Table of contents
  1. Supply Chain Management
    1. Introduction
    2. Definitions
    3. Problems addressed by supply chain management
    4. Activities and Functions
      1. Strategic level
      2. Tactical level
      3. Operational level
    5. Importance of supply chain management
    6. Historical developments in supply chain management
    7. Supply chain business process integration
    8. Theories of supply chain management
    9. Supply chain centroids
    10. Tax efficient supply chain management
    11. Supply chain sustainability
    12. Components of supply chain management integration
    13. Supply chain systems and value
    14. Global supply chain management
    15. See also
    16. References
    17. External links
    18. This page was last modified on 2 March 2012 at 23:47
  2. Relief Supply Chain Management for Disasters: Humanitarian, Aid and Emergency Logistics
    1. Description
    2. Table of Contents and List of Contributors
      1. Strategic Partners and Strange Bedfellows: Relationship Building in the Relief Supply Chain
      2. Humanitarian Partnerships—Drivers, Facilitators, and Components: The Case of Non-Food Item Distribution in Sudan
      3. Relief Supply Chain Planning: Insights from Thailand
      4. Humanitarian Aid Logistics: The Wenchuan and Haiti Earthquakes Compared
      5. The Application of Value Chain Analysis for the Evaluation of Alternative Supply Chain Strategies for the Provision of Humanitarian Aid to Africa
      6. Designing Post-Disaster Supply Chains: Learning from Housing Reconstruction Projects
      7. Local Sourcing in Peacekeeping Local Sourcing in Peacekeeping: A Case Study of Swedish Military Sourcing (pages 103-122)
      8. Military Involvement in Humanitarian Supply Chains
      9. Challenges of Civil Military Cooperation / Coordination in Humanitarian Relief
      10. Developing and Maintaining Trust in Hastily Formed Relief Networks
      11. A Study of Barriers to Greening the Relief Supply Chain
      12. Disaster Impact and Country Logistics Performance
    3. Topics Covered
      1. Application Areas of Relief Supply Chain Management
      2. Civil-Military Cooperation
      3. Coordination of the Humanitarian Aid Supply Network
      4. GIS in Relief Supply Chains
      5. Postponement and Speculation
      6. Relationship Building in the Relief Supply Chain
      7. Supply Chain Collaboration
      8. Supply Chain Cooperation
      9. Supply Chain Integration
      10. Swift Trust
    4. Preface
      1. Introduction
      2. Background
      3. The Collection of Chapters – A Short Introduction
      4. Future Research Directions
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
      7. Additional Reading Section
      8. Further additional reading
      9. Key Terms & Definitions
        1. Logistics vs. supply chain management
        2. Humanitarian logistics
        3. Relief supply chain management
        4. Disaster
        5. Disaster relief
        6. Humanitarian organization
    5. Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography
      1. Gyöngyi Kovács
      2. Karen M. Spens
    6. Reviews and Testimonials
    7. Editorial Board
  3. Boeing Supply Chain Services
    1. Benefit Breakdown
    2. Supply Chain Process

Supply Chain Services

Last modified
Table of contents
  1. Supply Chain Management
    1. Introduction
    2. Definitions
    3. Problems addressed by supply chain management
    4. Activities and Functions
      1. Strategic level
      2. Tactical level
      3. Operational level
    5. Importance of supply chain management
    6. Historical developments in supply chain management
    7. Supply chain business process integration
    8. Theories of supply chain management
    9. Supply chain centroids
    10. Tax efficient supply chain management
    11. Supply chain sustainability
    12. Components of supply chain management integration
    13. Supply chain systems and value
    14. Global supply chain management
    15. See also
    16. References
    17. External links
    18. This page was last modified on 2 March 2012 at 23:47
  2. Relief Supply Chain Management for Disasters: Humanitarian, Aid and Emergency Logistics
    1. Description
    2. Table of Contents and List of Contributors
      1. Strategic Partners and Strange Bedfellows: Relationship Building in the Relief Supply Chain
      2. Humanitarian Partnerships—Drivers, Facilitators, and Components: The Case of Non-Food Item Distribution in Sudan
      3. Relief Supply Chain Planning: Insights from Thailand
      4. Humanitarian Aid Logistics: The Wenchuan and Haiti Earthquakes Compared
      5. The Application of Value Chain Analysis for the Evaluation of Alternative Supply Chain Strategies for the Provision of Humanitarian Aid to Africa
      6. Designing Post-Disaster Supply Chains: Learning from Housing Reconstruction Projects
      7. Local Sourcing in Peacekeeping Local Sourcing in Peacekeeping: A Case Study of Swedish Military Sourcing (pages 103-122)
      8. Military Involvement in Humanitarian Supply Chains
      9. Challenges of Civil Military Cooperation / Coordination in Humanitarian Relief
      10. Developing and Maintaining Trust in Hastily Formed Relief Networks
      11. A Study of Barriers to Greening the Relief Supply Chain
      12. Disaster Impact and Country Logistics Performance
    3. Topics Covered
      1. Application Areas of Relief Supply Chain Management
      2. Civil-Military Cooperation
      3. Coordination of the Humanitarian Aid Supply Network
      4. GIS in Relief Supply Chains
      5. Postponement and Speculation
      6. Relationship Building in the Relief Supply Chain
      7. Supply Chain Collaboration
      8. Supply Chain Cooperation
      9. Supply Chain Integration
      10. Swift Trust
    4. Preface
      1. Introduction
      2. Background
      3. The Collection of Chapters – A Short Introduction
      4. Future Research Directions
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
      7. Additional Reading Section
      8. Further additional reading
      9. Key Terms & Definitions
        1. Logistics vs. supply chain management
        2. Humanitarian logistics
        3. Relief supply chain management
        4. Disaster
        5. Disaster relief
        6. Humanitarian organization
    5. Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography
      1. Gyöngyi Kovács
      2. Karen M. Spens
    6. Reviews and Testimonials
    7. Editorial Board
  3. Boeing Supply Chain Services
    1. Benefit Breakdown
    2. Supply Chain Process

  1. Supply Chain Management
    1. Introduction
    2. Definitions
    3. Problems addressed by supply chain management
    4. Activities and Functions
      1. Strategic level
      2. Tactical level
      3. Operational level
    5. Importance of supply chain management
    6. Historical developments in supply chain management
    7. Supply chain business process integration
    8. Theories of supply chain management
    9. Supply chain centroids
    10. Tax efficient supply chain management
    11. Supply chain sustainability
    12. Components of supply chain management integration
    13. Supply chain systems and value
    14. Global supply chain management
    15. See also
    16. References
    17. External links
    18. This page was last modified on 2 March 2012 at 23:47
  2. Relief Supply Chain Management for Disasters: Humanitarian, Aid and Emergency Logistics
    1. Description
    2. Table of Contents and List of Contributors
      1. Strategic Partners and Strange Bedfellows: Relationship Building in the Relief Supply Chain
      2. Humanitarian Partnerships—Drivers, Facilitators, and Components: The Case of Non-Food Item Distribution in Sudan
      3. Relief Supply Chain Planning: Insights from Thailand
      4. Humanitarian Aid Logistics: The Wenchuan and Haiti Earthquakes Compared
      5. The Application of Value Chain Analysis for the Evaluation of Alternative Supply Chain Strategies for the Provision of Humanitarian Aid to Africa
      6. Designing Post-Disaster Supply Chains: Learning from Housing Reconstruction Projects
      7. Local Sourcing in Peacekeeping Local Sourcing in Peacekeeping: A Case Study of Swedish Military Sourcing (pages 103-122)
      8. Military Involvement in Humanitarian Supply Chains
      9. Challenges of Civil Military Cooperation / Coordination in Humanitarian Relief
      10. Developing and Maintaining Trust in Hastily Formed Relief Networks
      11. A Study of Barriers to Greening the Relief Supply Chain
      12. Disaster Impact and Country Logistics Performance
    3. Topics Covered
      1. Application Areas of Relief Supply Chain Management
      2. Civil-Military Cooperation
      3. Coordination of the Humanitarian Aid Supply Network
      4. GIS in Relief Supply Chains
      5. Postponement and Speculation
      6. Relationship Building in the Relief Supply Chain
      7. Supply Chain Collaboration
      8. Supply Chain Cooperation
      9. Supply Chain Integration
      10. Swift Trust
    4. Preface
      1. Introduction
      2. Background
      3. The Collection of Chapters – A Short Introduction
      4. Future Research Directions
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
      7. Additional Reading Section
      8. Further additional reading
      9. Key Terms & Definitions
        1. Logistics vs. supply chain management
        2. Humanitarian logistics
        3. Relief supply chain management
        4. Disaster
        5. Disaster relief
        6. Humanitarian organization
    5. Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography
      1. Gyöngyi Kovács
      2. Karen M. Spens
    6. Reviews and Testimonials
    7. Editorial Board
  3. Boeing Supply Chain Services
    1. Benefit Breakdown
    2. Supply Chain Process

When: Tuesday, July 31, 2012 12:00 PM-1:00 PM (GMT-05:00) Eastern Time (US & Canada).

Where: Online Meeting

Note: The GMT offset above does not reflect daylight saving time adjustments.

Hello, This email is an invitation to participate in the upcoming Information Sharing Working Group meeting which is scheduled for July 31st, 2012 at 12:00 PM Eastern time.

You are receiving this invitation because you are a member of the Information Sharing WG, Gov DTF, IEF WG, and/or MARS PTF.

The goal for the meeting is to review and refine the working plan of the group for the next three months. Provided below is an initial straw man which is being considered as a starting point.

1.      Define common goals the for information sharing framework and roadmap

a.       Model Driven

b.      Standards Based

c.       Promotes Interoperability

d.      Others?

