
        3. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
        4. Nitrogen Oxides (Oxides of Nitrogen, NOx)
        5. Nonattainment area
      15. O
        1. Ozone
        2. Ozone Precursors
      16. P
        1. POC - Parameter Occurrence Code
        2. PPB - parts per billion
        3. PPM - parts per million
        4. Parameter
        5. Particle Pollution
        6. Particulates/Particulate Matter (PM)
        7. PM2.5
        8. PM10
        9. Point Sources
      17. Q
      18. R
      19. S
        1. Sensitive Groups
        2. Site
        3. Smog
        4. Source
        5. Stationary Source
        6. Speciated Data
        7. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
        8. Sulfur Oxides
      20. T
        1. TSP - Total Suspended Particulates
        2. Time Series Plot
        3. Toxic Air Pollutants
      21. U
      22. V
        1. Violation
        2. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
      23. W
        1. Weighted Annual Mean
      24. X
      25. Y
      26. Z
    7. Reports
      1. Air Quality Index Report
      2. Air Quality Statistics Report
      3. Monitor Values Report
      4. Monitor Values Report - Hazardous Air Pollutants
      5. Air Quality Index Daily Values Report
    8. Visualize Data
      1. AQI Plot
      2. Tile Plot
      3. Concentration Plot
      4. Concentration Map
      5. Ozone Exceedances
    9. Download Data
      1. Download Data Files
    10. About the data
      1. Download Annual Summary Data
        1. Data Dictionary
      2. Download Daily Data
        1. Data Dictionary
      3. Download Raw Data
        1. Data Dictionary
    11. Interactive Map
      1. CO (CSV, 7.35 MB)
      2. Lead (CSV, 7.69 MB)
      3. Lead - TSP (LC) (CSV, 226 KB)
      4. Lead - PM10 (LC) (CSV, 3.33 KB)
      5. NO2 (CSV, 6.87 MB)
      6. Ozone (CSV, 16.5 MB)
      7. PM10 (CSV, 20.9 MB)
      8. PM2.5 (CSV, 12.4 MB)
      9. SO2 (CSV, 9.65 MB)
      10. PM2.5 Chemical Speciation Network (CSV, 1.0 MB) - "Trends Speciation" and "Supplemental Speciation" monitors only
      11. IMPROVE - Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (CSV, 1.1 MB)
      12. NATTS - National Air Toxics Trends Stations (CSV, 102 KB)
      13. NCore - NCore Multipollutant Monitoring Network (CSV, 56.4 KB)
  7. NEXT

Story

Data Science for EPA Air Data

As a former US EPA employee, I am always interested in home my former agency is doing with Open Government Data so I checked their web site and the link to Open Government and found the latest Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Open Government Plan 3.0 Outline with Candidate Flagship Project Description - April 2014 (PDF) (see details below).

After a little searching, I found Air Quality, then Air Data and Download Data, and finally pre-generated files of spreadsheet data!

The interactive map provides 13 spreadsheets of the map layers displayed on Google Earth maps. This is something I can do with Spotfire 6.0.

I found the answer to a basic question I had about the difference between AirNow and Air Data: AirData provides monitoring data from AQS which can date back to 1980 depending on the pollutant, so you can do retrospective analyses with a number of pollutants. AirNow reports real-time and forecast air quality data with respect to the Air Quality Index, mostly based on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations. While there is some archive data available on the AirNow website, its primary purpose is to report what’s happening now and what is forecast to happen tomorrow.​

First, I want to build a structured knowledge base about Air Data from the EPA Air Data Web Pages so I can ready find and search all that information to aid in my data science work.

Second, I want to see if I can reproduce the interactive map with Spotfire 6.0 for descriptive analytics.

Third, I want to try do correlation and predictive analytics and lastly prescriptive analytics.

Years ago at the US EPA, I did prescriptive analytics for acid rain by developing a spreadsheet model that won the agency software contest, the First LOTUS 1-2-3 Most Innovative Application Contest and two ComputerWorld - Smithsonian Award Finalist Nominations. (I should try to find my papers on these and put them online, especially since the Potomac Policy Institute asked me to do that recently.)

This also reminds me that years ago at the US EPA, I worked with Professor Rudi Husar (see DataFed.net) on the correlation between elevated fine particulate matter and regional haze. I could update that work with the air quality and meteorological data sets here if I could also find the recent visibility data. (I could use the AQI as a surrogate.)

The results are that the US EPA Air Data "interactive Map" is just for changing the layers of monitoring locations and not the actual data itself. The Spotfire 6.0 "Interactive Map" shows the actual data at the monitoring locations for many parameters (491), sample duration (10), etc. Those data are also used for correlation and modeling.

The statistics for the data sets used are shown in the table below.

 

Data Set Name Size Rows Columns
Annual All 2013 4.2 MB ZIP file 68,201 54
Hourly Ozone 2013 64 MB ZIP file 8,248,573 23
Spreadsheets 0.03 MB xlsx 269 31
Daily Ozone 4.0 MB ZIP File 31,567 30
Daily PM 2.5 FRM Mass 3.3 MB ZIP file 301,032 28
Daily Temperature 2013 1.4 MB ZIP file 232,976 28

The multiple data sets and the total number of rows and columns qualifies this as "big data analytics."

There are certainly more data sets that could be used, but the selection here seems to include the features shown in the EPA Visualize Data as follows (see screen captures and Spotfire Web Player below):

AQIPlotPA Interactive Map: Daily PM2.5 FRM Mass 2013 (There is a strong correlation of 0.90 between the two parameters)

Tile Plot: See EPA Air Data - Spotfire - Cover Page for all 491 Parameter Names and 10 Sampling Durations

Concentration Plot: Spotfire Dashboard: Hourly Ozone 2013

Concentration Map: EPA Interactive Map: Daily Ozone 2013

Ozone Exceedances: Spotfire Dashboard: Hourly Ozone 2013

In addition the Knowledge Base provides the data about the data (metadata)

One could increase confidence in the descriptive statistics and modeling correlations by adding more years of data. Prescriptive analytics comes for the work with regional ozone transport models to understand how best to reduce precursor emissions like NOX and VOCs.

I posted a comment to the EPA Data and Developer Forum on the EPA's Open Government Plan 3.0 Outline as follows:

Data Science for EPA Air Data with a Spotfire Dashboard:
http://semanticommunity.info/Data_Science/Data_Science_for_EPA_Air_Data#Story

Thanks for the excellent air data sources and for the many good years of experience I gained working on data science at the US EPA.

Keep up the good work!