2.      Define common areas of requirements in order to achieve those goals

e.       Mission Data

f.       Tagging | Markings

g.      Digest | Semantic Model

h.      Policy  |  Access  |  Identity  |  Obligations  |  Geo

i.        Business Process  |  Linkages  |  DRM  |  Presentation

j.        Audit

k.      Routing  |  Protocol

l.        Others?

3.      Reconcile available resources and create a common framework

4.      Prioritize framework components and create a common roadmap

5.      Identify immediate wins and initiate respective initiatives

m.    Services Profile

n.      Policy Profile

o.      Others?

6.      Define a concrete plan for the next six month

7.      Develop an outreach strategy

A list of the available resources considered as input to the above work are provided below. We plan to discuss any additional resources during the meeting. Please share any other materials with the group you think would be relevant.

Diagram from our meeting (attached Diagram.pptxs)

ISE Implementation Presentation (attached ISE_Implementation_05312012.ppt)

MARS Presentation (attached gov-12-06-09.pptx)

IEF Framework web page which contains a number of resources under white papers http://www.asmg-ltd.com/sect_5a.html#Information_Exchange_Framework_(IEF)

Provided below is the logistical information for the meeting.

........................................................................................................................................

Join online meeting

https://join.microsoft.com/meet/ivtopalo/MMWYRMSR

Join by Phone

+14257063500

+18883203585

Find a local number

.........................................................................................................................................

Kind Regards,

Carrie Boyle and Iveta Topalova-Dimitrova – co-chairs

Conference ID: 1492539

Forgot your dial-in PIN? <https://join.microsoft.com/dialin>  |  First online meeting? <http://r.office.microsoft.com/r/rlidOC10?clid=1033&p1=4&p2=1041&pc=oc&ver=4&subver=0&bld=7185&bldver=0>    

[!OC([1033])!]

.........................................................................................................................................

 

Supply Chain Management

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supply_chain_management

Introduction


Supply chain management is aimed at managing complex and dynamic supply and demand networks.[1] (cf. Wieland/Wallenburg, 2011)

Supply chain management (SCM) is the management of a network of interconnected businesses involved in the ultimate provision of product and service packages required by end customers (Harland, 1996).[2] Supply chain management spans all movement and storage of raw materials, work-in-process inventory, and finished goods from point of origin to point of consumption (supply chain).

Another definition is provided by the APICS Dictionary when it defines SCM as the "design, planning, execution, control, and monitoring of supply chain activities with the objective of creating net value, building a competitive infrastructure, leveraging worldwide logistics, synchronizing supply with demand and measuring performance globally."

Definitions

Further common and accepted definitions of supply chain management are:

  • Managing upstream and down stream value added flow of materials, final goods and related information among suppliers; company; resellers; final consumers is supply chain management.
  • Supply chain management is the systematic, strategic coordination of the traditional business functions and the tactics across these business functions within a particular company and across businesses within the supply chain, for the purposes of improving the long-term performance of the individual companies and the supply chain as a whole (Mentzer et al., 2001).[3]
  • A customer focused definition is given by Hines (2004:p76) "Supply chain strategies require a total systems view of the linkages in the chain that work together efficiently to create customer satisfaction at the end point of delivery to the consumer. As a consequence costs must be lowered throughout the chain by driving out unnecessary costs and focusing attention on adding value. Throughout efficiency must be increased, bottlenecks removed and performance measurement must focus on total systems efficiency and equitable reward distribution to those in the supply chain adding value. The supply chain system must be responsive to customer requirements."[4]
  • Global supply chain forum - supply chain management is the integration of key business processes across the supply chain for the purpose of creating value for customers and stakeholders (Lambert, 2008).[5]

A supply chain, as opposed to supply chain management, is a set of organizations directly linked by one or more of the upstream and downstream flows of products, services, finances, and information from a source to a customer. Managing a supply chain is 'supply chain management' (Mentzer et al., 2001).[3]

Supply chain management software includes tools or modules used to execute supply chain transactions, manage supplier relationships and control associated business processes.

Supply chain event management (abbreviated as SCEM) is a consideration of all possible events and factors that can disrupt a supply chain. With SCEM possible scenarios can be created and solutions devised.

In many cases the supply chain includes the collection of goods after consumer use for recycling. Including 3PL or other gathering agencies as part of the RM re-patriation process is a way of illustrating the new end-game strategy.

Problems addressed by supply chain management

Supply chain management must address the following problems:

  • Distribution Network Configuration: number, location and network missions of suppliers, production facilities, distribution centers, warehouses, cross-docks and customers.
  • Distribution Strategy: questions of operating control (centralized, decentralized or shared); delivery scheme, e.g., direct shipment, pool point shipping, cross docking, DSD (direct store delivery), closed loop shipping; mode of transportation, e.g., motor carrier, including truckload, LTL, parcel; railroad; intermodal transport, including TOFC (trailer on flatcar) and COFC (container on flatcar); ocean freight; airfreight; replenishment strategy (e.g., pull, push or hybrid); and transportation control (e.g., owner-operated, private carriercommon carrier, contract carrier, or 3PL).
  • Trade-Offs in Logistical Activities: The above activities must be well coordinated in order to achieve the lowest total logistics cost. Trade-offs may increase the total cost if only one of the activities is optimized. For example, full truckload (FTL) rates are more economical on a cost per pallet basis than less than truckload (LTL) shipments. If, however, a full truckload of a product is ordered to reduce transportation costs, there will be an increase in inventory holding costs which may increase total logistics costs. It is therefore imperative to take a systems approach when planning logistical activities. These trade-offs are key to developing the most efficient and effective Logistics and SCM strategy.
  • Information: Integration of processes through the supply chain to share valuable information, including demand signals, forecasts, inventory, transportation, potential collaboration, etc.
  • Inventory Management: Quantity and location of inventory, including raw materials, work-in-process (WIP) and finished goods.
  • Cash-Flow: Arranging the payment terms and methodologies for exchanging funds across entities within the supply chain.

Supply chain execution means managing and coordinating the movement of materials, information and funds across the supply chain. The flow is bi-directional.

Activities and Functions

Supply chain management is a cross-function approach including managing the movement of raw materials into an organization, certain aspects of the internal processing of materials into finished goods, and the movement of finished goods out of the organization and toward the end-consumer. As organizations strive to focus on core competencies and becoming more flexible, they reduce their ownership of raw materials sources and distribution channels. These functions are increasingly being outsourced to other entities that can perform the activities better or more cost effectively. The effect is to increase the number of organizations involved in satisfying customer demand, while reducing management control of daily logistics operations. Less control and more supply chain partners led to the creation of supply chain management concepts. The purpose of supply chain management is to improve trust and collaboration among supply chain partners, thus improving inventory visibility and the velocity of inventory movement.

Several models have been proposed for understanding the activities required to manage material movements across organizational and functional boundaries. SCOR is a supply chain management model promoted by the Supply Chain Council. Another model is the SCM Model proposed by the Global Supply Chain Forum (GSCF). Supply chain activities can be grouped into strategic, tactical, and operational levels. The CSCMP has adopted The American Productivity & Quality Center (APQC) Process Classification FrameworkSM a high-level, industry-neutral enterprise process model that allows organizations to see their business processes from a cross-industry viewpoint.[6]

Strategic level

  • Strategic network optimization, including the number, location, and size of warehousing, distribution centers, and facilities.
  • Strategic partnerships with suppliers, distributors, and customers, creating communication channels for critical information and operational improvements such as cross docking, direct shipping, and third-party logistics.
  • Product life cycle management, so that new and existing products can be optimally integrated into the supply chain and capacity management activities.
  • Information technology chain operations.
  • Where-to-make and make-buy decisions.
  • Aligning overall organizational strategy with supply strategy.
  • It is for long term and needs resource commitment.

Tactical level

  • Sourcing contracts and other purchasing decisions.
  • Production decisions, including contracting, scheduling, and planning process definition.
  • Inventory decisions, including quantity, location, and quality of inventory.
  • Transportation strategy, including frequency, routes, and contracting.
  • Benchmarking of all operations against competitors and implementation of best practices throughout the enterprise.
  • Milestone payments.
  • Focus on customer demand and Habits.

Operational level

  • Daily production and distribution planning, including all nodes in the supply chain.
  • Production scheduling for each manufacturing facility in the supply chain (minute by minute).
  • Demand planning and forecasting, coordinating the demand forecast of all customers and sharing the forecast with all suppliers.
  • Sourcing planning, including current inventory and forecast demand, in collaboration with all suppliers.
  • Inbound operations, including transportation from suppliers and receiving inventory.
  • Production operations, including the consumption of materials and flow of finished goods.
  • Outbound operations, including all fulfillment activities, warehousing and transportation to customers.
  • Order promising, accounting for all constraints in the supply chain, including all suppliers, manufacturing facilities, distribution centers, and other customers.
  • From production level to supply level accounting all transit damage cases & arrange to settlement at customer level by maintaining company loss through insurance company.
  • Managing non-moving, short-dated inventory and avoiding more products to go short-dated.

Importance of supply chain management

Organizations increasingly find that they must rely on effective supply chains, or networks, to compete in the global market and networked economy.[7] In Peter Drucker's (1998) new management paradigms, this concept of business relationships extends beyond traditional enterprise boundaries and seeks to organize entire business processes throughout a value chain of multiple companies.