Dr. Brand Niemann
Director and Senior Data Scientist
Semantic Community
http://semanticommunity.info
http://www.meetup.com/Federal-Big-Data-Working-Group/ 
http://semanticommunity.info/Data_Science/Federal_Big_Data_Working_Group_Meetup

MORE TO FOLLOW

Slides

EPA Air Data - Spotfire - Cover Page

Web Player

EPAAirData-Spotfire-CoverPage.png

Spotfire Dashboard: Hourly Ozone 2013

Web Player

EPAAirData-Spotfire-Dashboard Hourly Ozone 2013.png

Knowledge Base

Web Player

EPAAirData-Spotfire-KnowledgeBase.png

EPA Interactive Map: Daily Ozone 2013

Web Player

EPAAirData-Spotfire-EPAInteractiveMapDailyOzone2013.png

EPA Interactive Map: Daily PM2.5 FRM Mass 2013

Web Player

EPAAirData-Spotfire-EPAInteractiveMapDailyPM2.5FRMMass2013.png

EPA Air Data: Daily Temperature 2013

Web Player

EPAAirData-Spotfire-DailyTemperature2013.png

Spotfire Dashboard

For Internet Explorer Users and Those Wanting Full Screen Display Use: Web Player Get Spotfire for iPad App

Error: Embedded data could not be displayed. Use Google Chrome

Research Notes

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Open Government Plan 3.0

Source: PDF

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a rich legacy as an open organization, and the Administration’s Open Government (OpenGov) initiative has been a catalyst to re-examine our open practices with the goal of bringing tangible benefits to the public. This document serves as an outline for the structure of the Agency’s Open Government Plan 3.0, expected to be published later this summer, along with a description of a candidate being consider as a flagship project.

The public is encouraged to comment on the flagship project beginning on 4/10/14 : OpenGov 3.0 blog My Note: I should do this!

I. New and Expanded Initiatives

This section will describe EPA’s current progress and plans in supporting the following initiatives:
A. Open Data
B. Proactive Disclosures
C. Privacy
D. Whistleblower Protection
E. Websites

II. Ongoing Initiatives

A. Participation in Transparency Initiatives
B. Public Notice
C. Records Management
D. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Requests
E. Congressional Requests
F. Declassification
G. Participation
H. Collaboration

III. Candidate Flagship Initiative: Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO)

1. Overview - An overview of the initiative, how it addresses one or more of the three openness principles, and how it aims to improve agency operations.

EPA’s Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) website, recognized as a model of transparency (http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-...ory-compliance), is being modernized and re-built to support greater transparency and participation. The data offered on http://echo.epa.gov are exposed as web services to allow data reuse, and the new platform allows for more frequent data updates and future public participation.

ECHO is a go-to resource for information about environmental inspections, violations, and enforcement actions for more than 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities. The original site launched in 2002 and use increased steadily, providing answers to 2 million queries per year regarding environmental regulatory compliance and enforcement data. The new site continues to provide public access to searchable data for Clean Air Act (CAA) stationary sources, Clean Water Act (CWA) direct dischargers, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste handlers, and Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) public water systems with pollutant release and Census data are integrated for context – but with far greater enhancement potential.

Web services support the new ECHO website and are publically available. The services allow developers to design custom applications utilizing a live feed of data from ECHO. Over the next year, EPA will provide a complete collection of documented "GET" or query-only web services, available through a simple URL http link and providing output in XML, JSON, or JSONP formats. Documentation for using each of the services will be posted on the site.

In addition to documented web services, goals of the ECHO modernization project include:

  • Removing many of the limitations on the amount of data that can be downloaded and mapped  Allowing the public to know when Clean Water Act violations happen 3-4 months sooner and allowing users to rank the highest dischargers in a watershed on a yearly basis
    • earlier release of CWA violation data
    • integration with and more frequent updating of the CWA DMR Pollutant Loading Tool
  • Integrating environmental data with compliance and enforcement data
    • CWA receiving water data
    • CAA pollutant release data
  • Expanding and improving ECHO data offerings on data.gov
  • Integrating with EPA’s GeoPlatform GIS initiative and enhanced mapping.

2. Outreach - An explanation of how your agency engages or plans to engage the public and maintain dialogue with interested stakeholders who could contribute innovative ideas to the initiative.

Our primary contact with the public and stakeholders has been via our ECHO feedback form. We respond to all questions and comments received from the site, and we log all suggestions for consideration and implement many. Users can also register to receive information on website releases and alerts.

The modernization process gives EPA the opportunity to significantly expand citizen participation. EPA has offered a public webinar, which allows users to better understand the site and provide feedback, and plans to offer more.

Specific site goals include:

  • Implementing user support software that provides users the ability to track their feedback online and see answers to common questions.
  • Expanding log-in feature to all users (currently government only) and offering customization options, such as:
    • Sign up for email or text alerts when certain data changes at facilities in a chosen location
    • Save favorite searches.
  • Implementing monitored peer-to-peer communication tool such as a community forum, blog, or wiki for open on-going dialogue.

While improvements are ongoing, we remain committed to responding to all user feedback received via ECHO’s “Contact Us Form” and incorporating suggestions to the extent possible.

3. External Partners - If appropriate, identification of any external agency partners with whom you directly collaborate on the initiative.
Data on ECHO come from EPA systems populated by in large part by state, local, and tribal environment agencies. EPA works closely with its regulatory partners in data receipt and release.

4. Measures - An account of how your agency plans to measure improved transparency, participation, and/or collaboration through this initiative.

Improved transparency and participation features will be measured by:

  • Number of high value data sets and tools published
  • Site usage (EPA Google Analytics)
  • Popularity of new participation features.

5. An explanation of the steps your agency is taking to make the initiative sustainable and allow for continued improvement.

The modernization process has moved ECHO from a custom-coded mainframe system to a sustainable, scalable Oracle data mart and trimmed operation and maintenance costs. Building website reports from web services will help shift the focus from data presentation to emphasizing structured data and metadata--making these underlying data openly available for use within agencies, among agencies, in the private sector, and by citizens. Moving toward increased user participation will allow EPA to respond to customers’ needs and make it easier for them to find and share information and accomplish tasks. ECHO modernization focuses on enhancing the quality and timeliness of data and informative content, simplifying transactions, and increasing accessibility, and timeliness as resources allow.

Air Data

Source: http://www.epa.gov/airquality/airdata/

What is AirData?

The AirData website gives you access to air quality data collected at outdoor monitors across the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U. S. Virgin Islands. The data comes primarily from the AQS (Air Quality System) database. You can choose from several ways of looking at the data:

  • download data into a file (or view it on the screen)
  • output the data into one of AirData’s standard reports
  • create graphical displays using one of the visualization tools
  • investigate monitor locations using an interactive map

AirData assists a wide range of people, from the concerned citizen who wants to know how many unhealthy air quality days there were in his county last year to air quality analysts in the regulatory, academic, and health research communities who need raw data.

AirData lets you display and download monitored hourly, daily, and annual concentration data, AQI data, and speciated particle pollution data. If you need data that AirData does not have (such as emissions data) please see Other Sources of Data.

Also visit the AirData Glossary for definitions of the terms used throughout the website.


Keeping Up with AirData News

We invite you to subscribe to the AirData RSS Feed so you’ll be notified when we make enhancements to AirData, when we’re going to be down for scheduled maintenance, etc. 

Subscribe to the AirData RSS feed

What Can I do with AirData?