During the past decades, globalization, outsourcing and information technology have enabled many organizations, such as Dell and Hewlett Packard, to successfully operate solid collaborative supply networks in which each specialized business partner focuses on only a few key strategic activities (Scott, 1993). This inter-organizational supply network can be acknowledged as a new form of organization. However, with the complicated interactions among the players, the network structure fits neither "market" nor "hierarchy" categories (Powell, 1990). It is not clear what kind of performance impacts different supply network structures could have on firms, and little is known about the coordination conditions and trade-offs that may exist among the players. From a systems perspective, a complex network structure can be decomposed into individual component firms (Zhang and Dilts, 2004). Traditionally, companies in a supply network concentrate on the inputs and outputs of the processes, with little concern for the internal management working of other individual players. Therefore, the choice of an internal management control structure is known to impact local firm performance (Mintzberg, 1979).

In the 21st century, changes in the business environment have contributed to the development of supply chain networks. First, as an outcome of globalization and the proliferation of multinational companies, joint ventures, strategic alliances and business partnerships, significant success factors were identified, complementing the earlier "Just-In-Time", "Lean Manufacturing" and "Agile Manufacturing" practices.[8] Second, technological changes, particularly the dramatic fall in information communication costs, which are a significant component of transaction costs, have led to changes in coordination among the members of the supply chain network (Coase, 1998).

Many researchers have recognized these kinds of supply network structures as a new organization form, using terms such as "Keiretsu", "Extended Enterprise", "Virtual Corporation", "Global Production Network", and "Next Generation Manufacturing System".[9] In general, such a structure can be defined as "a group of semi-independent organizations, each with their capabilities, which collaborate in ever-changing constellations to serve one or more markets in order to achieve some business goal specific to that collaboration" (Akkermans, 2001).

The security management system for supply chains is described in ISO/IEC 28000 and ISO/IEC 28001 and related standards published jointly by ISO and IEC

Historical developments in supply chain management

Six major movements can be observed in the evolution of supply chain management studies: Creation, Integration, and Globalization (Movahedi et al., 2009), Specialization Phases One and Two, and SCM 2.0.

1. Creation era

The term supply chain management was first coined by a U.S. industry consultant in the early 1980s. However, the concept of a supply chain in management was of great importance long before, in the early 20th century, especially with the creation of the assembly line. The characteristics of this era of supply chain management include the need for large-scale changes, re-engineering, downsizing driven by cost reduction programs, and widespread attention to the Japanese practice of management.

2. Integration era

This era of supply chain management studies was highlighted with the development of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) systems in the 1960s and developed through the 1990s by the introduction of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems. This era has continued to develop into the 21st century with the expansion of internet-based collaborative systems. This era of supply chain evolution is characterized by both increasing value-adding and cost reductions through integration.

In fact a supply chain can be classified as a Stage 1, 2 or 3 network. In stage 1 type supply chain, various systems such as Make, Storage, Distribution, Material control, etc. are not linked and are independent of each other. In a stage 2 supply chain, these are integrated under one plan and is ERP enabled. A stage 3 supply chain is one in which vertical integrationwith the suppliers in upstream direction and customers in downstream direction is achieved. An example of this kind of supply chain is Tesco.

3. Globalization era

The third movement of supply chain management development, the globalization era, can be characterized by the attention given to global systems of supplier relationships and the expansion of supply chains over national boundaries and into other continents. Although the use of global sources in the supply chain of organizations can be traced back several decades (e.g., in the oil industry), it was not until the late 1980s that a considerable number of organizations started to integrate global sources into their core business. This era is characterized by the globalization of supply chain management in organizations with the goal of increasing their competitive advantage, value-adding, and reducing costs through global sourcing.

4. Specialization era (phase I): outsourced manufacturing and distribution

In the 1990s, industries began to focus on “core competencies” and adopted a specialization model. Companies abandoned vertical integration, sold off non-core operations, and outsourced those functions to other companies. This changed management requirements by extending the supply chain well beyond company walls and distributing management across specialized supply chain partnerships.

This transition also re-focused the fundamental perspectives of each respective organization. OEMs became brand owners that needed deep visibility into their supply base. They had to control the entire supply chain from above instead of from within. Contract manufacturers had to manage bills of material with different part numbering schemes from multiple OEMs and support customer requests for work -in-process visibility and vendor-managed inventory (VMI).

The specialization model creates manufacturing and distribution networks composed of multiple, individual supply chains specific to products, suppliers, and customers who work together to design, manufacture, distribute, market, sell, and service a product. The set of partners may change according to a given market, region, or channel, resulting in a proliferation of trading partner environments, each with its own unique characteristics and demands.

5. Specialization era (phase II): supply chain management as a service

Specialization within the supply chain began in the 1980s with the inception of transportation brokerages, warehouse management, and non-asset-based carriers and has matured beyond transportation and logistics into aspects of supply planning, collaboration, execution and performance management.

At any given moment, market forces could demand changes from suppliers, logistics providers, locations and customers, and from any number of these specialized participants as components of supply chain networks. This variability has significant effects on the supply chain infrastructure, from the foundation layers of establishing and managing the electronic communication between the trading partners to more complex requirements including the configuration of the processes and work flows that are essential to the management of the network itself.

Supply chain specialization enables companies to improve their overall competencies in the same way that outsourced manufacturing and distribution has done; it allows them to focus on their core competencies and assemble networks of specific, best-in-class partners to contribute to the overall value chain itself, thereby increasing overall performance and efficiency. The ability to quickly obtain and deploy this domain-specific supply chain expertise without developing and maintaining an entirely unique and complex competency in house is the leading reason why supply chain specialization is gaining popularity.

Outsourced technology hosting for supply chain solutions debuted in the late 1990s and has taken root primarily in transportation and collaboration categories. This has progressed from the Application Service Provider (ASP) model from approximately 1998 through 2003 to the On-Demand model from approximately 2003-2006 to the Software as a Service (SaaS) model currently in focus today.

6. Supply chain management 2.0 (SCM 2.0)

Building on globalization and specialization, the term SCM 2.0 has been coined to describe both the changes within the supply chain itself as well as the evolution of the processes, methods and tools that manage it in this new "era".

Web 2.0 is defined as a trend in the use of the World Wide Web that is meant to increase creativity, information sharing, and collaboration among users. At its core, the common attribute that Web 2.0 brings is to help navigate the vast amount of information available on the Web in order to find what is being sought. It is the notion of a usable pathway. SCM 2.0 follows this notion into supply chain operations. It is the pathway to SCM results, a combination of the processes, methodologies, tools and delivery options to guide companies to their results quickly as the complexity and speed of the supply chain increase due to the effects of global competition, rapid price fluctuations, surging oil prices, short product life cycles, expanded specialization, near-/far- and off-shoring, and talent scarcity.

SCM 2.0 leverages proven solutions designed to rapidly deliver results with the agility to quickly manage future change for continuous flexibility, value and success. This is delivered through competency networks composed of best-of-breed supply chain domain expertise to understand which elements, both operationally and organizationally, are the critical few that deliver the results as well as through intimate understanding of how to manage these elements to achieve desired results. Finally, the solutions are delivered in a variety of options, such as no-touch via business process outsourcing, mid-touch via managed services and software as a service (SaaS), or high touch in the traditional software deployment model.

Supply chain business process integration

Successful SCM requires a change from managing individual functions to integrating activities into key supply chain processes. An example scenario: the purchasing department places orders as requirements become known. The marketing department, responding to customer demand, communicates with several distributors and retailers as it attempts to determine ways to satisfy this demand. Information shared between supply chain partners can only be fully leveraged through process integration.

Supply chain business process integration involves collaborative work between buyers and suppliers, joint product development, common systems and shared information. According to Lambert and Cooper (2000), operating an integrated supply chain requires a continuous information flow. However, in many companies, management has reached the conclusion that optimizing the product flows cannot be accomplished without implementing a process approach to the business. The key supply chain processes stated by Lambert (2004)[10] are:

Much has been written about demand management. Best-in-Class companies have similar characteristics, which include the following: a) Internal and external collaboration b) Lead time reduction initiatives c) Tighter feedback from customer and market demand d) Customer level forecasting

One could suggest other key critical supply business processes which combine these processes stated by Lambert such as:

  1. Customer service management
  2. Procurement
  3. Product development and commercialization
  4. Manufacturing flow management/support
  5. Physical distribution
  6. Outsourcing/partnerships
  7. Performance measurement
  8. Warehousing management
a) Customer service management process

Customer Relationship Management concerns the relationship between the organization and its customers. Customer service is the source of customer information. It also provides the customer with real-time information on scheduling and product availability through interfaces with the company's production and distribution operations. Successful organizations use the following steps to build customer relationships:

  • determine mutually satisfying goals for organization and customers
  • establish and maintain customer rapport
  • produce positive feelings in the organization and the customers
b) Procurement process

Strategic plans are drawn up with suppliers to support the manufacturing flow management process and the development of new products. In firms where operations extend globally, sourcing should be managed on a global basis. The desired outcome is a win-win relationship where both parties benefit, and a reduction in time required for the design cycle and product development. Also, the purchasing function develops rapid communication systems, such as electronic data interchange (EDI) and Internet linkage to convey possible requirements more rapidly. Activities related to obtaining products and materials from outside suppliers involve resource planning, supply sourcing, negotiation, order placement, inbound transportation, storage, handling and quality assurance, many of which include the responsibility to coordinate with suppliers on matters of scheduling, supply continuity, hedging, and research into new sources or programs.

c) Product development and commercialization

Here, customers and suppliers must be integrated into the product development process in order to reduce time to market. As product life cycles shorten, the appropriate products must be developed and successfully launched with ever shorter time-schedules to remain competitive. According to Lambert and Cooper (2000), managers of the product development and commercialization process must:

  1. coordinate with customer relationship management to identify customer-articulated needs;
  2. select materials and suppliers in conjunction with procurement, and
  3. develop production technology in manufacturing flow to manufacture and integrate into the best supply chain flow for the product/market combination.
d) Manufacturing flow management process