There are four main parts of the AirData website: Download Data, Reports, Visualize Data, and the Interactive Map. 

Download Data

This part of the website has two query tools. The first tool provides daily summary concentrations and Air Quality Index values for the criteria pollutants for each monitoring site in the location you select. The second tool provides raw data for a specific location and time for any pollutant.

Reports

This part of the website provides a way to generate customized reports based on criteria you select (pollutant, location, etc.). The About Reports page explains exactly what is in each report, including individual column descriptions.

  • Air Quality Index (AQI) Report – This report displays a yearly summary of AQI values in a county or city (specifically a CBSA - Core Based Statistical Area) . The summary values include maximum, 90th percentile and median AQI, the count of days in each AQI category, and the count of days when the AQI could be attributed to each criteria pollutant.
  • Air Quality Statistics Report – This report shows yearly summaries of air pollution values for a city or county. The report shows the highest values reported during the year by all monitors in the CBSA or county. The report uses highlighted text to show values that exceed the level of an air quality standard.
  • Monitor Values Report – This report shows a yearly summary (first through fourth maximum values, number of samples, etc.) of the measurements at individual monitors and provides descriptive information about the sites.
  • Air Quality Index Daily Values Report – This report provides daily Air Quality Index values for the specified year and location.
Visualize Data

Sometimes “seeing” the data is the best way to understand it. AirData’s visualization tools display data in unique and helpful ways.

  • AQI Plot - Compare AQI values for multiple pollutants for a specific location and time period. This tool displays an entire year of AQI values – two pollutants at a time - and is useful for seeing how the number of unhealthy days can vary throughout the year for each pollutant.
  • Tile Plot - Plot daily AQI values for a specific location and time period. Each square or “tile” represents one day of the year and is color-coded based on the AQI level for that day.  The legend tallies the number of days in each AQI category.
  • Concentration Plot - Generate a time series plot for a specific location and time period. This tool displays daily air quality summary statistics for the criteria pollutants by monitor. You can choose to plot all monitors in a county or CBSA, or you can select specific monitors.
  • Concentration Map - Generate an animated series of daily concentration maps for a specific time period. Daily air quality is displayed in terms of the Air Quality Index (AQI) for the criteria pollutants, or in concentration ranges for certain PM species like organic carbon, nitrates, and sulfates.  This tool may be useful for tracking an air pollution episode like a wildfire event.
  • Ozone Exceedances - Compare 8-hour ozone "exceedances" from this year with previous years. Comparisons are presented in three ways. The first plot shows the comparisons by MONTH. The second plot shows the comparisons by DAY (for cumulative counts). The third plot shows the comparisons by YEAR.
The Interactive Map

Use the interactive map to see where air quality monitors are located, get information about the monitor, and download data from the monitor.  You can select which monitoring networks to display on the map. For details about the monitoring network files and data, please see the Air Quality KML Files documentation (PDF, 12 pp, 163 KB).


Other Sources of Air Data

Name Type of Data
AirNow Air quality forecasts and real-time data in a visual format for public health protection
AirCompare AQI summaries for comparison of counties
AirTrends Trends of air quality and emissions
Air Emission Sources Emissions - national, state, and county-level summaries for criteria pollutant emissions
The National Emissions Inventory Emissions - a comprehensive and detailed estimate of air emissions of both Criteria and Hazardous air pollutants from all air emissions sources
AQS Data Mart Monitored ambient air quality data from AQS; for those who need large volumes of data
AQS Data Page The most requested data from the Air Quality System (AQS) are posted on this web page
CASTNET The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET) is the nation's primary source for data on dry acidic deposition and rural, ground-level ozone
Remote Sensing Information Gateway (RSIG) Air quality monitoring, modeling, and satellite data
Radiation Monitoring Data Air quality and emissions; Links to databases and maps
EPA Data Finder Air, Water, other EPA data
Visibility Information Exchange Web System (VIEWS)Exit EPA disclaimer Air quality monitoring, modeling, emissions, and satellite data
DataFed Exit EPA disclaimer Air quality monitoring, modeling, emissions, and satellite data
Data.Gov Exit EPA disclaimer Air, Water, other U.S. Federal Executive Branch datasets

Some Basic Air Quality Concepts

Here are a few basic air quality concepts that could help you when using AirData. 

Types of Data

Monitoring Data - Ambient (outdoor) concentrations of pollutants are measured at more than 4000 monitoring stations owned and operated mainly by state environmental agencies. The agencies send hourly or daily measurements of pollutant concentrations to EPA's database called AQS (Air Quality System). AirData retrieves data from AQS.

Emissions Data - EPA keeps track of the amount of pollution that comes from a variety of sources such as vehicles, power plants, and industries. The emissions data reported to EPA by state environmental agencies can be an actual reading taken at a source or an estimate made using a mathematical calculation. AirData does not contain emissions data at this time. Emissions data can be obtained from the Air Emissions Sources website (for general summaries) and the NEI browser (for detailed reports).

Types of Air Pollutants

Criteria Air Pollutants - EPA sets national air quality standards for six common pollutants, also called criteria pollutants, to protect public health. Monitoring sites report data to EPA for these six criteria air pollutants:

  • Ozone (O3)
  • Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5)
  • Carbon monoxide (CO)
  • Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
  • Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
  • Lead (Pb)

(PM10 includes particles less than or equal to 10 micrometers in diameter.  PM2.5 includes particles less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers and is also called fine particle pollution.)

Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) / Toxic Air Pollutants - Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) (also called toxic air pollutants or air toxics) are pollutants that are known or suspected to cause serious health problems such as cancer.  There are 188 hazardous air pollutants.  Examples of toxic air pollutants include benzene, which is found in gasoline; perchlorethlyene, which is emitted from some dry cleaning facilities; and methylene chloride, which is used as a solvent and paint stripper. Examples of other listed air toxics include dioxin, asbestos, toluene, and metals such as cadmium, mercury, chromium, and lead compounds. The National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) is EPA's ongoing comprehensive evaluation of air toxics in the U.S.

The AQI (Air Quality Index)

AirData uses the Air Quality Index (AQI) in some of its reports and tables and to display data using the visualization tools. The AQI is an index for reporting daily air quality. It tells how clean or polluted the air is, and what associated health effects might be a concern, especially for ground-level ozone and particle pollution.

Think of the AQI as a yardstick that runs from 0 to 500. The higher the AQI value, the greater the level of air pollution and the greater the health concern. For example, an AQI value of 50 represents good air quality with little potential to affect public health, while an AQI value over 300 represents hazardous air quality.

An AQI value of 100 generally corresponds to the national air quality standard for the pollutant, which is the level EPA has set to protect public health. AQI values below 100 are generally thought of as satisfactory. When AQI values are above 100, air quality is considered to be unhealthy-at first for certain sensitive groups of people, then for everyone as AQI values get higher.  The AQI is divided into six categories:

Air Quality Index
(AQI) Values
Levels of Health Concern Colors
When the AQI is in this range: ..air quality conditions are: ...as symbolized by this color:
0-50 Good Green
51-100 Moderate Yellow
101-150 Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Orange
201 to 300 Very Unhealthy Purple

Frequent Questions

Source: http://www.epa.gov/airquality/airdata/ad_faq.html

I used to be able to get emissions data from the AirData website, but the site has changed. Where can I find that information now?