The manufacturing process produces and supplies products to the distribution channels based on past forecasts. Manufacturing processes must be flexible to respond to market changes and must accommodate mass customization. Orders are processes operating on a just-in-time (JIT) basis in minimum lot sizes. Also, changes in the manufacturing flow process lead to shorter cycle times, meaning improved responsiveness and efficiency in meeting customer demand. Activities related to planning, scheduling and supporting manufacturing operations, such as work-in-process storage, handling, transportation, and time phasing of components, inventory at manufacturing sites and maximum flexibility in the coordination of geographic and final assemblies postponement of physical distribution operations.

e) Physical distribution

This concerns movement of a finished product/service to customers. In physical distribution, the customer is the final destination of a marketing channel, and the availability of the product/service is a vital part of each channel participant's marketing effort. It is also through the physical distribution process that the time and space of customer service become an integral part of marketing, thus it links a marketing channel with its customers (e.g., links manufacturers, wholesalers, retailers).

f) Outsourcing/partnerships

This is not just outsourcing the procurement of materials and components, but also outsourcing of services that traditionally have been provided in-house. The logic of this trend is that the company will increasingly focus on those activities in the value chain where it has a distinctive advantage, and outsource everything else. This movement has been particularly evident inlogistics where the provision of transport, warehousing and inventory control is increasingly subcontracted to specialists or logistics partners. Also, managing and controlling this network of partners and suppliers requires a blend of both central and local involvement. Hence, strategic decisions need to be taken centrally, with the monitoring and control of supplier performance and day-to-day liaison with logistics partners being best managed at a local level.

g) Performance measurement

Experts found a strong relationship from the largest arcs of supplier and customer integration to market share and profitability. Taking advantage of supplier capabilities and emphasizing a long-term supply chain perspective in customer relationships can both be correlated with firm performance. As logistics competency becomes a more critical factor in creating and maintaining competitive advantage, logistics measurement becomes increasingly important because the difference between profitable and unprofitable operations becomes more narrow. A.T. Kearney Consultants (1985) noted that firms engaging in comprehensive performance measurement realized improvements in overall productivity. According to experts, internal measures are generally collected and analyzed by the firm including

  1. Cost
  2. Customer Service
  3. Productivity measures
  4. Asset measurement, and
  5. Quality.

External performance measurement is examined through customer perception measures and "best practice" benchmarking, and includes 1) customer perception measurement, and 2) best practice benchmarking.

h) Warehousing management

As a case of reducing company cost & expenses, warehousing management is carrying the valuable role against operations. In case of perfect storing & office with all convenient facilities in company level, reducing manpower cost, dispatching authority with on time delivery, loading & unloading facilities with proper area, area for service station, stock management system etc.

Components of supply chain management are as follows: 1. Standardization 2. Postponement 3. Customization

Theories of supply chain management

Currently there is a gap in the literature available on supply chain management studies: there is no theoretical support for explaining the existence and the boundaries of supply chain management. A few authors such as Halldorsson, et al. (2003), Ketchen and Hult (2006) and Lavassani, et al. (2009) have tried to provide theoretical foundations for different areas related to supply chain by employing organizational theories. These theories include:

However, the unit of analysis of most of these theories is not the system “supply chain”, but another system such as the “firm” or the “supplier/buyer relationship”. Among the few exceptions is the relational view, which outlines a theory for considering dyads and networks of firms as a key unit of analysis for explaining superior individual firm performance (Dyer and Singh, 1998).[11]

Supply chain centroids

In the study of supply chain management, the concept of centroids has become an important economic consideration. A centroid is a place that has a high proportion of a country’s population and a high proportion of its manufacturing, generally within 500 mi (805 km). In the U.S., two major supply chain centroids have been defined, one near Dayton, Ohio and a second near Riverside, California.

The centroid near Dayton is particularly important because it is closest to the population center of the US and Canada. Dayton is within 500 miles of 60% of the population and manufacturing capacity of the U.S., as well as 60 percent of Canada’s population.[12] The region includes the Interstate 70/75 interchange, which is one of the busiest in the nation with 154,000 vehicles passing through in a day. Of those, anywhere between 30 percent and 35 percent are trucks hauling goods. In addition, the I-75 corridor is home to the busiest north-south rail route east of the Mississippi.[12]

Tax efficient supply chain management

Tax Efficient Supply Chain Management is a business model which consider the effect of Tax in design and implementation of supply chain management. As the consequence ofGlobalization, business which is cross-nation should pay different tax rates in different countries. Due to the differences, global players have the opportunity to calculate and optimize supply chain based on tax efficiency[13] legally. It is used as a method of gaining more profit for company which owns global supply chain.

Supply chain sustainability

Supply chain sustainability is a business issue affecting an organization’s supply chain or logistics network and is frequently quantified by comparison with SECH ratings. SECH ratings are defined as social, ethical, cultural and health footprints. Consumers have become more aware of the environmental impact of their purchases and companies’ SECH ratings and, along with non-governmental organizations(NGOs), are setting the agenda for transitions to organically-grown foods, anti-sweatshop labor codes and locally-produced goods that support independent and small businesses. Because supply chains frequently account for over 75% of a company’s carbon footprint many organizations are exploring how they can reduce this and thus improve their SECH rating.

For example, in July, 2009 the U.S. based Wal-Mart corporation announced its intentions to create a global sustainability index that would rate products according to the environmental and social impact made while the products were manufactured and distributed. The sustainability rating index is intended to create environmental accountability in Wal-Mart's supply chain, and provide the motivation and infrastructure for other retail industry companies to do the same.[14]

More recently, the US Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act signed into law by President Obama in July 2010, contained a supply chain sustainability provision in the form of the Conflict Minerals law. This law requires SEC-regulated companies to conduct third party audits of the company supply chains, determine whether any tin, tantalum, tungsten or gold (together referred to as conflict minerals) is made of up ore mined/sourced from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and create a report (available to the general public and SEC) detailing the supply chain due diligence efforts undertaken and the results of the audit.[15] Of course, the chain of suppliers/vendors to these reporting companies will be expected to provide appropriate supporting information.

Components of supply chain management integration

The management components of SCM

The SCM components are the third element of the four-square circulation framework. The level of integration and management of a business process link is a function of the number and level, ranging from low to high, of components added to the link (Ellram and Cooper, 1990; Houlihan, 1985). Consequently, adding more management components or increasing the level of each component can increase the level of integration of the business process link. The literature on business process re-engineering,[16] buyer-supplier relationships,[17] and SCM[18]suggests various possible components that must receive managerial attention when managing supply relationships. Lambert and Cooper (2000) identified the following components:

  • Planning and control
  • Work structure
  • Organization structure
  • Product flow facility structure
  • Information flow facility structure
  • Management methods
  • Power and leadership structure
  • Risk and reward structure
  • Culture and attitude

However, a more careful examination of the existing literature[19] leads to a more comprehensive understanding of what should be the key critical supply chain components, the "branches" of the previous identified supply chain business processes, that is, what kind of relationship the components may have that are related to suppliers and customers. Bowersox and Closs states that the emphasis on cooperation represents the synergism leading to the highest level of joint achievement (Bowersox and Closs, 1996). A primary level channel participant is a business that is willing to participate in the inventory ownership responsibility or assume other aspects of financial risk, thus including primary level components (Bowersox and Closs, 1996). A secondary level participant (specialized) is a business that participates in channel relationships by performing essential services for primary participants, including secondary level components, which support primary participants. Third level channel participants and components that support the primary level channel participants and are the fundamental branches of the secondary level components may also be included.

Consequently, Lambert and Cooper's framework of supply chain components does not lead to any conclusion about what are the primary or secondary (specialized) level supply chain components (see Bowersox and Closs, 1996, p. 93). That is, what supply chain components should be viewed as primary or secondary, how should these components be structured in order to have a more comprehensive supply chain structure, and how to examine the supply chain as an integrative one (See above sections 2.1 and 3.1).

Reverse supply chain Reverse logistics is the process of managing the return of goods. Reverse logistics is also referred to as "Aftermarket Customer Services". In other words, any time money is taken from a company's warranty reserve or service logistics budget one can speak of a reverse logistics operation.

Supply chain systems and value

Supply chain systems configure value for those that organize the networks. Value is the additional revenue over and above the costs of building the network. Co-creating value and sharing the benefits appropriately to encourage effective participation is a key challenge for any supply system. Tony Hines defines value as follows: “Ultimately it is the customer who pays the price for service delivered that confirms value and not the producer who simply adds cost until that point”[4]

Global supply chain management

Global supply chains pose challenges regarding both quantity and value:

Supply and value chain trends

  • Globalization
  • Increased cross border sourcing
  • Collaboration for parts of value chain with low-cost providers
  • Shared service centers for logistical and administrative functions
  • Increasingly global operations, which require increasingly global coordination and planning to achieve global optimums
  • Complex problems involve also midsized companies to an increasing degree,

These trends have many benefits for manufacturers because they make possible larger lot sizes, lower taxes, and better environments (culture, infrastructure, special tax zones, sophisticated OEM) for their products. Meanwhile, on top of the problems recognized in supply chain management, there will be many more challenges when the scope of supply chains is global. This is because with a supply chain of a larger scope, the lead time is much longer. Furthermore, there are more issues involved such as multi-currencies, different policies and different laws. The consequent problems include:1. different currencies and valuations in different countries; 2. different tax laws (Tax Efficient Supply Chain Management); 3. different trading protocols; 4. lack of transparency of cost and profit.