At this time, the best sources for emissions data are:

I used to be able to generate nonattainment area maps on the AirData website, but the site has changed. Where can I get that information now?

At this time, the best source for nonattainment area maps is the EPA Greenbook Website.

What is an exceptional event?

Exceptional Events are unusual or naturally occurring events that can affect air quality but are not reasonably controllable using techniques that tribal, state or local air agencies may implement in order to attain and maintain the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. For more information, see http://www.epa.gov/ttn/analysis/exevents.htm.

Does the exclude exceptional events option exclude only EPA regionally-concurred exceptional events or all flagged events?

Choosing the “Exclude exceptional events data” option excludes all flagged exceptional events, regardless of concurrence.  Longer answer – States can flag data that may have been influenced by an exceptional event (e.g. high winds, wildfire).  As a user of AirData, you can choose to exclude these flagged data.  This option is available in the Air Quality Statistics Report and Monitor Values Report.  In the Air Quality Statistics Report, there is not a way to tell which, if any, statistics are affected by including/excluding exceptional events.  However, in the Monitor Values Report, there is a column that indicates whether there were any flagged data ('NONE'), whether flagged data were included ('INCLUDED') or excluded ('EXCLUDED').

In the CSV files, are the exceptional events data indicated?

In the Air Quality Statistics Report, there is not a way to tell which, if any, statistics are affected by including/excluding exceptional events. However, in the Monitor Values Report, there is a column that indicates whether there were any flagged data ('NONE'), whether flagged data were included ('INCLUDED') or excluded ('EXCLUDED'). This field is in the CSV file also.

How do the reports handle co-located PM2.5 monitors?

Each site-poc is treated as a separate monitor. To see an example of this, you can use the Concentration Plot tool for PM2.5.

Does a PM2.5 query pull only data from monitors with a parameter code of 88101 or does it include others such as 88501?

Reports providing annual summary statistics the Air Quality Statistics Report and Monitor Values Report use only PM2.5 data reported as parameter code 88101 (PM2.5 LOCAL CONDITIONS). Reports and visualization tools providingAQI data use both 88101 and 88502 (ACCEPTABLE PM2.5 AQI & SPECIATION MASS). This methodology is consistent with the AQI and how standard AQS reports are generated. The Concentration Plot also pulls both 88101 and 88502, and the data for each parameter are plotted separately.

Do the AQI calculations include Non-FEM/FRM continuous PM2.5 data?

Yes, PM2.5 data reported as parameter code 88101 (PM2.5 LOCAL CONDITIONS) and 88502 (ACCEPTABLE PM2.5 AQI & SPECIATION MASS) are used in the AQI summaries on AirData.

If there's more than one monitor in a county, does the tile plot take the max AQI value among all the monitors in the county?

Yes. AQI displays/reports always use the maximum daily AQI value in the geographic region represented.

Is it possible to query multiple years?

Not at this time. When the raw data query tool is added in the spring of 2012, it will provide that capability.

Do you plan to make hourly data available through this site?

Yes. Raw data will be available with the new query tool on the Download Data section of the site in the spring of 2012.

Can you get design values from AirData?

At this time, design values are not available from the AQS Data Mart. We will discuss what it would take to add them and to develop a design value report.

Do you have plans to include air toxics data?

Yes. Currently, you can access daily and annual summary air toxics data from the NATTS monitoring sites using that layer in the Interactive Map. In the spring of 2012, we plan to add two tools that will provide better access to air toxics data. First, we plan to add a monitor-level annual summary HAP report to the Reports section. Second, we plan to add a raw data query tool to the Download Data section.

What is the AQS Data Mart?

The AQS Data Mart is a database containing all of the information from the AQS system. The AQS Data Mart was built as a storehouse of air quality information that allows users to make queries of unlimited quantities of data while not affecting the primary AQS database. For more information, see the AQS Data Mart page.

Do all AQI plots use the most current AQI breakpoints - regardless of what year you request?

Yes. Every AQI summary (report, graph, etc.) from AirData is based on the current AQI breakpoints regardless of year. Keep in mind, the current AQI 100 level for PM2.5 is 40 micrograms per cubic meter. See 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix G for details.

What is the lag between the data being posted on AQS and it being used in AirData?

One to two days. The AQS Data Mart is updated each week night with data from AQS.

Are the chemical speciation data parameters available from AirData?

Currently, you can access daily and annual summary chemical speciation data from the CSN monitoring sites using that layer in the Interactive Map. In the spring of 2012, we plan to add the raw data query tool which will provide access to the raw data.

How do AirData and AirNow differ?

AirData provides monitoring data from AQS which can date back to 1980 depending on the pollutant, so you can do retrospective analyses with a number of pollutants. AirNow reports real-time and forecast air quality data with respect to the Air Quality Index, mostly based on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations. While there is some archive data available on the AirNow website, its primary purpose is to report what’s happening now and what is forecast to happen tomorrow.

Recent Additions

Source: http://www.epa.gov/airquality/airdata/ad_recent.html

The following are updates to the AirData website. For updates regarding AQS data, see the AQS Recent Additions page.

Glossary

Source: http://www.epa.gov/airquality/airdat..._glossary.html

A

AQS - Air Quality System

EPA's repository of ambient air quality data. AQS stores data from over 10,000 monitors, 5000 of which are currently active. State, local and tribal agencies collect the data and submit it to AQS on a periodic basis.

AQS Data Mart

The AQS Data Mart is a database containing all of the information from the AQS system. The AQS Data Mart was built as a storehouse of air quality information that allows users to make queries of unlimited quantities of data.

Accuracy

the degree of closeness of measurements of a quantity to that quantity's actual (true) value

Air quality data

the amount of pollution and other substances present in the atmosphere measured by monitors throughout the nation

Air Monitoring

sampling for and measuring of pollutants present in the atmosphere

AirNow

an EPA program that provides the public with easy access to national air quality information via the Internet. AIRNow offers daily Air Quality Index (AQI) forecasts as well as real-time AQI conditions for over 300 cities across the United States and provides links to more detailed state and local air quality web sites.

Air Quality Index (AQI)

a numerical index used for reporting severity of air pollution levels to the public. The AQI incorporates five criteria pollutants -- ozone, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide -- into a single index. AQI levels range from 0 (Good air quality) to 500 (Hazardous air quality). The higher the index, the higher the level of pollutants and the greater the likelihood of health effects. The AQI incorporates an additional index category -- unhealthy for sensitive groups such as children and people with asthma -- that ranges from 101 to 150. In addition, the AQI comes with detailed health cautions.

Ambient Air

the portion of the atmosphere external to buildings and breathed by the general public

Attainment area

a geographic area that meets or does better than the national standard set by the federal government; areas that don't meet the national standard are called nonattainment areas (also see National Ambient Air Quality Standards - NAAQS)

B

Baseline Year

the year to which other years are compared

C

CBSA - Core Based Statistical Area

a U.S. geographic area defined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) based around an urban center of at least 10,000 people and adjacent areas that are socioeconomically tied to the urban center. Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas are the two categories of Core Based Statistical Areas.

CSV - comma separated variable format

a tabular format designed for importing into spreadsheets or other data processing software

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

a colorless, odorless gas resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. CO interferes with the blood's ability to carry oxygen to the body's tissues and results in numerous adverse health effects. Over 80 percent of the CO emitted in urban areas is contributed by motor vehicles. CO is a criteria air pollutant.

Clean Air Act

The original Clean Air Act, signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1963, was considered to be the first modern environmental law enacted by the United States Congress. The Clean Air Act of 1970, reviewed and amended by Congress in 1975, 1977, and 1990, has formed the basis of the current federal air pollution control program.

Continuous Monitor

a device which allows ambient PM mass concentrations to be monitored in near- real-time for extended periods

Criteria Air Pollutant

six common air pollutants regulated by the EPA on the basis of certain criteria (namely, information on public health and/or environmental effects of pollution). The criteria pollutants are carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). They are regulated under EPA's National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).

D

Daily Max

the highest value measured at a monitor on a given day

E

Emissions

released or discharged air contaminants in the ambient air from any source

Estimated Exceedances

Calculated number of days in the year when values are estimated to exceed the level of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), after compensating for days when scheduled monitoring did not occur

Exceedance

a measured level of an air pollutant higher than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). (The violation of a national ambient air quality standard is based on multiple years of data, so monitoring an exceedance does not necessarily mean that a violation of the standard has occurred.)

Exceptional events

unusual events including high winds, fires, and construction that, in certain cases, can be excluded from calculations related to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). However, for the purposes of counting unhealthy days, it is important to consider all monitored values including those caused by exceptional events because they represent the actual pollution in the air.

F

Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5)

particulate matter 2.5 microns or less in diameter

G

H

Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP)

pollutants that cause or may cause cancer or other serious health effects such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental and ecological effects. The EPA has listed 188 hazardous air pollutants. Examples include benzene (found in gasoline), perchlorethlyene (used in some dry cleaning facilities), and methylene chloride. Also called Toxic Air Pollutants or Air Toxics.

I

IMPROVE - Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments

a program developed as a collaborative effort between the US EPA and the National Park Service in order to establish the chemical composition of haze in National Parks and to restore visibility

J

K

KML - Keyhole Markup Language

a computer language used to describe three-dimensional geospatial data for display in application programs

L

LC

local conditions of temperature and pressure

Lead (Pb)

a metal found naturally in the environment as well as in manufactured products. The major sources of lead emissions have historically been from fuels in on-road motor vehicles (such as cars and trucks) and industrial sources. Lead is considered both a criteria air pollutant and a hazardous air pollutant (air toxic).

M

Mobile Sources

sources of air pollution such as cars, motorcycles, trucks, off-road vehicles, boats and airplanes (See also stationary sources)

Monitor

a device that periodically or continuously samples air pollutants in the ambient air or from individual pollution sources. Within AirData and related data systems, the term “monitor” does not indicate a physical instrument. Rather, any time a parameter is measured at a site, a “monitor” is created for that parameter. For example, if a sampler collects air that is analyzed for 12 different parameters, then it is listed as 12 separate monitors. So the term monitor denotes that a time series of measurements for a parameter is available at a site. A monitor is indicated by the code or name of the parameter measured. If the parameter is measured more than once at a site, it is differentiated by the POC.

N

NATTS - National Air Toxics Trends Stations

a monitoring network operated by state and local agencies to assist in the EPA goal of eliminating unacceptable health risks associated with exposure to air toxics and to substantially reduce or eliminate the adverse effects of air toxics on the environment

NCORE

a multi pollutant monitoring network that integrates several advanced measurement systems for particles, pollutant gases, and meteorology

National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

a level of outdoor air quality set by the EPA to protect human health and public welfare. Standards have been set for six common pollutants: carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, ozone, and sulfur dioxide.

Nitrogen Oxides (Oxides of Nitrogen, NOx)

a general term pertaining to compounds of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and other oxides of nitrogen. Nitrogen oxides are typically created during combustion processes and are major contributors to smog formation. NOx is a criteria air pollutant and may result in numerous adverse health effects.

Nonattainment area

a geographic area that does not meet the national standard set by the federal government; areas that meet the national standard are attainment areas. It is possible for an area to be in attainment for one pollutant, but non-attainment for a different pollutant (also see National Ambient Air Quality Standards - NAAQS).

O

Ozone

a reactive chemical gas consisting of three oxygen atoms. Ozone is created when oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight. Ozone is protective in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere). Ozone in the troposphere (ground-level ozone) causes numerous adverse health effects and is a criteria air pollutant. It is a major component of smog.

Ozone Precursors

chemicals in the atmosphere that react to form ozone. Nitrogen oxide compounds (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ozone precursors. Emissions from industrial facilities and electric utilities, motor vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and chemical solvents are some of the major sources of NOx and VOC.

P

POC - Parameter Occurrence Code

a code number used to identify when more than one monitor is measuring the same parameter at a site

PPB - parts per billion

1 part in 1,000,000,000 by volume

PPM - parts per million

1 part in 1,000,000 by volume

Parameter

a pollutant or other chemical substance (or wind speed or temperature) that is measured at a site. EPA creates new parameter names (and codes) for the same substance if the methods being used for measurement are different enough that results are not comparable. For example, in 2006 PM2.5 measured using continuous methods was given a different parameter name than PM2.5 measured intermittently on filters.

Particle Pollution

fine liquid or solids such as dust, smoke, fumes, or smog found in air or emissions

Particulates/Particulate Matter (PM)

solid particles or liquid droplets suspended or carried in the air. Particulate matter is a criteria air pollutant and is regulated as PM2.5 and PM10.

PM2.5

tiny particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microns. This fraction of particulate matter penetrates most deeply into the lungs. Also called fine particle pollution

PM10

small particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 microns (about 1/7 the diameter of a single human hair)

Point Sources

large, stationary sources of air pollution such as factories and power plants

Q

R

S

Sensitive Groups

subsets of the general population that are at greater risk than the general population to the toxic effects of a specific air pollutant (e.g., infants, asthmatics, elderly)

Site

a geographic location where one or more monitors operate. Also called monitoring stations or facilities. Sites are identified in AirData and related systems by a 2-digit State Code, a 3-digit County Code, and a 4-digit site code within the county. The codes are separated by hyphens.

Smog

a combination of smoke, other particulates, and ozone which may result in a murky brown haze that causes adverse health effects

Source

any place or object from which air pollutants are released. Sources that are fixed in space are stationary sources and sources that move are mobile sources

Stationary Source

non-mobile sources such as power plants, refineries and manufacturing facilities which emit air pollutants.