References

  1. ^ cf. Andreas Wieland, Carl Marcus Wallenburg (2011): Supply-Chain-Management in stürmischen Zeiten. Berlin.
  2. ^ Harland, C.M. (1996) Supply Chain Management, Purchasing and Supply Management, Logistics, Vertical Integration, Materials Management and Supply Chain Dynamics. In: Slack, N (ed.) Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Operations Management. UK: Blackwell.
  3. a b Mentzer, J.T. et. al. (2001): Defining Supply Chain Management, in: Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2001, pp. 1–25
  4. a b Hines, T. 2004. Supply chain strategies: Customer driven and customer focused. Oxford: Elsevier.
  5. ^ Cooper et. al., 1997
  6. ^ CSCMP Supply Chain Management Process Standards
  7. ^ Baziotopoulos, 2004
  8. ^ MacDuffie and Helper, 1997; Monden, 1993; Womack and Jones, 1996; Gunasekaran, 1999
  9. ^ Drucker, 1998; Tapscott, 1996; Dilts, 1999
  10. ^ Lambert, Douglas M.Supply Chain Management: Processes, Partnerships, Performance, 3rd edition, 2008.
  11. ^ http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/259056
  12. a b Doug Page,"Dayton Region a Crucial Hub for Supply Chain Management"Dayton Daily News, 2009-12-21.
  13. ^ Investor Words definition of "tax efficient"
  14. ^ Wal-Mart's Sustainability Index and Supply Chain Green Standards
  15. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conflict_minerals
  16. ^ Macneil ,1975; Williamson, 1974; Hewitt, 1994
  17. ^ Stevens, 1989; Ellram and Cooper, 1993; Ellram and Cooper, 1990; Houlihan, 1985
  18. ^ Cooper et al., 1997; Lambert et al.,1996; Turnbull, 1990
  19. ^ Zhang and Dilts, 2004 ;Vickery et al., 2003; Hemila, 2002; Christopher, 1998; Joyce et al., 1997; Bowersox and Closs, 1996; Williamson, 1991; Courtright et al., 1989; Hofstede, 1978
  • Cooper, M.C., Lambert, D.M., & Pagh, J. (1997) Supply Chain Management: More Than a New Name for Logistics. The International Journal of Logistics Management Vol 8, Iss 1, pp 1–14
  • FAO, 2007, Agro-industrial supply chain management: Concepts and applications. AGSF Occasional Paper 17 Rome.
  • Haag, S., Cummings, M., McCubbrey, D., Pinsonneault, A., & Donovan, R. (2006), Management Information Systems For the Information Age (3rd Canadian Ed.), Canada: McGraw Hill Ryerson ISBN 0-072-81947-2
  • Halldorsson, Arni, Herbert Kotzab & Tage Skjott-Larsen (2003). Inter-organizational theories behind Supply Chain Management – discussion and applications, In Seuring, Stefan et al. (eds.), Strategy and Organization in Supply Chains, Physica Verlag.
  • Halldorsson, A., Kotzab, H., Mikkola, J. H., Skjoett-Larsen, T. (2007). Complementary theories to supply chain management. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Volume 12 Issue 4, 284-296.
  • Handfield and Bechtel, 2001; Prater et al., 2001; Kern and Willcocks, 2000; Bowersox and Closs, 1996; Christopher, 1992; Bowersox, 1989
  • Hines, T. 2004. Supply chain strategies: Customer driven and customer focused. Oxford: Elsevier.
  • Kallrath, J., Maindl, T.I. (2006): Real Optimization with SAP® APO. Springer ISBN 3-540-22561-7.
  • Kaushik K.D., & Cooper, M. (2000). Industrial Marketing Management. Volume29, Issue 1, January 2000, Pages 65–83
  • Ketchen Jr., G., & Hult, T.M. (2006). Bridging organization theory and supply chain management: The case of best value supply chains. Journal of Operations Management, 25(2) 573-580.
  • Kouvelis, P.; Chambers, C.; Wang, H. (2006): Supply Chain Management Research and Production and Operations Management: Review, Trends, and Opportunities. In: Production and Operations Management, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 449–469.
  • Larson, P.D. and Halldorsson, A. (2004). Logistics versus supply chain management: an international survey. International Journal of Logistics: Research & Application, Vol. 7, Issue 1, 17-31.
  • Movahedi B., Lavassani K., Kumar V. (2009) Transition to B2B e-Marketplace Enabled Supply Chain: Readiness Assessment and Success Factors, The International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp. 75–88.
  • Lavassani K., Movahedi B., Kumar V. (2009) Developments in Theories of Supply Chain Management: The Case of B2B Electronic Marketplace Adoption, The International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, Volume 9, Issue 6, pp. 85–98.
  • Mentzer, J.T. et al. (2001): Defining Supply Chain Management, in: Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2001, pp. 1–25
  • Simchi-Levi D.,Kaminsky P., Simchi-levi E. (2007), Designing and Managing the Supply Chain, third edition, Mcgraw Hill


This page was last modified on 2 March 2012 at 23:47

 

Relief Supply Chain Management for Disasters: Humanitarian, Aid and Emergency Logistics

Source: http://www.igi-global.com/book/relief-supply-chain-management-disasters/50516

Gyöngyi Kovács (Hanken School of Economics, Finland) and Karen M. Spens (Hanken School of Economics, Finland)

Release Date: July, 2011. Copyright © 2012. 253 pages.
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-824-8, ISBN13: 9781609608248, ISBN10: 1609608240, EISBN13: 9781609608255

Cover

 

Description

 
Relief supply chains are the most agile and dynamic supply chains, yet research in this area of supply chain management (SCM) is limited.

Relief Supply Chain Management for Disasters: Humanitarian, Aid and Emergency Logistics furthers the scholarly understanding of SCM in disaster relief. Recent natural and manmade disasters have brought relief SCM to the forefront of the global response to tragedy, establishing the central role of logistics in averting and limiting unnecessary hardships. The lessons learned during these crises have far-reaching applications for both daily logistics and worst case scenarios and they are represented in this book as a much-needed reference for the advancement of the field.

Table of Contents and List of Contributors

Strategic Partners and Strange Bedfellows: Relationship Building in the Relief Supply Chain

Paul D. Larson (University of Manitoba, Canada) Sample PDF | More details... (pages 1-15)

Humanitarian Partnerships—Drivers, Facilitators, and Components: The Case of Non-Food Item Distribution in Sudan

Rolando M. Tomasini (Hanken School of Economics, Finland) Sample PDF | More details... (pages 16-30)

Relief Supply Chain Planning: Insights from Thailand

Ruth Banomyong (Thammasat University, Thailand), and Apichat Sodapang (Chiangmai University, Thailand) Sample PDF | More details... (pages 31-44)

Humanitarian Aid Logistics: The Wenchuan and Haiti Earthquakes Compared

Anthony Beresford (Cardiff University, UK), and Stephen Pettit (Cardiff University, UK) Sample PDF | More details... (pages 45-67)

The Application of Value Chain Analysis for the Evaluation of Alternative Supply Chain Strategies for the Provision of Humanitarian Aid to Africa

David H. Taylor (Sheffield, UK) Sample PDF | More details... (pages 68-89)

Designing Post-Disaster Supply Chains: Learning from Housing Reconstruction Projects

Gyöngyi Kovács (HUMLOG Institute, Hanken School of Economics, Finland), Aristides Matopoulos (University of Macedonia, Greece), and Odran Hayes (European Agency for Reconstruction, Ireland) Sample PDF | More details...

Local Sourcing in Peacekeeping Local Sourcing in Peacekeeping: A Case Study of Swedish Military Sourcing (pages 103-122)

Per Skoglund (Jönköping International Business School, Sweden), and Susanne Hertz (Jönköping International Business School, Sweden) Sample PDF | More details... (pages 90-102)

Military Involvement in Humanitarian Supply Chains

Elizabeth Barber (University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force Academy, Australia) Sample PDF | More details... (pages 123-146)

Challenges of Civil Military Cooperation / Coordination in Humanitarian Relief

Graham Heaslip (National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland) Sample PDF | More details... (pages 147-172)

Developing and Maintaining Trust in Hastily Formed Relief Networks

Peter Tatham (Griffith University, Australia), and Gyöngyi Kovács (HUMLOG Institute, Finland)Sample PDF | More details... (pages 173-195)

A Study of Barriers to Greening the Relief Supply Chain

Joseph Sarkis (Clark University, USA), Karen M. Spens (HUMLOG Institute, Hanken School of Economics, Finland), and Gyöngyi Kovács (HUMLOG Institute, Hanken School of Economics, Finland) Sample PDF | More details... (pages 196-207)

Disaster Impact and Country Logistics Performance

Ira Haavisto (Hanken School of Economics, Finland) Sample PDF | More details... (pages 208-224)

Topics Covered

Application Areas of Relief Supply Chain Management

Civil-Military Cooperation

Coordination of the Humanitarian Aid Supply Network

GIS in Relief Supply Chains

Postponement and Speculation

Relationship Building in the Relief Supply Chain

Supply Chain Collaboration

Supply Chain Cooperation

Supply Chain Integration

Swift Trust

Preface

Gyöngyi Kovács and Karen M. Spens
HUMLOG Institute, Hanken School of Economics, Finland

Introduction

Relief supply chains are argued to be the most dynamic and agile supply chains, yet research in this area of supply chain management (SCM) is scant. Relief SCM has recently gained attention due to many natural and man-made disasters and the recognition of the central role of logistics in responding to these. Relief supply chains (SC) constitute a substantial industry that responds to over 500 disasters annually resultant in loss of 75 000 lives and affecting over 200 million people. SC costs are also argued to account for over 80% of costs incurred in any disaster relief operation. Due to the fact that relief supply chains so far have received little attention, there seems to be a gap that this book can fill.

The anthology also presents a continuation of a doctoral course in Supply Chain Management for Disaster Relief given at Hanken School of Economics in the fall of 2009, as many of the chapters are written by participants, as well as core faculty of this doctoral course. The book is therefore a collection of chapters by researchers, both junior and senior, in the field of humanitarian logistics and relief supply chain management. The chapters were, however, submitted after a broader call for papers and were thereafter peer-reviewed, ending up as a collection of chapters that were accepted. The interest for courses in this field has continued to grow since; therefore, the hope is that this anthology will provide a platform for creating and giving even more courses in the field. More broadly, the anthology is part of a large research project funded by the Academy of Finland, called Relief Supply Chain Management.

The overall aim of the anthology “Relief Supply Chain Management for Disasters: Humanitarian, Aid and Emergency Logistics” is to further the understanding of SCM in disaster relief. As the first book in this field, the hope is that it will serve scholarly thought as well as provide a textbook for courses introducing this new and exciting area in the field of logistics.

Background

Supply chain management (SCM) research has developed rapidly in the past two decades, but is still “a discipline in the early stages of evolution” (Gibson et al., 2005, p.17). The following most commonly used definition of SCM is provided by the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP):

‘Supply Chain Management encompasses the planning and management of all activities involved in sourcing and procurement, conversion, and all Logistics Management activities. Importantly, it also includes coordination and collaboration with channel partners, which can be suppliers, intermediaries, third-party service providers, and customers. In essence, Supply Chain Management integrates supply and demand management within and across companies’ (CSCMP, 2006).

Traditional streams of SCM literature encompass different topics, ranging from supply chain modelling and optimisation (Lee et al., 2004; Svensson, 2003) to supply chain performance measurement (Bagchi et al., 2005; Beamon, 1999), supply chain processes (Croxton et al., 2001; Lambert et al., 1998), portfolio models in SCM (Fisher, 1997), and supply chain collaboration and integration (Barratt, 2004; Fawcett & Magnan, 2002; Min et al., 2005). Portfolio models in SCM discuss different types of supply chains, contrasting supply chains for functional products with a focus on cost efficiencies to supply chains for innovative products with a focus on responsiveness to market dynamics (Fisher, 1997). But while this portfolio thinking is at the core of SCM, literature has traditionally focused on efficient (or “lean”) supply chains only (Lee, 2004). Therefore, the current trend in SCM literature is towards discussing more innovative and responsive – or “agile” – supply chains that operate in a highly dynamic environment (Christopher et al., 2006; Towill and Christopher, 2002).

Relief supply chain management has recently gained attention due to a number of natural and man-made disasters and the recognition of the central role of logistics in responding to these. Oloruntoba and Gray (2006, p.117) argue that relief supply chains are “clearly unpredictable, turbulent, and requiring flexibility.” In essence, relief supply chains can be seen as highly dynamic, innovative, and agile (Oloruntoba & Gray, 2006; van Wassenhove, 2006), and hereby it can be argued that even (traditional) commercial supply chains can learn from the high flexibility of relief supply chains (Sowinski, 2003). Especially in sudden-onset disasters, relief supply chains have to be deployed in situations with a destabilised infrastructure and with very limited knowledge about the situation at hand (Beamon, 2004; Long & Wood, 1995; Tomasini & van Wassenhove, 2004). Relief supply chain management, although arguably much different from business logistics, does also show similarities. Therefore the definitions,techniques, and approaches used within business logistics can often be transferred or altered so they fit the purpose of their context. Notwithstanding the fact that the ultimate goals and purpose of conducting the logistical activities are different, still many of the definitions relating to the field can be extracted from current definitions found in the business context. In the following paragraphs, we are providing an overview of the definitions that the book adheres to. The definitions were provided to the authors of the chapters at the outset and have been used accordingly throughout the book. Admittedly, as in the field of logistics, defining concepts is a difficult task, so authors often tend to use definitions or even define concepts in a way that fits their purpose. The chapters therefore are the sole responsibility of the authors and do reflect their views on particular issues and concepts, however, we argue that the definitions provided in the end of our preface seemingly have gained acceptance among the authors of the chapters of this book.

This anthology is designed to bring together theoretical frameworks and the latest findings from research with their discussion in particular cases. Besides a number of frameworks – of types of relationships in the relief supply chain (ch.1), relief logistics development (ch.3), value chain analysis (ch.5), civil-military co-operation (ch.8), and trust models in disaster relief (ch.9) – cases range from logistical partnerships in the Sudan (ch.2), to a comparison of relief supply chains in different earthquakes (Haiti vs. Wenchuan, ch.4), to local sourcing in Kenya (ch.5), and reconstruction in the Kosovo and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (ch.6). This way, insights from theory and practice are combined. The anthology ends with a chapter on one of the most recent areas humanitarian logistics research and practice has embraced: questions of sustainability, and most importantly, the issue of greening the relief supply chain (ch.10).

The Collection of Chapters – A Short Introduction

In the foreword, Martin Christopher, Emeritus professor from Cranfield University, discusses the importance of the topic more broadly. Professor Christopher is undeniably one of the most well-known authors and scholars in the field of logistics who has also recently embraced the field of humanitarian logistics through co-editing a book with Peter Tatham. We hope these two books will complement each other. In the preface, the editors of the book, Gyöngyi Kovács and Karen Spens, outline the field, provide some key definitions, and provide an overview of the chapters included.

In the first chapter by Paul Larson from University of Manitoba, relationship building in humanitarian supply chains is discussed. The primary purpose of the chapter, named “Strategic Partners and Strange Bedfellows: Relationship Building in the Relief Supply Chain,” is to present and discuss the author’s actor-based typology of humanitarian relationships. The framework includes relationships among NGOs, as well as between NGOs and UN agencies, military units, and business firms. Examples are used to explore unique issues in the various types of relationships. One particular NGO, Airline Ambassadors International, is offered as an example of an NGO that builds relationships with a wide variety of humanitarian actors. The chapter also examines compatibility and complementarity of organizations across the three phases of humanitarian work: preparation, response, and recovery or development. Research opportunities are discussed in the concluding comments. The chapter serves as a good introduction to following ones that further discuss some of the types of relationships outlined here.

The next chapter takes up the question of partnerships in the relief supply chain. Rolando Tomasini, Hanken School of Economics, Finland, in his chapter, “Humanitarian Partnerships: Drivers, Facilitators, and Components. The Case of Non-Food Item Distribution in Sudan,” uses a case study to discuss the design of partnerships between humanitarian organizations in order to understand the drivers, facilitators and components, of a partnership. The research was designed using a topical literature review and a case study. The practical implications include discussion and guidelines for designing partnerships under high uncertainty and limited resources.

This is followed by another case study, this time of disaster preparedness and management in Thailand. At the same time, Ruth Banomyong from Thammasat University, and Apichat Sodapang from the Chiangmai University, Thailand present a more general framework for relief supply chain management in the third chapter. Their “Relief Supply Chain Planning: Insights from Thailand” builds on and evaluates a general framework for humanitarian logistics. The chapter highlights the need for planning and preparedness prior to a disaster.

Further cases are presented and contrasted in chapter 4, “Humanitarian Aid Logistics: the Wenchuan and Haiti Earthquakes Compared,” by Anthony Beresford and Stephen Pettit from Cardiff University, UK. The comparison of a similar disaster in different environments helps to highlight common features in humanitarian logistics and set these apart from contextual factors such as infrastructural weaknesses. Access to a disaster area is contrasted between islands and landlocked countries. Furthermore, as in chapter one, the cases show the importance of co-ordination in the logistics response of humanitarian and military organizations.

Chapter 5, called “The Application of Value Chain Analysis for the Evaluation of Alternative Supply Chain Strategies for the Provision of Humanitarian Aid to Africa,” is a prime example of presenting a framework and discussing it on a particular case. David H. Taylor, from Sheffield, UK is an expert in value chain analysis. The study reported in this chapter was commissioned in 2009 by the charity “Advance Aid” in order to provide an independent evaluation to compare conventional methods of supplying humanitarian aid products to Africa from outside the continent, with a proposed model of local manufacturing and pre-positioned stocks. The findings show that a system of locally manufactured and pre-positioned stockholding would offer significant advantages over conventional relief supply chains in terms of responsiveness, risk of disruption, and carbon footprint, and that delivered costs would be similar to or significantly better than current non-African supply options. Local manufacture would also have important benefits in terms of creating employment and economic growth, which in the long run would help African states to mitigate and/or respond to future disasters and thus become less dependent on external aid.

Local sourcing and manufacturing is also at the core of chapter 6, “Designing Post-Disaster Supply Chains: Learning from Housing Reconstruction Projects.” In this chapter, Gyöngyi Kovács, HUMLOG Institute, Finland, Aristides Matopoulos, University of Macedonia, Greece and Odran Hayes from the European Agency for Reconstruction, Ireland introduce a community based and beneficiary perspective to relief supply chains by evaluating the implications of local components for supply chain design in reconstruction. The chapter further discusses the challenges of post-disaster housing reconstruction projects on the cases of housing reconstruction programs in the Kosovo and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, finding that resources and material supplies are often scarce. Several and different types of organizations are involved while projects must be completed as quickly as possible to foster recovery. The performance of reconstruction supply chains seems to depend to a large extent on the way beneficiaries are integrated in supply chain design impacting positively on the effectiveness of reconstruction supply chains.

Local sourcing is also taken up from a peacekeeping perspective. Per Skoglund and Susanne Hertz from Jönköping International Business School, Sweden, present a case study of the Swedish armed forces in Liberia and compare local sourcing in peacekeeping there with other cases in Afghanistan and the Kosovo. The chapter, “Local Sourcing in Peacekeeping: A Case Study of Swedish Military Sourcing,” not only illustrates these three cases but applies the theoretical framework of the Uppsala model of internationalisation to them. Of particular interest is the discussion of psychic distance in local sourcing.