Speciated Data

the components that make up fine particle pollution. PM2.5 species are sulfates, nitrates, organic carbon, elemental carbon, crustal, and un-attributed mass (the difference between measured PM2.5 and the sum of the other five components).

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)

a strong smelling, colorless gas that is formed by the combustion of fossil fuels. SO2 is a criteria air pollutant

Sulfur Oxides

pungent, colorless gases (sulfates are solids) formed primarily by the combustion of sulfur-containing fossil fuels, especially coal and oil

T

TSP - Total Suspended Particulates

refers to respirable and larger particle pollution

Time Series Plot

a sequence of data points measured at successive times spaced at uniform time intervals

Toxic Air Pollutants

see hazardous air pollutant

U

V

Violation

when calculations based on multiple years of monitored data exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)

organic compounds that vaporize (become a gas) at room temperature. VOCs contribute significantly to ground-level ozone pollution

W

Weighted Annual Mean

a mean calculated by first averaging values for each calendar quarter, then averaging the four quarterly averages. (This is done so each quarter of the year is weighted equally even if more sampling is done during a particular quarter.)

X

Y

Z

Reports

Source: http://www.epa.gov/airquality/airdata/ad_reports.html

Use the links below to generate customized reports based on criteria you select (pollutant, location, etc.). The About Reports page explains exactly what is in each report, including individual column descriptions.

Air Quality Index Report

This report provides Air Quality Index annual summary information, including maximum AQI values and the count of days in each AQI category.

Air Quality Statistics Report

This report provides standards-related summary data by city or county.

Monitor Values Report

This report displays criteria pollutant annual summary data for individual monitoring sites.

Monitor Values Report - Hazardous Air Pollutants

This report displays hazardous air pollutant annual summary data for individual monitoring sites.

Air Quality Index Daily Values Report

This report provides daily Air Quality Index values for the specified year and location.

Visualize Data

Source: http://www.epa.gov/airquality/airdata/ad_viz.html

Use the tools below to visualize data based on criteria you select (pollutant, location, etc.).

 

AQI Plot

Compare AQI values for multiple pollutants for a specific location and time period. This tool displays an entire year of AQI values – two pollutants at a time - and is useful for seeing how the number of unhealthy days can vary throughout the year for each pollutant. 

Tile Plot

 

Tile Plot

Plot daily AQI values for a specific location and time period. Each square or “tile” represents one day of the year and is color-coded based on the AQI level for that day. The legend tallies the number of days in each AQI category. 

 

Concentration Plot

Make a time series plot for a specific location and time period. This tool displays daily air quality summary statistics for the criteria pollutants by monitor. You can choose to plot all monitors in a city or county, or you can select specific monitors. 

 

Concentration Map


Make a map of daily concentrations over several days. The daily air quality can be displayed in terms of the Air Quality Index or in concentration ranges for certain PM species like organic carbon, nitrates, and sulfates. This tool may be useful for tracking an air pollution episode like a wildfire event. 



 

Ozone Exceedances

Compare 8-hour ozone exceedances between two years or multi-year periods for a city or county. 

Download Data

Source: http://www.epa.gov/airquality/airdata/ad_data.html

Download Data Files

Pre-generated files of data for the entire nation. Files of our most commonly requested parameters at the annual, daily, and hourly summary levels.

This page contains pre-generated files of data available for download.

Table of Annual Summary Data

Tables of Daily and Daily Summary Data
Tables of Hourly Data

Download:

Annual Summary Data

2013 annual_all_2013.zip
68,201 Rows
4,297 KB
As of 2014-02-22

Daily Summary Data

Criteria Gases

Year Ozone (44201)
2013 daily_44201_2013.zip
353,277 Rows
3,951 KB
As of 2014-02-22

Particulates

Year PM2.5 FRM Mass (88101)
2013 daily_88101_2013.zip
301,032 Rows
3,284 KB
As of 2014-02-22

Meterological

Year Temperature (62101) RH and Dewpoint

2013 daily_TEMP_2013.zip
232,976 Rows
2,480 KB
As of 2014-02-22

daily_RH_DP_2013.zip
130,175 Rows
1,400 KB
As of 2014-02-22

Toxics and Lead

Year HAPs VOCs Lead
2013 daily_HAPS_2013.zip
282,979 Rows
1,808 KB
As of 2014-02-22
daily_VOCS_2013.zip
427,630 Rows
3,087 KB
As of 2014-02-22
daily_LEAD_2013.zip
16,152 Rows
147 KB
As of 2014-02-22

Hourly Data

Year Ozone (44201)
2013 hourly_44201_2013.zip
8,248,573 Rows
63,797 KB
As of 2014-02-22

About the data

Description of data and formats My Note: Here is the data dictionary!

Some contain data summarized on an annual basis (annual summary files), some contain data summarized on a daily basis (daily summary), and some contain raw data (sample data as reported). These are the standard time aggregations EPA calculates and stores (we do not have monthly data). The daily summary and raw categories have data files grouped by parameter:

  • Criteria Gases
  • Particulates
  • Meteorological
  • Toxics (see note below) and Lead

Download Annual Summary Data

The annual summary files are small enough to include all data in one file.

Each group has data listed by year, in reverse order, back to 1990.

Each table entry has the file name, linked to the file, the size of the (zipped) file, the number of data rows in the file, and the date the file was last modified. EPA will update these files twice per year; in the spring and fall (late May and November). Keep in mind, data collection agencies have up to 6 months to report their data.

Note on Toxics. EPA has several ways of grouping parameters. For the parameters listed here as toxics we have included two groups of parameters: Core HAPS (Hazardous Air Pollutants) and UATMP VOCs (Urban Air Toxics Monitoring Program Volatile Organic Compounds). These lists include the parameters as defined in the EPA AQS system as "CORE HAPS" and "UATMP VOCS". You can view the list or parameters included in either the HAPS or VOCS category.

If you are interested in Air Quality Index (AQI) values, use the Daily Summary files. AQI is calculated each day for each monitor for the Criteria Gases and PM10 and PM2.5 (FRM and non FRM). The AQI values are on the respective records in those Daily Summary files.

The files are all comma separated text with a header. Each aggregate level has a different format.

For reference, there is also a file listing all of the files on this page and the date they were modified. Each file also includes the last change date of each record in the file.

Data Dictionary

Source: http://aqsdr1.epa.gov/aqsweb/aqstmp/...leFormats.html

 

Field Position Field Name Description

1

State Code

The FIPS code of the state in which the monitor resides.

2

County Code

The FIPS code of the county in which the monitor resides.

3

Site Num

A unique number within the county identifying the site.

4

Parameter Code

The AQS code corresponding to the parameter measured by the monitor.

5

POC

This is the “Parameter Occurrence Code” used to distinguish different instruments that measure the same parameter at the same site.

6

Latitude

The monitoring site’s angular distance north of the equator measured in decimal degrees.

7

Longitude

The monitoring site’s angular distance east of the prime meridian measured in decimal degrees.