Coming back to different types of actors and relationships in the relief supply chain, Elizabeth Barber, from the University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force Academy, Australia discusses the role of the military in disaster relief. The chapter, “Military Involvement in Humanitarian Supply Chains,” demonstrates the multitude of activities that military logisticians can provide throughout the various stages in the humanitarian supply chains. Most military joint doctrine identifies humanitarian assistance as one of the “Military Operations Other Than War” that military personnel are trained to undertake. The supply chain management processes, physical flows, as well as associated information and financial systems form part of the military contributions to the relief supply chain. The main roles of the military to humanitarian supply chains include security and protection, distribution, and engineering. Examples of these key contributions are provided in this chapter.

Upon outlining the roles and contributions of the military, the next chapter turns to “Challenges of Civil Military Cooperation / Coordination in Humanitarian Relief.” Graham Heaslip, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, Ireland, goes through the various meanings and definitions of civil military coordination (CIMIC) and the fundamental differences between the principles and doctrines guiding the work of international military forces and humanitarian organizations. This chapter identifies the many factors that render integration and collaboration problematic between diverse assistance agencies, and especially so between civilian and military agencies. It concludes with proposals to improve CIMIC within humanitarian relief.

The challenges to develop relationships, and in particular, trust, between representatives of different humanitarian organizations is also a core theme of chapter 10, “Developing and Maintaining Trust in Hastily Formed Relief Networks.” In this chapter, Peter Tatham from Griffith University, Australia, and Gyöngyi Kovács, HUMLOG Institute, Finland, discuss the implications of the practical implication of a “swift trust” model in the ad hoc networks of humanitarian logisticians in the field.

In the following chapter, “A Study of Barriers to Greening the Relief Supply Chain,” the authors Joseph Sarkis, Clark University, USA, and Karen Spens and Gyöngyi Kovács from the Hanken School of Economics, Finland reveal barriers to the greening of the relief supply chain. Adoption of green SC principles in the relief SC requires a systematic study of existing barriers in order to remove these barriers and allow introduction of green practices. Expert opinions and literature from humanitarian logistics and green supply chain management are used to establish a list of barriers and to propose a categorization of barriers.

The final chapter, Ira Haavisto from the Hanken School of Economics, Finland, takes a more macro-economic view on disaster occurrence and impact in light of the logistics performance of a country. “Disaster Impact and Country Logistics Performance” discusses the links between the states of logistics infrastructure, and hence, country logistics performance, and the various impacts of disasters in terms of loss of life, number of people affected, and economic damage. Not surprisingly, high country logistics performance correlates with the economic damage of disasters, but more interestingly, high country logistics performance shows a negative correlation to the numbers of people affected. At the same time, the analysis points towards an increased need for preparedness in countries with high disaster occurrence and a low logistics performance.

In summary, the topics and chapters provided give a broad overview of the issues relevant and prevailing in the field of relief supply chain management. The actor structure in relief supply chains is, as earlier research has pointed out, complex, due to the fact that there are military, humanitarian, governmental, and for-profit actors involved in delivering relief. Partnerships, coordination, and collaboration are themes found in the chapters that relate more to strategic thinking, whereas value chain analysis and simulation provide a tool for operational types of changes to relief supply chains. The phases of disaster relief are also covered in the text, as some chapters relate more to preparedness, whereas others touch more upon the response phase of the disaster relief cycle. Some topical new issues are also discussed, such as greening the relief supply chain. In business logistics, sustainability and greening has become key, whereas green thinking, at least in academic papers found in the field of humanitarian logistics, are still scarce.

Future Research Directions

The book covers a broad variety of topics relating to relief supply chain management. Many of the chapters identify future directions for research. Relationship building in the relief supply chain is such an area (see ch.1). A significant body of literature has focused on coordination, or the lack thereof, in humanitarian logistics. Turning away from aspects of inter-organizational or inter-agency coordination, the focus is now shifting towards collaboration in the supply chain, i.e. considering partners such as logistics service providers (see ch.2), suppliers, and even beneficiaries (ch.6).

Another important direction is the development of comparative studies (as in ch.4) as to be able to draw on commonalities of the relief supply chain and to learn from previous disasters. The use of logistical concepts and models (ch.5) and the development of generic frameworks for humanitarian logistics (ch.4) aid in unearthing the critical success factors of logistics in disaster relief (cf. Pettit & Beresford, 2009).

The final chapter of the book indicates a further future research direction, that of considering the sustainability of aid. There are multiple meanings of sustainability in the humanitarian context. Ch.10 addresses sustainability from the perspective of greening the relief supply chain, which extends previous considerations of green logistics that were primarily concerned with transportation emissions, beyond organizational boundaries, and to other aspects of environmental impact. Also, ch.5 considers the carbon footprint of humanitarian aid. Greening aspects are of particular importance considering the debate on climate change. Ch.6 considers another aspect of sustainability, involving the community of beneficiaries in supply chain design, while ch.5 highlights the social side of sustainability in local sourcing. Further research is still needed in these areas to address questions of long-term development and sustainable exit strategies of humanitarian aid.

Conclusion

The field of humanitarian logistics and relief supply chain management is receiving increasing attention among academics, as well as practitioners. The number of related publications has been increasing steadily (Kovács & Spens, 2008), and a number of journals have dedicated special issues to this field. This book is, however, the first compilation of chapters dedicated to relief supply chain management. As such, it provides an overview of some of the topics covered by academics on the topic of Relief Supply Chain Management in a variety of countries around the world. However, the topics certainly do not cover all the research done in this field as we are well aware that there are a multitude of ongoing projects and research being conducted which would have been interesting to include. Our sincere hope is that this book, nevertheless, fills a gap and can be used in courses that aim to introduce academic readers to this new and emerging field. We are very grateful to all the authors who took the time to contribute and we are also indebted to the reviewers who took the time to comment on the chapters. As the editors of this book, and also, the editors of an academic journal (the Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management) that is to be launched in 2011, our hope is also that this book will inspire even more authors so that the field continues to grow and mature.

References

Bagchi, P. K., Ha, B. C., Skjoett-Larsen, T., & Soerensen, L. B. (2005). Supply chain integration: A European survey. International Journal of Logistics Management, 16(2), 275-294.

Barratt, M. (2004). Understanding the meaning of collaboration in the supply chain. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 9(1), 30-42.

Beamon, B. M. (1999). Measuring supply chain performance, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 19(3), 275-292.

Beamon, B. M. (2004). Humanitarian relief chains: Issues and challenges. Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Computers and Industrial Engineering, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Christopher, M., Peck, H., & Towill, D. (2006). A taxonomy for selecting global supply chain strategies. International Journal of Logistics Management, 17(2), 277-287.

Croxton, K. L., García-Dastugue, S. J., Lambert, D. M., & Rogers, D. S. (2001). The supply chain management processes. International Journal of Logistics Management, 12(2), 13-36.

CSCMP. (2006). Supply chain management/logistics management definitions. Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals. Retrieved on August 1, 2010, from http://cscmp.org/aboutcscmp/definitions.asp

Fawcett, S. E., & Magnan, G. E. (2002). The rhetoric and reality of supply chain integration. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 32(5), 339-361.

Fisher, M. L. (1997). What is the right supply chain for your product? Harvard Business Review, March-April 1997, 105-116.

Kovács, G., & Spens, K. (2008). Chapter 13: Humanitarian logistics revisited. In J. S. Arlbjørn, Á. Halldórsson, M. Jahre, & K. Spens (Eds.), Northern lights in logistics and supply chain management, (pp. 217-232). Copenhagen, Denmark: CBS Press.

Lambert, D. M., Cooper, M. C., & Pagh, J. D. (1998). Supply chain management: Implementation issues and research opportunities. International Journal of Logistics Management, 9(2), 1-19.

Lee, H. L. (2004). The triple-A supply chain. Harvard Business Review, 82(10), 102-112.

Lee, H. L., Padmanabhan, V., & Whang, S. (2004). Information distortion in the supply chain: The bullwhip effect. Management Science, 50(12), 1875-1886.

Long, D. C., & Wood, D. F. (1995). The logistics of famine relief. Journal of Business Logistics, 16(1), 213-229.

Min, S., Roath, A. S., Daugherty, P. J., Genchev, S. E., Chen, H., Arndt, A. D., & Richey, R. G. (2005). Supply chain collaboration: What’s happening? International Journal of Logistics Management, 16(2), 237-256.

Oloruntoba, R., & Gray, R. (2006). Humanitarian aid: An agile supply chain? Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 11(2), 115-120.

Pettit, S., & Beresford, A. (2009). Critical success factors in the context of humanitarian aid supply chains. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 39(6), 450-468.

SCM:IJ. (2010). Author guidelines. Supply Chain Management: an International Journal. Retrieved August 1, 2010, from http://info.emeraldinsight.com/products/journals/author_guidelines.htm?id=scm

Sowinski, L. L. (2003). The lean, mean supply chain and its human counterpart. World Trade, 16(6), 18.

Svensson, G. (2003). The bullwhip effect in intra-organisational echelons. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, 33(2), 103-131.

Thomas, A., & Mizushima, M. (2005). Logistics training: Necessity or luxury? Forced Migration Review, 22, 60-61.

Tomasini, R. M., & van Wassenhove, L. N. (2004). Pan-American health organization’s humanitarian supply management system: De-politicization of the humanitarian supply chain by creating accountability. Journal of Public Procurement, 4(3), 437-449.

Towill, D., & Christopher, M. (2002). The supply chain strategy conundrum: To be lean or agile or to be lean and agile? International Journal of Logistics: Research and Applications, 5(3), 299-309.

van Wassenhove, L. N. (2006). Humanitarian aid logistics: Supply chain management in high gear. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 57, 475-589.