8

Datum

The Datum associated with the Latitude and Longitude measures.

9

Parameter Name

The name or description assigned in AQS to the parameter measured by the monitor. Parameters may be pollutants or non-pollutants.

10

Sample Duration

The length of time that air passes through the monitoring device before it is analyzed (measured). So, it represents an averaging period in the atmosphere (for example, a 24-hour sample duration draws ambient air over a collection filter for 24 straight hours). For continuous monitors, it can represent an averaging time of many samples (for example, a 1-hour value may be the average of four one-minute samples collected during each quarter of the hour).

11

Pollutant Standard

A description of the ambient air quality standard rules used to aggregate statistics. (See description at beginning of document.)

12

Metric Used

The base metric used in the calculation of the aggregate statistics presented in the remainder of the row. For example, if this is Daily Maximum, then the value in the Mean column is the mean of the daily maximums.

13

Method Name

A short description of the processes, equipment, and protocols used in gathering and measuring the sample.

14

Year

The year the annual summary data represents.

15

Units of Measure

The unit of measure for the parameter. QAD always returns data in the standard units for the parameter. Submitters are allowed to report data in any unit and EPA converts to a standard unit so that we may use the data in calculations.

16

Event Type

Indicates whether data measured during exceptional events are included in the summary. A wildfire is an example of an exceptional event; it is something that affects air quality, but the local agency has no control over. No Events means no events occurred. Events Included means events occurred and the data from them is included in the summary. Events Excluded means that events occurred but data form them is excluded from the summary. Concurred Events Excluded means that events occurred but only EPA concurred exclusions are removed from the summary. If an event occurred for the parameter in question, the data will have multiple records for each monitor.

17

Observation Count

The number of observations (samples) taken during the year.

18

Observation Percent

The percent representing the number of observations taken with respect to the number scheduled to be taken during the year. This is only calculated for monitors where measurements are required (e.g., only certain parameters).

19

Valid Day Count

The number of days during the year where the daily monitoring criteria were met, if the calculation of the summaries is based on valid days.

20

Required Day Count

The number of days during the year which the monitor was scheduled to take samples if measurements are required.

21

Exceptional Data Count

The number of data points in the annual data set affected by exceptional air quality events (things outside the norm that affect air quality).

22

Null Data Count

The count of scheduled samples when no data was collected and the reason for no data was reported.

23

Primary Exceedance Count

The number of samples during the year that exceeded the primary air quality standard.

24

Secondary Exceedance Count

The number of samples during the year that exceeded the secondary air quality standard.

25

Certification Indicator

An indication whether the completeness and accuracy of the information on the annual summary record has been certified by the submitter. Certified means the submitter has certified the data (due May 01 the year after collection). Certification not required means that the parameter does not require certification or the deadline has not yet passed. Uncertified (past due) means that certification is required but is overdue. Requested but not yet concurred means the submitter has completed the process, but EPA has not yet acted to certify the data. Requested but denied means the submitter has completed the process, but EPA has denied the request for cause. Was Certified but data changed means the data was certified but data was replaced and the process has not been repeated.

26

Num Obs Below MDL

The number of samples reported during the year that were below the method detection limit (MDL) for the monitoring instrument. Sometimes these values are replaced by 1/2 the MDL in summary calculations.

27

Arithmetic Mean

The average (arithmetic mean) value for the year.

28

Arithmetic Standard Dev

The standard deviation about the mean of the values for the year.

29

1st Max Value

The highest value for the year.

30

1st Max DateTime

The date and time (on a 24-hour clock) when the highest value for the year (the previous field) was taken.

31

2nd Max Value

The second highest value for the year.

32

2nd Max DateTime

The date and time (on a 24-hour clock) when the second highest value for the year (the previous field) was taken.

33

3rd Max Value

The third highest value for the year.

34

3rd Max DateTime

The date and time (on a 24-hour clock) when the third highest value for the year (the previous field) was taken.

35

4th Max Value

The fourth highest value for the year.

36

4th Max DateTime

The date and time (on a 24-hour clock) when the fourth highest value for the year (the previous field) was taken.

37

1st Max Non Overlapping Value

For 8-hour CO averages, the highest value of the year.

38

1st NO Max DateTime

The date and time (on a 24-hour clock) when the first maximum non overlapping value for the year (the previous field) was taken.

39

2nd Max Non Overlapping Value

For 8-hour CO averages, the second highest value of the year that does not share any hours with the 8-hour period of the first max non overlapping value.

40

2nd NO Max DateTime

The date and time (on a 24-hour clock) when the second maximum non overlapping value for the year (the previous field) was taken.

41

99th Perecentile

The value from this monitor for which 99 per cent of the rest of the measured values for the year are equal to or less than.

42

98th Percentile

The value from this monitor for which 98 per cent of the rest of the measured values for the year are equal to or less than.

43

95th Percentile

The value from this monitor for which 95 per cent of the rest of the measured values for the year are equal to or less than.

44

90th Percentile

The value from this monitor for which 90 per cent of the rest of the measured values for the year are equal to or less than.

45

75th Percentile

The value from this monitor for which 75 per cent of the rest of the measured values for the year are equal to or less than.

46

50th Percentile

The value from this monitor for which 50 per cent of the rest of the measured values for the year are equal to or less than (i.e., the median).

47

10th Percentile

The value from this monitor for which 10 per cent of the rest of the measured values for the year are equal to or less than.

48

Local Site Name

The name of the site (if any) given by the State, local, or tribal air pollution control agency that operates it.

49

Address

The approximate street address of the monitoring site.

50

State Name

The name of the state where the monitoring site is located.

51

County Name

The name of the county where the monitoring site is located.

52

City Name

The name of the city where the monitoring site is located. This represents the legal incorporated boundaries of cities and not urban areas.

53

CBSA Name

The name of the core bases statistical area (metropolitan area) where the monitoring site is located.

54

Date of Last Change

The date the last time any numeric values in this record were updated in the AQS data system.

 

Download Daily Data

Query daily summary concentrations and Air Quality Index values by criteria pollutants, year, county/CBSA/monitor. Best tool for getting daily data by monitoring site for a single year and a small geographic region.

Download daily data for a specific location and time period. This tool queries daily air quality summary statistics for the criteria pollutants by monitor. You can get data for specific monitors or all monitors in a city, county, or state.

Data Dictionary

Source: http://aqsdr1.epa.gov/aqsweb/aqstmp/...leFormats.html

 

Field Position Field Name Description

1

State Code

The FIPS code of the state in which the monitor resides.

2

County Code

The FIPS code of the county in which the monitor resides.

3

Site Num

A unique number within the county identifying the site.

4

Parameter Code

The AQS code corresponding to the parameter measured by the monitor.

5

POC

This is the “Parameter Occurrence Code” used to distinguish different instruments that measure the same parameter at the same site.

6

Latitude

The monitoring site’s angular distance north of the equator measured in decimal degrees.

7

Longitude

The monitoring site’s angular distance east of the prime meridian measured in decimal degrees.

8

Datum

The Datum associated with the Latitude and Longitude measures.

9

Parameter Name

The name or description assigned in AQS to the parameter measured by the monitor. Parameters may be pollutants or non-pollutants.

10

Sample Duration

The length of time that air passes through the monitoring device before it is analyzed (measured). So, it represents an averaging period in the atmosphere (for example, a 24-hour sample duration draws ambient air over a collection filter for 24 straight hours). For continuous monitors, it can represent an averaging time of many samples (for example, a 1-hour value may be the average of four one-minute samples collected during each quarter of the hour).

11

Pollutant Standard

A description of the ambient air quality standard rules used to aggregate statistics. (See description at beginning of document.)

12

Date Local

The calendar date for the summary. All daily summaries are for the local standard day (midnight to midnight) at the monitor.

13

Units of Measure

The unit of measure for the parameter. QAD always returns data in the standard units for the parameter. Submitters are allowed to report data in any unit and EPA converts to a standard unit so that we may use the data in calculations.

14

Event Type

Indicates whether data measured during exceptional events are included in the summary. A wildfire is an example of an exceptional event; it is something that affects air quality, but the local agency has no control over. No Events means no events occurred. Events Included means events occurred and the data from them is included in the summary. Events Excluded means that events occurred but data form them is excluded from the summary. Concurred Events Excluded means that events occurred but only EPA concurred exclusions are removed from the summary. If an event occurred for the parameter in question, the data will have multiple records for each monitor.

15

Observation Count

The number of observations (samples) taken during the day.

16

Observation Percent

The percent representing the number of observations taken with respect to the number scheduled to be taken during the day. This is only calculated for monitors where measurements are required (e.g., only certain parameters).

17

Arithmetic Mean

The average (arithmetic mean) value for the day.

18

1st Max Value

The highest value for the day.

19

1st Max Hour

The hour (on a 24-hour clock) when the highest value for the day (the previous field) was taken.

20

AQI

The Air Quality Index for the day for the pollutant, if applicable.

21

Method Name

A short description of the processes, equipment, and protocols used in gathering and measuring the sample.

22

Local Site Name

The name of the site (if any) given by the State, local, or tribal air pollution control agency that operates it.

23

Address

The approximate street address of the monitoring site.

24

State Name

The name of the state where the monitoring site is located.

25

County Name

The name of the county where the monitoring site is located.

26

City Name

The name of the city where the monitoring site is located. This represents the legal incorporated boundaries of cities and not urban areas.

27

CBSA Name

The name of the core bases statistical area (metropolitan area) where the monitoring site is located.

28

Date of Last Change

The date the last time any numeric values in this record were updated in the AQS data system.

Download Raw Data

Query raw data for a specific location and time for any pollutant.

Download raw data for a specific location and time for any pollutant. A user ID and password are required to use this page. More information is available on requesting an accounthow to use the interfacehow to query the data without the interface (via a web service), and details on how to construct your own web service queries. Complete documentation (including the output format descriptions) is available here or as a PDF file. (PDF)

Data Dictionary

Source: http://aqsdr1.epa.gov/aqsweb/aqstmp/...leFormats.html

Field Position Field Name Description

1

State Code

The FIPS code of the state in which the monitor resides.

2

County Code

The FIPS code of the county in which the monitor resides.

3

Site Num

A unique number within the county identifying the site.

4

Parameter Code

The AQS code corresponding to the parameter measured by the monitor.

5

POC

This is the “Parameter Occurrence Code” used to distinguish different instruments that measure the same parameter at the same site.

6

Latitude

The monitoring site’s angular distance north of the equator measured in decimal degrees.

7

Longitude

The monitoring site’s angular distance east of the prime meridian measured in decimal degrees.

8

Datum

The Datum associated with the Latitude and Longitude measures.

9

Parameter Name

The name or description assigned in AQS to the parameter measured by the monitor. Parameters may be pollutants or non-pollutants.

10

Date Local

The calendar date of the sample in Local Standard Time at the monitor.

11

Time Local

The time of day that sampling began on a 24-hour clock in Local Standard Time.

12

Date GMT

The calendar date of the sample in Greenwich Mean Time.

13

Time GMT

The time of day that sampling began on a 24-hour clock in Greenwich Mean Time.

14

Sample Measurement

The measured value in the standard units of measure for the parameter.

15

Units of Measure

The unit of measure for the parameter. QAD always returns data in the standard units for the parameter. Submitters are allowed to report data in any unit and EPA converts to a standard unit so that we may use the data in calculations.

16

MDL

The Method Detection Limit. The minimum sample concentration detectable for the monitor and method. Note: if samples are reported below this level, they may have been replaced by 1/2 the MDL.

17

Uncertainty

The total measurement uncertainty associated with a reported measurement as indicated by the reporting agency.

18

Qualifier

Sample values may have qualifiers that indicate why they are missing or that they are out of the ordinary. Types of qualifiers are: null data, exceptional event, natural events, and quality assurance. The highest ranking qualifier, if any, is described in this field.

19

Method Type

An indication of whether the method used to collect the data is a federal reference method (FRM), equivalent to a federal reference method, an approved regional method, or none of the above (non-federal reference method).

20

Method Name

A short description of the processes, equipment, and protocols used in gathering and measuring the sample.

21

State Name

The name of the state where the monitoring site is located.

22

County Name

The name of the county where the monitoring site is located.

23

Date of Last Change

The date the last time any numeric values in this record were updated in the AQS data system.

Interactive Map

Source: http://www.epa.gov/airquality/airdata/ad_maps.html

Select which layers to display on the map, zoom in, find monitor locations, and download data from popup balloons. The monitoring site information is also available in spreadsheet format. For more information regarding the map layers, read the Air Quality KML Files documentation (PDF, 165 KB). In 2009, lead began being measured and reported in TSP (Total Suspended Particulates) and PM10 in "Local Conditions" (LC). Layers for those parameters are provided on this page. For more information regarding lead, see this technical note on lead data reporting.

 
Monitoring Networks
Click a check box to display a network on the map.
Click the network name to save or open the kmz file.
Note: These layers display all monitors (active or inactive) with data since 1990. 


  active inactive 
  active inactive
  active inactive
  active inactive
  active inactive
  active inactive
  active inactive
  active inactive
  active inactive
  active  inactive
  active  inactive
   active 
   active 

The files below are spreadsheet versions of the map layers. My Note: Download these.

CO (CSV, 7.35 MB)

Lead (CSV, 7.69 MB)

Lead - TSP (LC) (CSV, 226 KB)

Lead - PM10 (LC) (CSV, 3.33 KB)

NO2 (CSV, 6.87 MB)

Ozone (CSV, 16.5 MB)

PM10 (CSV, 20.9 MB)

PM2.5 (CSV, 12.4 MB)

SO2 (CSV, 9.65 MB)

PM2.5 Chemical Speciation Network (CSV, 1.0 MB) - "Trends Speciation" and "Supplemental Speciation" monitors only

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