Additional Reading Section

Relief supply chain management is a rather new field of research. Nonetheless, there is a steady rise in the number of relevant published articles. Whilst noting some of the most important works we would also like to refer to Peter Tatham’s Bibliography that is constantly updated and can be obtained from the first author or chapter 9.

To be noted are the following special issues in scientific journals:

• Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Vol.43 No.6 (2007) on “Challenges of Emergency Logistics Management”
• International Journal of Services Technology and Management, Vol.12 No.4 (2009) on “Coordination of Service Providers in Humanitarian Aid”
• International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, Vol.13 No.1 (2009) on “Managing Supply Chains in Disasters”
• International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, Vol.39 No.5/6 (2009) on “SCM in Times of Humanitarian Crisis”
• Supply Chain Forum: an International Journal, Vol.11 No.3 (2010) on “Humanitarian Supply Chains”
• International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, Vol.40 No.8/9 (2010) on “Developments in Humanitarian Logistics”
• Interfaces, Vol.40 No.(in press) on “Doing Good with Good OR”
• International Journal of Production Economics, Vol.126 No.1 (2010) on “Improving Disaster Supply Chain Management – Key supply chain factors for humanitarian relief 
and the dedicated Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, to be launched in 2011.

Further additional reading

Altay, N., Prasad, S. & Sounderpandian, J. (2009). Strategic planning for disaster relief logistics: Lessons from supply chain management. International Journal of Services Sciences, 2(2), 142-161.

Beamon BM. & Balcik B. (2008). Performance measurement in humanitarian relief chains. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 21(1), 4-25.

Carter, W.N. (1999). Disaster Management: A Disaster Management Handbook. Manila: Asian Development Bank.

Haas, J.E., Kates, R.W. & Bowden, M. (1977). Reconstruction Following Disaster. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Heaslip, G. (2008). Humanitarian aid supply chains. In: Mangan, J., Lalwani, C., & Butcher, T. (eds) Global Logistics and Supply Chain Management. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Jahre, M. & Heigh, I. (2008): Does the current constraints in funding promote failure in humanitarian supply chains? Supply Chain Forum, 9(2), 44-54.

Kovács, G., & Spens, K.M. (2007). Humanitarian logistics in disaster relief operations. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management. 29(12), 801-819.

Kovács, G., & Spens, K. (2009). Identifying challenges in humanitarian logistics. International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management. 39 (6), 506-528.

Long, D. (1997). Logistics for disaster relief: engineering on the run, IIE Solutions, 29(6), 26-29.

Maon, F., Lindgreen, A. & Vanhamme, J. (2009). Developing supply chains in disaster relief operations through cross-sector socially oriented collaborations. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 14 (2), 149-164.

Ozdamar, L., Ekinci, E. & Kucukyazici, B. (2004). Emergency logistics planning in natural disasters, Annals of Operations Research, 129, 217-245.

Pettit S.J. & Beresford A.K.C. (2005). Emergency relief logistics: an evaluation of military, non military and composite response models, International Journal of Logistics: Research and Applications, 8 (4), 313 – 332.

Richey R. Glenn Jr. (2009). The supply chain crisis and disaster pyramid: A theoretical framework for understanding preparedness and recovery. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management. 39(7), 619 – 628.

Rietjens, S.J.H., Voordijk, H. & De Boer, S.J. (2007). Co-ordinating humanitarian operations in peace support missions, Disaster Prevention and Management, 16(1), 56-69.

Thomas, A. (2003). Why logistics? Forced Migration Review, 18(Sep), p.4.

Thomas, A. & Fritz, L. (2006). Disaster Relief, Inc. Harvard Business Review, Nov. 2006, 114- 22.

Tomasini, R. & Van Wassenhove, L. (2009). Humanitarian Logistics. Palgrave MacMillan.

Tomasini & van Wassenhove review of cases

Whiting, M. (2009). Chapter 7: Enhanced civil military cooperation in humanitarian supply chains, In: Gattorna (ed), Dynamic Supply Chain Management, Gower Publishing, Surrey, England, pp. 107-122.

Key Terms & Definitions

Logistics vs. supply chain management

In this book we adhere to CSCMP’s definitions of logistics vs. supply chain management (CSCMP, 2006). Note that activities such as warehousing, purchasing etc. are included in the definition of logistics. We also follow the view of a supply chain extending beyond a dyad, as laid out in the author guidelines of Supply Chain Management: an International Journal (SCM:IJ, 2010).

Humanitarian logistics

“The process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient, cost-effective flow and storage of goods and materials, as well as related information, from point of origin to point of consumption for the purpose of meeting the end beneficiary’s requirements” (Thomas and Mizushima, 2005, p.60). Synonyms as used in this book: emergency relief logistics, relief logistics, disaster relief logistics, humanitarian operations, catastrophe logistics

Relief supply chain management

Encompasses the planning and management of all activities related to material, information and financial flows in disaster relief. Importantly, it also includes co-ordination and collaboration with supply chain members, third party service providers, and across humanitarian organizations. Synonyms: humanitarian supply chain, humanitarian supply chain management. However, relief supply chain management does not include the development aid aspect of humanitarian logistics.

Disaster

A disaster is “a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources” (UN/ISDR 2009). This definition is also used by WHO and EM-DAT. Disasters can be natural or man-made, as well as complex emergencies (combining a man-made and a natural disaster). Synonyms: emergency, calamity, catastrophe, disruption, conflict

Disaster relief

Encompasses humanitarian activities in the phases of disaster preparedness, immediate response and reconstruction. But, if not specified otherwise in a chapter, disaster relief can be seen as synonymous with activities in the immediate response phase. Synonyms: emergency relief, humanitarian aid, humanitarian assistance. Synonyms for disaster relief phases: preparation, planning, prevention / recovery, restoration, rehabilitation. The phases do not need to be seen in a sequential manner as activities from different disaster relief phases can run in parallel, and activities can also be linked to each other in a cyclical manner.

Humanitarian organization

An organization that manages the delivery of aid to beneficiaries, following humanitarian principles. “Humanitarian organization” is an umbrella term for non-governmental organizations and aid agencies regardless of their mandate or organizational structure. Aid can be delivered by the humanitarian organization or through (implementing) partners.

Author(s)/Editor(s) Biography

Gyöngyi Kovács

Gyöngyi Kovács is the Director of the Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Research Institute (HUMLOG Institute) and an acting Professor in Supply Chain Management and Corporate Geography at the Hanken School of Economics in Helsinki, Finland. She serves as a co-editor in chief of the Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management and as one of the European editors of the International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management. Her research interests include humanitarian logistics, sustainable supply chain management, supply chain collaboration and the abductive research approach in logistics.

Karen M. Spens

Karen Spens is Professor of Supply Chain Management and Corporate Geography at Hanken School of Economics in Helsinki, Finland. She has written several book chapters and published in logistics and supply chain journals such as International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics Management, International Journal of Logistics Management and Supply Chain Management: An International Journal as well as in other journals such as Disaster Prevention and Management. She has also edited several special issues for different journals, such as Management Research News and is currently co-editor of the Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management. Her research interests include humanitarian logistics, health care related research and methodological issues in logistics and supply chain management.

Reviews and Testimonials

"The message to be drawn from this is that whilst disasters and existential threats from a multitude of sources will sadly always be with us, at least we can seek to learn how to mitigate their consequences."

Martin Christopher
Emeritus Professor, Centre for Logistics and Supply Chain Management, 
Cranfield University, UK

"Relief Supply Chain Management for Disasters: Humanitarian Aid and Emergency Logistics is a valuable set of information to help bolster the case for change."

-George Fenton: Chairman, Humanitarian Logistics Association

Editorial Board

• Ruth Banomyong, Asst.Prof., Thammasat University, Thailand
• Anthony Beresford, Senior Lecturer, Cardiff University, UK
• Susanne Hertz, Prof., Jönköping International Business School, Sweden
• Marianne Jahre, Prof., Lund University, Sweden
• Paul Larson, Prof., University of Manitoba, Canada
• Tore Listou, Asst.Prof., Norwegian Defence Command and Staff College, Norway
• Peter Schmitz, Senior Researcher, CSIR, South Africa
• Peter Tatham, Senior Lecturer, Cranfield University, UK

Boeing Supply Chain Services

Benefit Breakdown

Although supply chain services are designed to improve aircraft availability and reduce costs, these objectives are obtained by providing customers with the following subsidiary benefits:

  • Demand forecasting, total asset visibility, maintenance information, and field data
  • Informed decision-making to identify the optimal relationship between affordability and aircraft readiness
  • Accurate, timely shipment of supplies

Supply Chain Process

To provide supply chain services and obtain the maximum benefit for each customer, Boeing utilizes the following procedures:

  • Timely and accurate information sharing between Boeing and the customer to attain the highest levels of service effectiveness
  • Online, real-time, integrated information systems that are based on Web-architecture designs and are interfaced with comprehensive databases; these yield reliable demand forecasting, total asset visibility, maintenance information, and field data
  • Reliability-based logistics and trigger-based asset management; these practices yield reliability improvements and identification of life-cycle cost-reduction opportunities so that aircraft fleet managers can make informed trade-offs between inventory levels and costing--enabling them to optimize the relationship of aircraft readiness to affordability
  • Use of leading commercial warehousing practices, shipping practices, and innovative asset-sharing agreements with commercial airlines and component manufacturers; this ensures that the correct part is shipped to the correct place at the correct time worldwide
Page statistics
1911 view(s) and 7 edit(s)
Social share
Share this page?

Tags

This page has no custom tags.
This page has no classifications.

Comments

You must to post a comment.

Attachments